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ral — Ralink Technology IEEE 802.11a/g/n wireless network device
To compile this driver into the kernel, place the following lines in your kernel configuration file: device ral device ralfw device wlan device wlan_amrr device firmware Alternatively, to load the driver as a module at boot time, place the following line in loader.conf(5): if_ral_load="YES"
The ral driver supports PCI/PCIe/CardBus wireless adapters based on the Ralink RT2500, RT2501, RT2600, RT2700, RT2800, RT3090 and RT3900E chipsets. The RT2500 chipset is the first generation of 802.11b/g adapters from Ralink. It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2560 MAC/BBP and an RT2525 radio transceiver. The RT2501 chipset is the second generation of 802.11a/b/g adapters from Ralink. It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2561 MAC/BBP and an RT2527 radio transceiver. This chipset provides support for the IEEE 802.11e standard with multiple hardware transmission queues and allows scatter/gather for efficient DMA operations. The RT2600 chipset consists of two integrated chips, an RT2661 MAC/BBP and an RT2529 radio transceiver. This chipset uses the MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) technology with multiple radio transceivers to extend the operating range of the adapter and to achieve higher throughput. However, the RT2600 chipset does not support any of the 802.11n features. The RT2700 chipset is a low-cost version of the RT2800 chipset. It supports a single transmit path and two receiver paths (1T2R). It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2760 or RT2790 (PCIe) MAC/BBP and an RT2720 (2.4GHz) or RT2750 (2.4GHz/5GHz) radio transceiver. The RT2800 chipset is the first generation of 802.11n adapters from Ralink. It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2860 or RT2890 (PCIe) MAC/BBP and an RT2820 (2.4GHz) or RT2850 (2.4GHz/5GHz) radio transceiver. The RT2800 chipset supports two transmit paths and up to three receiver paths (2T2R/2T3R). It can achieve speeds up to 144Mbps (20MHz bandwidth) and 300Mbps (40MHz bandwidth.) The RT3090 chipset is the first generation of single-chip 802.11n adapters from Ralink. ral supports station, adhoc, hostap, mesh, wds, and monitor mode operation. Only one hostap or mesh virtual interface may be configured at a time. Any number of wds virtual interfaces may be configured together with a hostap interface. Multiple station interfaces may be operated together with a hostap interface to construct a wireless repeater device. The RT3900E chipset is a single-chip 802.11n adapters from Ralink. The MAC/Baseband Processor can be an RT5390 or RT5392. The RT5390 chip operates in the 2GHz spectrum and supports 1 transmit path and 1 receiver path (1T1R). The RT5392 chip operates in the 2GHz spectrum and supports up to 2 transmit paths and 2 receiver paths (2T2R). The transmit speed is user-selectable or can be adapted automatically by the driver depending on the number of hardware transmission retries. For more information on configuring this device, see ifconfig(8).
The ral driver supports PCI/PCIe/CardBus wireless adapters based on Ralink Technology chipsets, including: Card MAC/BBP Bus A-Link WL54H RT2560 PCI A-Link WL54PC RT2560 CardBus AirLink101 AWLC5025 RT2661 CardBus AirLink101 AWLH5025 RT2661 PCI Amigo AWI-914W RT2560 CardBus Amigo AWI-922W RT2560 mini-PCI Amigo AWI-926W RT2560 PCI AMIT WL531C RT2560 CardBus AMIT WL531P RT2560 PCI AOpen AOI-831 RT2560 PCI ASUS WL-107G RT2560 CardBus ASUS WL-130g RT2560 PCI Atlantis Land A02-PCI-W54 RT2560 PCI Atlantis Land A02-PCM-W54 RT2560 CardBus Belkin F5D7000 v3 RT2560 PCI Belkin F5D7010 v2 RT2560 CardBus Billionton MIWLGRL RT2560 mini-PCI Canyon CN-WF511 RT2560 PCI Canyon CN-WF513 RT2560 CardBus CC&C WL-2102 RT2560 CardBus CNet CWC-854 RT2560 CardBus CNet CWP-854 RT2560 PCI Compex WL54G RT2560 CardBus Compex WLP54G RT2560 PCI Conceptronic C54RC RT2560 CardBus Conceptronic C54Ri RT2560 PCI D-Link DWA-525 rev A2 RT5392 PCI Digitus DN-7001G-RA RT2560 CardBus Digitus DN-7006G-RA RT2560 PCI E-Tech WGPC02 RT2560 CardBus E-Tech WGPI02 RT2560 PCI Edimax EW-7108PCg RT2560 CardBus Edimax EW-7128g RT2560 PCI Eminent EM3036 RT2560 CardBus Eminent EM3037 RT2560 PCI Encore ENLWI-G-RLAM RT2560 PCI Encore ENPWI-G-RLAM RT2560 CardBus Fiberline WL-400P RT2560 PCI Fibreline WL-400X RT2560 CardBus Gigabyte GN-WI01GS RT2561S mini-PCI Gigabyte GN-WIKG RT2560 mini-PCI Gigabyte GN-WMKG RT2560 CardBus Gigabyte GN-WP01GS RT2561S PCI Gigabyte GN-WPKG RT2560 PCI Hawking HWC54GR RT2560 CardBus Hawking HWP54GR RT2560 PCI iNexQ CR054g-009 (R03) RT2560 PCI JAHT WN-4054P RT2560 CardBus JAHT WN-4054PCI RT2560 PCI LevelOne WNC-0301 v2 RT2560 PCI LevelOne WPC-0301 v2 RT2560 CardBus Linksys WMP54G v4 RT2560 PCI Micronet SP906GK RT2560 PCI Micronet SP908GK V3 RT2560 CardBus Minitar MN54GCB-R RT2560 CardBus Minitar MN54GPC-R RT2560 PCI MSI CB54G2 RT2560 CardBus MSI MP54G2 RT2560 mini-PCI MSI PC54G2 RT2560 PCI OvisLink EVO-W54PCI RT2560 PCI PheeNet HWL-PCIG/RA RT2560 PCI Planex GW-NS300N RT2860 CardBus Pro-Nets CB80211G RT2560 CardBus Pro-Nets PC80211G RT2560 PCI Repotec RP-WB7108 RT2560 CardBus Repotec RP-WP0854 RT2560 PCI SATech SN-54C RT2560 CardBus SATech SN-54P RT2560 PCI Sitecom WL-112 RT2560 CardBus Sitecom WL-115 RT2560 PCI SMC SMCWCB-GM RT2661 CardBus SMC SMCWPCI-GM RT2661 PCI SparkLAN WL-685R RT2560 CardBus Surecom EP-9321-g RT2560 PCI Surecom EP-9321-g1 RT2560 PCI Surecom EP-9428-g RT2560 CardBus Sweex LC500050 RT2560 CardBus Sweex LC700030 RT2560 PCI TekComm NE-9321-g RT2560 PCI TekComm NE-9428-g RT2560 CardBus Unex CR054g-R02 RT2560 PCI Unex MR054g-R02 RT2560 CardBus Zinwell ZWX-G160 RT2560 CardBus Zinwell ZWX-G360 RT2560 mini-PCI Zinwell ZWX-G361 RT2560 PCI Zonet ZEW1500 RT2560 CardBus Zonet ZEW1600 RT2560 PCI
Join an existing BSS network (i.e., connect to an access point): ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask 0xffffff00 Join a specific BSS network with network name “my_net”: ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 \ netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net Join a specific BSS network with 40-bit WEP encryption: ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 \ netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \ wepmode on wepkey 0x1234567890 weptxkey 1 Join a specific BSS network with 104-bit WEP encryption: ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 \ netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \ wepmode on wepkey 0x01020304050607080910111213 weptxkey 1
ral%d: could not load 8051 microcode An error occurred while attempting to upload the microcode to the onboard 8051 microcontroller unit. ral%d: timeout waiting for MCU to initialize The onboard 8051 microcontroller unit failed to initialize in time. ral%d: device timeout A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmission did not complete in time. The driver will reset the hardware. This should not happen.
cardbus(4), intro(4), wlan(4), wlan_ccmp(4), wlan_tkip(4), wlan_wep(4), wlan_xauth(4), hostapd(8), ifconfig(8), wpa_supplicant(8) Ralink Technology, http://www.ralinktech.com/.
The ral driver first appeared in OpenBSD 3.7. Support for the RT2501 and RT2600 chipsets was added in OpenBSD 3.9. Support for the RT2800 chipset was added in OpenBSD 4.3. Support for the RT2700 chipset was added in OpenBSD 4.4. Support for the RT3090 chipset was added in OpenBSD 4.9.
The original ral driver was written by Damien Bergamini <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
The ral driver does not make use of the hardware cryptographic engine. The ral driver does not support any of the 802.11n capabilities offered by the RT2700 and RT2800 chipsets. Additional work is required in before those features can be supported. Host AP mode does not support power saving. Clients attempting to use power saving mode may experience significant packet loss (disabling power saving on the client will fix this). Some PCI ral adapters strictly require a system supporting PCI 2.2 or greater. Check the board's PCI version before purchasing the card as it is likely these adapters will not work in systems based on older revisions of the PCI specification.