Provided by: libperl5i-perl_2.13.2-1_amd64 bug


       perl5i::Meta - The perl5i meta object


           use perl5i;

           my $id      = $object->mo->id;
           my $class   = $object->mc->class;
           my $tainted = $object->mo->is_tainted;
           ...and so on...


       Each object has a meta object which can be used to describe and sometimes alter the
       object.  This is for things which are common to *all* objects.  For example,
       "$obj->mc->class" to get the object's class.  "@ISA = $obj->mc->ISA" to get an object's
       parents.  And so on.

   Why a meta object?
       Why not just stick these methods in UNIVERSAL?  They'd clash with user-space methods.  For
       example, if an existing class has its own "id()" method it would likely clash with what
       our "id()" method does.  You want to guarantee that every object responds to these meta
       methods the same way so there's no second-guessing.

   Meta Instance vs Meta Class
       Each object has a meta object for their instance, accessible with "$obj->mo" and also a
       meta object for their class, accessible with "$obj->mc".  The meta instance can do most
       everything the meta class can, mc is provided mostly for disambiguation.

       The problem is this:

           my $thing = "Foo";
           say $thing->mo->class;

       In perl5i, everything is an object.  Do you want the class of $thing or do you want to
       treat $thing as a class name?  Its ambiguous.  So to disambiguate, use "$thing->mc" when
       you mean $thing to be a class name and "$thing->mo" when you mean it to be an object.

       For example, when writing a method which could be a class or could be an object be sure to
       use "$proto->mc->class" to get the class name.

           sub my_method {
               my $proto = shift;  # could be an object, could be a class name
               my $class = $proto->mc->class;



           my $id = $object->mo->id;

       Returns an identifier for $object.

       The identifier is guaranteed to be:

         * unique to the object for the life of the process
         * a true value
         * independent of changes to the object's contents


           my $class = $object->mo->class;
           my $class = $class->mc->class;

       Returns the class of the $object or $class.


           my @ISA = $object->mo->ISA;
           my @ISA = $class->mc->ISA;

       Returns the immediate parents of the $class or $object.

       Essentially equivalent to:

           no strict 'refs';
           my @ISA = @{$class.'::ISA'};


           my @isa = $class->mc->linear_isa();
           my @isa = $object->mo->linear_isa();

       Returns the entire inheritance tree of the $class or $object as a list in the order it
       will be searched for method inheritance.

       This list includes the $class itself and includes UNIVERSAL.  For example:

           package Child;
           use parent qw(Parent);

           # Child, Parent, UNIVERSAL
           my @isa = Child->mo->linear_isa();


           my @methods = $class->mc->methods;
           my $methods = $class->mc->methods;
           my @methods = $object->mo->methods;
           my $methods = $object->mo->methods;

           my $methods = $object->mo->methods({
               with_UNIVERSAL  => 0,
               just_mine       => 1,

       Returns the methods available to a $class or $object.

       By default it returns all the methods available except those inherited from UNIVERSAL
       because you usually don't want to know that.

       "with_UNIVERSAL", if true, makes it include methods inherited from UNIVERSAL.  It defaults
       to false.

       "just_mine", if true, returns only methods defined in the $class.  It defaults to false.


           my $table = $class->mc->symbol_table;
           my $table = $obj->mo->symbol_table;

       Returns the symbol table for the given $class or class of the $object.

       If you don't know what a symbol table is... good.  If you really want to know, see
       "Typeglobs and FileHandles" in perldata.


           my @return = $class->mc->super(@args);
           my @return = $object->mo->super(@args);

       Call the parent of $class/$object's implementation of the current method.

       Equivalent to "$object->SUPER::method(@args)" but based on the class of the $object rather
       than the class in which the current method was declared.


           my $is_tainted = $object->mo->is_tainted;

       Returns true if the $object is tainted.

       Only scalars can be tainted, so objects generally return false.

       String and numerically overloaded objects will check against their overloaded versions.



       Taints the $object.

       Normally only scalars can be tainted, this will throw an exception on anything else.

       Tainted, string overloaded objects will cause this to be a no-op.

       An object can override this method if they have a means of tainting themselves.  Generally
       this is applicable to string or numeric overloaded objects who can taint their overloaded



       Untaints the $object.

       Normally objects cannot be tainted, so it is a no op on anything but a scalar.

       Tainted, string overloaded objects will throw an exception.

       An object can override this method if they have a means of untainting themselves.
       Generally this is applicable to string or numeric overloaded objects who can untaint their
       overloaded value.


           my $reftype = $object->mo->reftype;

       Returns the underlying reference type of the $object.


           my $checksum = $object->mo->checksum;
           my $md5    = $object->mo->checksum( algorithm => 'md5' );
           my $base64 = $object->mo->checksum( format => 'base64' );

       Get a digest of the object's contents, taking its class into account.

       Two different objects can have the same checksum if their contents are identical.
       Likewise, a single object can have different checksums throughout its life cycle if it's
       mutable. This means its checksum will change if its internal state changes.

       For example,

           $obj->mo->checksum( format => 'base64', algorithm => 'md5' );


           The checksum algorithm.  Can be "sha1" and "md5".

           Defaults to sha1.

           The character set of the checksum, can be "hex", "base64", or "binary".

           Defaults to hex.



       Assess whether something is equal to something else, recurring over deep data structures
       and treating overloaded objects as numbers or strings when appropriate.


           my $prices = { chair => 50, table => 300 };
           my $other  = { chair => 50, table => [250, 255] };

           say "They are equal" if $prices->mo->is_equal($other);

           my $uri = URI->new("");
           $uri->mo->is_equal("") # True


       Same as as_perl.  For backwards compatibility.


           my $dump = $object->mo->as_perl;

       Dumps the contents of the $object as Perl in a string, like Data::Dumper.


           my $json = $object->mo->as_json;

       Return the contents of the $object as JSON.


           my $json = $object->mo->as_yaml;

       Return the contents of the $object as YAML.


           my $dump = $object->mo->dump( format => $format );

       Dumps the contents of the $object as a string in whatever format you like.

       Possible formats are yaml, json and perl.

       $format defaults to "perl" which is equivalent to "$object->mo->perl".

       This is simply the long form of "as_perl", "as_json" and "as_yaml".