Provided by: sudo-ldap_1.8.27-1ubuntu4_amd64 bug

NAME

     sudoers.ldap — sudo LDAP configuration

DESCRIPTION

     In addition to the standard sudoers file, sudo may be configured via LDAP.  This can be
     especially useful for synchronizing sudoers in a large, distributed environment.

     Using LDAP for sudoers has several benefits:

     ·  sudo no longer needs to read sudoers in its entirety.  When LDAP is used, there are only
        two or three LDAP queries per invocation.  This makes it especially fast and particularly
        usable in LDAP environments.

     ·  sudo no longer exits if there is a typo in sudoers.  It is not possible to load LDAP data
        into the server that does not conform to the sudoers schema, so proper syntax is
        guaranteed.  It is still possible to have typos in a user or host name, but this will not
        prevent sudo from running.

     ·  It is possible to specify per-entry options that override the global default options.
        /etc/sudoers only supports default options and limited options associated with
        user/host/commands/aliases.  The syntax is complicated and can be difficult for users to
        understand.  Placing the options directly in the entry is more natural.

     ·  The visudo program is no longer needed.  visudo provides locking and syntax checking of
        the /etc/sudoers file.  Since LDAP updates are atomic, locking is no longer necessary.
        Because syntax is checked when the data is inserted into LDAP, there is no need for a
        specialized tool to check syntax.

   SUDOers LDAP container
     The sudoers configuration is contained in the ou=SUDOers LDAP container.

     Sudo first looks for the cn=defaults entry in the SUDOers container.  If found, the multi-
     valued sudoOption attribute is parsed in the same manner as a global Defaults line in
     /etc/sudoers.  In the following example, the SSH_AUTH_SOCK variable will be preserved in the
     environment for all users.

         dn: cn=defaults,ou=SUDOers,dc=my-domain,dc=com
         objectClass: top
         objectClass: sudoRole
         cn: defaults
         description: Default sudoOption's go here
         sudoOption: env_keep+=SSH_AUTH_SOCK

     The equivalent of a sudoer in LDAP is a sudoRole.  It consists of the following attributes:

     sudoUser
           A user name, user ID (prefixed with ‘#’), Unix group name or ID (prefixed with ‘%’ or
           ‘%#’ respectively), user netgroup (prefixed with ‘+’), or non-Unix group name or ID
           (prefixed with ‘%:’ or ‘%:#’ respectively).  User netgroups are matched using the user
           and domain members only; the host member is not used when matching.  Non-Unix group
           support is only available when an appropriate group_plugin is defined in the global
           defaults sudoRole object.

     sudoHost
           A host name, IP address, IP network, or host netgroup (prefixed with a ‘+’).  The
           special value ALL will match any host.  Host netgroups are matched using the host
           (both qualified and unqualified) and domain members only; the user member is not used
           when matching.  If a sudoHost entry is preceded by an exclamation point, ‘!’, and the
           entry matches, the sudoRole in which it resides will be ignored.  Negated sudoHost
           entries are only supported by version 1.8.18 or higher.

     sudoCommand
           A fully-qualified Unix command name with optional command line arguments, potentially
           including globbing characters (aka wild cards).  If a command name is preceded by an
           exclamation point, ‘!’, the user will be prohibited from running that command.

           The built-in command “sudoedit” is used to permit a user to run sudo with the -e
           option (or as sudoedit).  It may take command line arguments just as a normal command
           does.  Note that “sudoedit” is a command built into sudo itself and must be specified
           in without a leading path.

           The special value ALL will match any command.

           If a command name is prefixed with a SHA-2 digest, it will only be allowed if the
           digest matches.  This may be useful in situations where the user invoking sudo has
           write access to the command or its parent directory.  The following digest formats are
           supported: sha224, sha256, sha384 and sha512.  The digest name must be followed by a
           colon (‘:’) and then the actual digest, in either hex or base64 format.  For example,
           given the following value for sudoCommand:

               sha224:0GomF8mNN3wlDt1HD9XldjJ3SNgpFdbjO1+NsQ /bin/ls

           The user may only run /bin/ls if its sha224 digest matches the specified value.
           Command digests are only supported by version 1.8.7 or higher.

     sudoOption
           Identical in function to the global options described above, but specific to the
           sudoRole in which it resides.

     sudoRunAsUser
           A user name or uid (prefixed with ‘#’) that commands may be run as or a Unix group
           (prefixed with a ‘%’) or user netgroup (prefixed with a ‘+’) that contains a list of
           users that commands may be run as.  The special value ALL will match any user.  If a
           sudoRunAsUser entry is preceded by an exclamation point, ‘!’, and the entry matches,
           the sudoRole in which it resides will be ignored.  If sudoRunAsUser is specified but
           empty, it will match the invoking user.  If neither sudoRunAsUser nor sudoRunAsGroup
           are present, the value of the runas_default sudoOption is used (defaults to root).

           The sudoRunAsUser attribute is only available in sudo versions 1.7.0 and higher.
           Older versions of sudo use the sudoRunAs attribute instead.  Negated sudoRunAsUser
           entries are only supported by version 1.8.26 or higher.

     sudoRunAsGroup
           A Unix group or gid (prefixed with ‘#’) that commands may be run as.  The special
           value ALL will match any group.  If a sudoRunAsGroup entry is preceded by an
           exclamation point, ‘!’, and the entry matches, the sudoRole in which it resides will
           be ignored.

           The sudoRunAsGroup attribute is only available in sudo versions 1.7.0 and higher.
           Negated sudoRunAsGroup entries are only supported by version 1.8.26 or higher.

     sudoNotBefore
           A timestamp in the form yyyymmddHHMMSSZ that can be used to provide a start date/time
           for when the sudoRole will be valid.  If multiple sudoNotBefore entries are present,
           the earliest is used.  Note that timestamps must be in Coordinated Universal Time
           (UTC), not the local timezone.  The minute and seconds portions are optional, but some
           LDAP servers require that they be present (contrary to the RFC).

           The sudoNotBefore attribute is only available in sudo versions 1.7.5 and higher and
           must be explicitly enabled via the SUDOERS_TIMED option in /etc/sudo-ldap.conf.

     sudoNotAfter
           A timestamp in the form yyyymmddHHMMSSZ that indicates an expiration date/time, after
           which the sudoRole will no longer be valid.  If multiple sudoNotAfter entries are
           present, the last one is used.  Note that timestamps must be in Coordinated Universal
           Time (UTC), not the local timezone.  The minute and seconds portions are optional, but
           some LDAP servers require that they be present (contrary to the RFC).

           The sudoNotAfter attribute is only available in sudo versions 1.7.5 and higher and
           must be explicitly enabled via the SUDOERS_TIMED option in /etc/sudo-ldap.conf.

     sudoOrder
           The sudoRole entries retrieved from the LDAP directory have no inherent order.  The
           sudoOrder attribute is an integer (or floating point value for LDAP servers that
           support it) that is used to sort the matching entries.  This allows LDAP-based sudoers
           entries to more closely mimic the behavior of the sudoers file, where the order of the
           entries influences the result.  If multiple entries match, the entry with the highest
           sudoOrder attribute is chosen.  This corresponds to the “last match” behavior of the
           sudoers file.  If the sudoOrder attribute is not present, a value of 0 is assumed.

           The sudoOrder attribute is only available in sudo versions 1.7.5 and higher.

     Each attribute listed above should contain a single value, but there may be multiple
     instances of each attribute type.  A sudoRole must contain at least one sudoUser, sudoHost
     and sudoCommand.

     The following example allows users in group wheel to run any command on any host via sudo:

         dn: cn=%wheel,ou=SUDOers,dc=my-domain,dc=com
         objectClass: top
         objectClass: sudoRole
         cn: %wheel
         sudoUser: %wheel
         sudoHost: ALL
         sudoCommand: ALL

   Anatomy of LDAP sudoers lookup
     When looking up a sudoer using LDAP there are only two or three LDAP queries per invocation.
     The first query is to parse the global options.  The second is to match against the user's
     name and the groups that the user belongs to.  (The special ALL tag is matched in this query
     too.)  If no match is returned for the user's name and groups, a third query returns all
     entries containing user netgroups and other non-Unix groups and checks to see if the user
     belongs to any of them.

     If timed entries are enabled with the SUDOERS_TIMED configuration directive, the LDAP
     queries include a sub-filter that limits retrieval to entries that satisfy the time
     constraints, if any.

     If the NETGROUP_BASE configuration directive is present (see Configuring ldap.conf below),
     queries are performed to determine the list of netgroups the user belongs to before the
     sudoers query.  This makes it possible to include netgroups in the sudoers query string in
     the same manner as Unix groups.  The third query mentioned above is not performed unless a
     group provider plugin is also configured.  The actual LDAP queries performed by sudo are as
     follows:

     1.   Match all nisNetgroup records with a nisNetgroupTriple containing the user, host and
          NIS domain.  The query will match nisNetgroupTriple entries with either the short or
          long form of the host name or no host name specified in the tuple.  If the NIS domain
          is set, the query will match only match entries that include the domain or for which
          there is no domain present.  If the NIS domain is not set, a wildcard is used to match
          any domain name but be aware that the NIS schema used by some LDAP servers may not
          support wild cards for nisNetgroupTriple.

     2.   Repeated queries are performed to find any nested nisNetgroup records with a
          memberNisNetgroup entry that refers to an already-matched record.

     For sites with a large number of netgroups, using NETGROUP_BASE can significantly speed up
     sudo's execution time.

   Differences between LDAP and non-LDAP sudoers
     One of the major differences between LDAP and file-based sudoers is that in LDAP,
     sudo-specific Aliases are not supported.

     For the most part, there is little need for sudo-specific Aliases.  Unix groups, non-Unix
     groups (via the group_plugin) or user netgroups can be used in place of User_Aliases and
     Runas_Aliases.  Host netgroups can be used in place of Host_Aliases.  Since groups and
     netgroups can also be stored in LDAP there is no real need for sudo-specific aliases.

     There are also some subtle differences in the way sudoers is handled once in LDAP.  Probably
     the biggest is that according to the RFC, LDAP ordering is arbitrary and you cannot expect
     that Attributes and Entries are returned in any specific order.

     The order in which different entries are applied can be controlled using the sudoOrder
     attribute, but there is no way to guarantee the order of attributes within a specific entry.
     If there are conflicting command rules in an entry, the negative takes precedence.  This is
     called paranoid behavior (not necessarily the most specific match).

     Here is an example:

         # /etc/sudoers:
         # Allow all commands except shell
         johnny  ALL=(root) ALL,!/bin/sh
         # Always allows all commands because ALL is matched last
         puddles ALL=(root) !/bin/sh,ALL

         # LDAP equivalent of johnny
         # Allows all commands except shell
         dn: cn=role1,ou=Sudoers,dc=my-domain,dc=com
         objectClass: sudoRole
         objectClass: top
         cn: role1
         sudoUser: johnny
         sudoHost: ALL
         sudoCommand: ALL
         sudoCommand: !/bin/sh

         # LDAP equivalent of puddles
         # Notice that even though ALL comes last, it still behaves like
         # role1 since the LDAP code assumes the more paranoid configuration
         dn: cn=role2,ou=Sudoers,dc=my-domain,dc=com
         objectClass: sudoRole
         objectClass: top
         cn: role2
         sudoUser: puddles
         sudoHost: ALL
         sudoCommand: !/bin/sh
         sudoCommand: ALL

     Another difference is that it is not possible to use negation in a sudoUser, sudoRunAsUser
     or sudoRunAsGroup attribute.  For example, the following attributes do not behave the way
     one might expect.

         # does not match all but joe
         # rather, does not match anyone
         sudoUser: !joe

         # does not match all but joe
         # rather, matches everyone including Joe
         sudoUser: ALL
         sudoUser: !joe

   Converting between file-based and LDAP sudoers
     The cvtsudoers(1) utility can be used to convert between file-based and LDAP sudoers.
     However, there are features in the file-based sudoers that have no equivalent in LDAP-based
     sudoers (and vice versa).  These cannot be converted automatically.

     For example, a Cmnd_Alias in a sudoers file may be converted to a sudoRole that contains
     multiple commands.  Multiple users and/or groups may be assigned to the sudoRole.

     Also, host, user, runas and command-based Defaults entries are not supported.  However, a
     sudoRole may contain one or more sudoOption attributes which can often serve the same
     purpose.

     Consider the following sudoers lines:

         Cmnd_Alias PAGERS = /usr/bin/more, /usr/bin/pg, /usr/bin/less
         Defaults!PAGERS noexec
         alice, bob ALL = ALL

     In this example, alice and bob are allowed to run all commands, but the commands listed in
     PAGERS will have the noexec flag set, preventing shell escapes.

     When converting this to LDAP, two sudoRole objects can be used:

         dn: cn=PAGERS,ou=SUDOers,dc=my-domain,dc=com
         objectClass: top
         objectClass: sudoRole
         cn: PAGERS
         sudoUser: alice
         sudoUser: bob
         sudoHost: ALL
         sudoCommand: /usr/bin/more
         sudoCommand: /usr/bin/pg
         sudoCommand: /usr/bin/less
         sudoOption: noexec
         sudoOrder: 900

         dn: cn=ADMINS,ou=SUDOers,dc=my-domain,dc=com
         objectClass: top
         objectClass: sudoRole
         cn: ADMINS
         sudoUser: alice
         sudoUser: bob
         sudoHost: ALL
         sudoCommand: ALL
         sudoOrder: 100

     In the LDAP version, the sudoOrder attribute is used to guarantee that the PAGERS sudoRole
     with noexec has precedence.  Unlike the sudoers version, the LDAP version requires that all
     users for whom the restriction should apply be assigned to the PAGERS sudoRole.  Using a
     Unix group or netgroup in PAGERS rather than listing each user would make this easier to
     maintain.

     Per-user Defaults entries can be emulated by using one or more sudoOption attributes in a
     sudoRole.  Consider the following sudoers lines:

         User_Alias ADMINS = john, sally
         Defaults:ADMINS !authenticate
         ADMINS ALL = (ALL:ALL) ALL

     In this example, john and sally are allowed to run any command as any user or group.

     When converting this to LDAP, we can use a Unix group instead of the User_Alias.

         dn: cn=admins,ou=SUDOers,dc=my-domain,dc=com
         objectClass: top
         objectClass: sudoRole
         cn: admins
         sudoUser: %admin
         sudoHost: ALL
         sudoRunAsUser: ALL
         sudoRunAsGroup: ALL
         sudoCommand: ALL
         sudoOption: !authenticate

     This assumes that users john and sally are members of the “admins” Unix group.

   Sudoers schema
     In order to use sudo's LDAP support, the sudo schema must be installed on your LDAP server.
     In addition, be sure to index the sudoUser attribute.

     The sudo distribution includes versions of the sudoers schema for multiple LDAP servers:

     schema.OpenLDAP
           OpenLDAP slapd and OpenBSD ldapd

     schema.olcSudo
           OpenLDAP slapd 2.3 and higher when on-line configuration is enabled

     schema.iPlanet
           Netscape-derived servers such as the iPlanet, Oracle, and 389 Directory Servers

     schema.ActiveDirectory
           Microsoft Active Directory

     The schema in OpenLDAP format is also included in the EXAMPLES section.

   Configuring ldap.conf
     Sudo reads the /etc/sudo-ldap.conf file for LDAP-specific configuration.  Typically, this
     file is shared between different LDAP-aware clients.  As such, most of the settings are not
     sudo-specific. Note that sudo parses /etc/sudo-ldap.conf itself and may support options that
     differ from those described in the system's ldap.conf(5) manual.  The path to ldap.conf may
     be overridden via the ldap_conf plugin argument in sudo.conf(5).

     Also note that on systems using the OpenLDAP libraries, default values specified in
     /etc/openldap/ldap.conf or the user's .ldaprc files are not used.

     Only those options explicitly listed in /etc/sudo-ldap.conf as being supported by sudo are
     honored.  Configuration options are listed below in upper case but are parsed in a case-
     independent manner.

     Lines beginning with a pound sign (‘#’) are ignored.  Leading white space is removed from
     the beginning of lines.

     BIND_TIMELIMIT seconds
           The BIND_TIMELIMIT parameter specifies the amount of time, in seconds, to wait while
           trying to connect to an LDAP server.  If multiple URIs or HOSTs are specified, this is
           the amount of time to wait before trying the next one in the list.

     BINDDN DN
           The BINDDN parameter specifies the identity, in the form of a Distinguished Name (DN),
           to use when performing LDAP operations.  If not specified, LDAP operations are
           performed with an anonymous identity.  By default, most LDAP servers will allow
           anonymous access.

     BINDPW secret
           The BINDPW parameter specifies the password to use when performing LDAP operations.
           This is typically used in conjunction with the BINDDN parameter.  The secret may be a
           plain text password or a base64-encoded string with a “base64:” prefix.  For example:

               BINDPW base64:dGVzdA==

           If a plain text password is used, it should be a simple string without quotes.  Plain
           text passwords may not include the comment character (‘#’) and the escaping of special
           characters with a backslash (‘\’) is not supported.

     DEREF never/searching/finding/always
           How alias dereferencing is to be performed when searching.  See the ldap.conf(5)
           manual for a full description of this option.

     HOST name[:port] ...
           If no URI is specified (see below), the HOST parameter specifies a white space-
           delimited list of LDAP servers to connect to.  Each host may include an optional port
           separated by a colon (‘:’).  The HOST parameter is deprecated in favor of the URI
           specification and is included for backwards compatibility only.

     KRB5_CCNAME file name
           The path to the Kerberos 5 credential cache to use when authenticating with the remote
           server.  This option is only relevant when using SASL authentication (see below).

     LDAP_VERSION number
           The version of the LDAP protocol to use when connecting to the server.  The default
           value is protocol version 3.

     NETGROUP_BASE base
           The base DN to use when performing LDAP netgroup queries.  Typically this is of the
           form ou=netgroup,dc=my-domain,dc=com for the domain my-domain.com.  Multiple
           NETGROUP_BASE lines may be specified, in which case they are queried in the order
           specified.

           This option can be used to query a user's netgroups directly via LDAP which is usually
           faster than fetching every sudoRole object containing a sudoUser that begins with a
           ‘+’ prefix.  The NIS schema used by some LDAP servers need a modification to support
           querying the nisNetgroup object by its nisNetgroupTriple member.  OpenLDAP's slapd
           requires the following change to the nisNetgroupTriple attribute:

               attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.1.1.1.14 NAME 'nisNetgroupTriple'
                   DESC 'Netgroup triple'
                   EQUALITY caseIgnoreIA5Match
                   SUBSTR caseIgnoreIA5SubstringsMatch
                   SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.26 )

     NETGROUP_SEARCH_FILTER ldap_filter
           An LDAP filter which is used to restrict the set of records returned when performing
           an LDAP netgroup query.  Typically, this is of the form attribute=value or
           (&(attribute=value)(attribute2=value2)).  The default search filter is:
           objectClass=nisNetgroup.  If ldap_filter is omitted, no search filter will be used.
           This option is only when querying netgroups directly via LDAP.

     NETWORK_TIMEOUT seconds
           An alias for BIND_TIMELIMIT provided for OpenLDAP compatibility.

     PORT port_number
           If no URI is specified, the PORT parameter specifies the default port to connect to on
           the LDAP server if a HOST parameter does not specify the port itself.  If no PORT
           parameter is used, the default is port 389 for LDAP and port 636 for LDAP over TLS
           (SSL).  The PORT parameter is deprecated in favor of the URI specification and is
           included for backwards compatibility only.

     ROOTBINDDN DN
           The ROOTBINDDN parameter specifies the identity, in the form of a Distinguished Name
           (DN), to use when performing privileged LDAP operations, such as sudoers queries.  The
           password corresponding to the identity should be stored in the or the path specified
           by the ldap_secret plugin argument in sudo.conf(5), which defaults to
           /etc/ldap.secret.  If no ROOTBINDDN is specified, the BINDDN identity is used (if
           any).

     ROOTUSE_SASL on/true/yes/off/false/no
           Enable ROOTUSE_SASL to enable SASL authentication when connecting to an LDAP server
           from a privileged process, such as sudo.

     SASL_AUTH_ID identity
           The SASL user name to use when connecting to the LDAP server.  By default, sudo will
           use an anonymous connection.  This option is only relevant when using SASL
           authentication.

     SASL_MECH mechanisms
           A white space-delimited list of SASL authentication mechanisms to use.  By default,
           sudo will use GSSAPI authentication.

     SASL_SECPROPS none/properties
           SASL security properties or none for no properties.  See the SASL programmer's manual
           for details.  This option is only relevant when using SASL authentication.

     SSL on/true/yes/off/false/no
           If the SSL parameter is set to on, true or yes, TLS (SSL) encryption is always used
           when communicating with the LDAP server.  Typically, this involves connecting to the
           server on port 636 (ldaps).

     SSL start_tls
           If the SSL parameter is set to start_tls, the LDAP server connection is initiated
           normally and TLS encryption is begun before the bind credentials are sent.  This has
           the advantage of not requiring a dedicated port for encrypted communications.  This
           parameter is only supported by LDAP servers that honor the start_tls extension, such
           as the OpenLDAP and Tivoli Directory servers.

     SUDOERS_BASE base
           The base DN to use when performing sudo LDAP queries.  Typically this is of the form
           ou=SUDOers,dc=my-domain,dc=com for the domain my-domain.com.  Multiple SUDOERS_BASE
           lines may be specified, in which case they are queried in the order specified.

     SUDOERS_DEBUG debug_level
           This sets the debug level for sudo LDAP queries.  Debugging information is printed to
           the standard error.  A value of 1 results in a moderate amount of debugging
           information.  A value of 2 shows the results of the matches themselves.  This
           parameter should not be set in a production environment as the extra information is
           likely to confuse users.

           The SUDOERS_DEBUG parameter is deprecated and will be removed in a future release.
           The same information is now logged via the sudo debugging framework using the “ldap”
           subsystem at priorities diag and info for debug_level values 1 and 2 respectively.
           See the sudo.conf(5) manual for details on how to configure sudo debugging.

     SUDOERS_SEARCH_FILTER ldap_filter
           An LDAP filter which is used to restrict the set of records returned when performing a
           sudo LDAP query.  Typically, this is of the form attribute=value or
           (&(attribute=value)(attribute2=value2)).  The default search filter is:
           objectClass=sudoRole.  If ldap_filter is omitted, no search filter will be used.

     SUDOERS_TIMED on/true/yes/off/false/no
           Whether or not to evaluate the sudoNotBefore and sudoNotAfter attributes that
           implement time-dependent sudoers entries.

     TIMELIMIT seconds
           The TIMELIMIT parameter specifies the amount of time, in seconds, to wait for a
           response to an LDAP query.

     TIMEOUT seconds
           The TIMEOUT parameter specifies the amount of time, in seconds, to wait for a response
           from the various LDAP APIs.

     TLS_CACERT file name
           An alias for TLS_CACERTFILE for OpenLDAP compatibility.

     TLS_CACERTFILE file name
           The path to a certificate authority bundle which contains the certificates for all the
           Certificate Authorities the client knows to be valid, e.g., /etc/ssl/ca-bundle.pem.
           This option is only supported by the OpenLDAP libraries.  Netscape-derived LDAP
           libraries use the same certificate database for CA and client certificates (see
           TLS_CERT).

     TLS_CACERTDIR directory
           Similar to TLS_CACERTFILE but instead of a file, it is a directory containing
           individual Certificate Authority certificates, e.g., /etc/ssl/certs.  The directory
           specified by TLS_CACERTDIR is checked after TLS_CACERTFILE.  This option is only
           supported by the OpenLDAP libraries.

     TLS_CERT file name
           The path to a file containing the client certificate which can be used to authenticate
           the client to the LDAP server.  The certificate type depends on the LDAP libraries
           used.

           OpenLDAP:
                 tls_cert /etc/ssl/client_cert.pem

           Netscape-derived:
                 tls_cert /var/ldap/cert7.db

           Tivoli Directory Server:
                 Unused, the key database specified by TLS_KEY contains both keys and
                 certificates.

                 When using Netscape-derived libraries, this file may also contain Certificate
                 Authority certificates.

     TLS_CHECKPEER on/true/yes/off/false/no
           If enabled, TLS_CHECKPEER will cause the LDAP server's TLS certificated to be
           verified.  If the server's TLS certificate cannot be verified (usually because it is
           signed by an unknown certificate authority), sudo will be unable to connect to it.  If
           TLS_CHECKPEER is disabled, no check is made.  Note that disabling the check creates an
           opportunity for man-in-the-middle attacks since the server's identity will not be
           authenticated.  If possible, the CA's certificate should be installed locally so it
           can be verified.  This option is not supported by the Tivoli Directory Server LDAP
           libraries.

     TLS_KEY file name
           The path to a file containing the private key which matches the certificate specified
           by TLS_CERT.  The private key must not be password-protected.  The key type depends on
           the LDAP libraries used.

           OpenLDAP:
                 tls_key /etc/ssl/client_key.pem

           Netscape-derived:
                 tls_key /var/ldap/key3.db

           Tivoli Directory Server:
                 tls_key /usr/ldap/ldapkey.kdb
           When using Tivoli LDAP libraries, this file may also contain Certificate Authority and
           client certificates and may be encrypted.

     TLS_CIPHERS cipher list
           The TLS_CIPHERS parameter allows the administer to restrict which encryption
           algorithms may be used for TLS (SSL) connections.  See the OpenLDAP or Tivoli
           Directory Server manual for a list of valid ciphers.  This option is not supported by
           Netscape-derived libraries.

     TLS_KEYPW secret
           The TLS_KEYPW contains the password used to decrypt the key database on clients using
           the Tivoli Directory Server LDAP library.  The secret may be a plain text password or
           a base64-encoded string with a “base64:” prefix.  For example:

               TLS_KEYPW base64:dGVzdA==

           If a plain text password is used, it should be a simple string without quotes.  Plain
           text passwords may not include the comment character (‘#’) and the escaping of special
           characters with a backslash (‘\’) is not supported.  If this option is used,
           /etc/sudo-ldap.conf must not be world-readable to avoid exposing the password.
           Alternately, a stash file can be used to store the password in encrypted form (see
           below).

           If no TLS_KEYPW is specified, a stash file will be used if it exists.  The stash file
           must have the same path as the file specified by TLS_KEY, but use a .sth file
           extension instead of .kdb, e.g., ldapkey.sth.  The default ldapkey.kdb that ships with
           Tivoli Directory Server is encrypted with the password ssl_password.  The gsk8capicmd
           utility can be used to manage the key database and create a stash file.  This option
           is only supported by the Tivoli LDAP libraries.

     TLS_REQCERT level
           The TLS_REQCERT parameter controls how the LDAP server's TLS certificated will be
           verified (if at all).  If the server's TLS certificate cannot be verified (usually
           because it is signed by an unknown certificate authority), sudo will be unable to
           connect to it.  The following level values are supported:

               never     The server certificate will not be requested or checked.

               allow     The server certificate will be requested.  A missing or invalid
                         certificate is ignored and not considered an error.

               try       The server certificate will be requested.  A missing certificate is
                         ignored but an invalid certificate will result in a connection error.

               demand | hard
                         The server certificate will be requested.  A missing or invalid
                         certificate will result in a connection error.  This is the default
                         behavior.

           This option is only supported by the OpenLDAP libraries.  Other LDAP libraries only
           support the TLS_CHECKPEER parameter.

     TLS_RANDFILE file name
           The TLS_RANDFILE parameter specifies the path to an entropy source for systems that
           lack a random device.  It is generally used in conjunction with prngd or egd.  This
           option is only supported by the OpenLDAP libraries.

     URI ldap[s]://[hostname[:port]] ...
           Specifies a white space-delimited list of one or more URIs describing the LDAP
           server(s) to connect to.  The protocol may be either ldap ldaps, the latter being for
           servers that support TLS (SSL) encryption.  If no port is specified, the default is
           port 389 for ldap:// or port 636 for ldaps://.  If no hostname is specified, sudo will
           connect to localhost.  Multiple URI lines are treated identically to a URI line
           containing multiple entries.  Only systems using the OpenSSL libraries support the
           mixing of ldap:// and ldaps:// URIs.  Both the Netscape-derived and Tivoli LDAP
           libraries used on most commercial versions of Unix are only capable of supporting one
           or the other.

     USE_SASL on/true/yes/off/false/no
           Enable USE_SASL for LDAP servers that support SASL authentication.

     ROOTSASL_AUTH_ID identity
           The SASL user name to use when ROOTUSE_SASL is enabled.

     See the ldap.conf entry in the EXAMPLES section.

   Configuring nsswitch.conf
     Unless it is disabled at build time, sudo consults the Name Service Switch file,
     /etc/nsswitch.conf, to specify the sudoers search order.  Sudo looks for a line beginning
     with sudoers: and uses this to determine the search order.  Note that sudo does not stop
     searching after the first match and later matches take precedence over earlier ones.  The
     following sources are recognized:

         files     read sudoers from /etc/sudoers
         ldap      read sudoers from LDAP

     In addition, the entry [NOTFOUND=return] will short-circuit the search if the user was not
     found in the preceding source.

     To consult LDAP first followed by the local sudoers file (if it exists), use:

         sudoers: ldap files

     The local sudoers file can be ignored completely by using:

         sudoers: ldap

     If the /etc/nsswitch.conf file is not present or there is no sudoers line, the following
     default is assumed:

         sudoers: files

     Note that /etc/nsswitch.conf is supported even when the underlying operating system does not
     use an nsswitch.conf file, except on AIX (see below).

   Configuring netsvc.conf
     On AIX systems, the /etc/netsvc.conf file is consulted instead of /etc/nsswitch.conf.  sudo
     simply treats netsvc.conf as a variant of nsswitch.conf; information in the previous section
     unrelated to the file format itself still applies.

     To consult LDAP first followed by the local sudoers file (if it exists), use:

         sudoers = ldap, files

     The local sudoers file can be ignored completely by using:

         sudoers = ldap

     To treat LDAP as authoritative and only use the local sudoers file if the user is not
     present in LDAP, use:

         sudoers = ldap = auth, files

     Note that in the above example, the auth qualifier only affects user lookups; both LDAP and
     sudoers will be queried for Defaults entries.

     If the /etc/netsvc.conf file is not present or there is no sudoers line, the following
     default is assumed:

         sudoers = files

   Integration with sssd
     On systems with the System Security Services Daemon (SSSD) and where sudo has been built
     with SSSD support, it is possible to use SSSD to cache LDAP sudoers rules.  To use SSSD as
     the sudoers source, you should use sssd instead of ldap for the sudoers entry in
     /etc/nsswitch.conf.  Note that the /etc/sudo-ldap.conf file is not used by the SSSD sudo
     back end.  Please see sssd-sudo(5) for more information on configuring sudo to work with
     SSSD.

FILES

     /etc/sudo-ldap.conf       LDAP configuration file

     /etc/nsswitch.conf        determines sudoers source order

     /etc/netsvc.conf          determines sudoers source order on AIX

EXAMPLES

   Example ldap.conf
       # Either specify one or more URIs or one or more host:port pairs.
       # If neither is specified sudo will default to localhost, port 389.
       #
       #host          ldapserver
       #host          ldapserver1 ldapserver2:390
       #
       # Default port if host is specified without one, defaults to 389.
       #port          389
       #
       # URI will override the host and port settings.
       uri            ldap://ldapserver
       #uri            ldaps://secureldapserver
       #uri            ldaps://secureldapserver ldap://ldapserver
       #
       # The amount of time, in seconds, to wait while trying to connect to
       # an LDAP server.
       bind_timelimit 30
       #
       # The amount of time, in seconds, to wait while performing an LDAP query.
       timelimit 30
       #
       # Must be set or sudo will ignore LDAP; may be specified multiple times.
       sudoers_base   ou=SUDOers,dc=my-domain,dc=com
       #
       # verbose sudoers matching from ldap
       #sudoers_debug 2
       #
       # Enable support for time-based entries in sudoers.
       #sudoers_timed yes
       #
       # optional proxy credentials
       #binddn        <who to search as>
       #bindpw        <password>
       #rootbinddn    <who to search as, uses /etc/ldap.secret for bindpw>
       #
       # LDAP protocol version, defaults to 3
       #ldap_version 3
       #
       # Define if you want to use an encrypted LDAP connection.
       # Typically, you must also set the port to 636 (ldaps).
       #ssl on
       #
       # Define if you want to use port 389 and switch to
       # encryption before the bind credentials are sent.
       # Only supported by LDAP servers that support the start_tls
       # extension such as OpenLDAP.
       #ssl start_tls
       #
       # Additional TLS options follow that allow tweaking of the
       # SSL/TLS connection.
       #
       #tls_checkpeer yes # verify server SSL certificate
       #tls_checkpeer no  # ignore server SSL certificate
       #
       # If you enable tls_checkpeer, specify either tls_cacertfile
       # or tls_cacertdir.  Only supported when using OpenLDAP.
       #
       #tls_cacertfile /etc/certs/trusted_signers.pem
       #tls_cacertdir  /etc/certs
       #
       # For systems that don't have /dev/random
       # use this along with PRNGD or EGD.pl to seed the
       # random number pool to generate cryptographic session keys.
       # Only supported when using OpenLDAP.
       #
       #tls_randfile /etc/egd-pool
       #
       # You may restrict which ciphers are used.  Consult your SSL
       # documentation for which options go here.
       # Only supported when using OpenLDAP.
       #
       #tls_ciphers <cipher-list>
       #
       # Sudo can provide a client certificate when communicating to
       # the LDAP server.
       # Tips:
       #   * Enable both lines at the same time.
       #   * Do not password protect the key file.
       #   * Ensure the keyfile is only readable by root.
       #
       # For OpenLDAP:
       #tls_cert /etc/certs/client_cert.pem
       #tls_key  /etc/certs/client_key.pem
       #
       # For SunONE or iPlanet LDAP, tls_cert and tls_key may specify either
       # a directory, in which case the files in the directory must have the
       # default names (e.g., cert8.db and key4.db), or the path to the cert
       # and key files themselves.  However, a bug in version 5.0 of the LDAP
       # SDK will prevent specific file names from working.  For this reason
       # it is suggested that tls_cert and tls_key be set to a directory,
       # not a file name.
       #
       # The certificate database specified by tls_cert may contain CA certs
       # and/or the client's cert.  If the client's cert is included, tls_key
       # should be specified as well.
       # For backward compatibility, "sslpath" may be used in place of tls_cert.
       #tls_cert /var/ldap
       #tls_key /var/ldap
       #
       # If using SASL authentication for LDAP (OpenSSL)
       # use_sasl yes
       # sasl_auth_id <SASL user name>
       # rootuse_sasl yes
       # rootsasl_auth_id <SASL user name for root access>
       # sasl_secprops none
       # krb5_ccname /etc/.ldapcache

   Sudoers schema for OpenLDAP
     The following schema, in OpenLDAP format, is included with sudo source and binary
     distributions as schema.OpenLDAP.  Simply copy it to the schema directory (e.g.,
     /etc/openldap/schema), add the proper include line in slapd.conf and restart slapd.  Sites
     using the optional on-line configuration supported by OpenLDAP 2.3 and higher should apply
     the schema.olcSudo file instead.

       attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.1
          NAME 'sudoUser'
          DESC 'User(s) who may  run sudo'
          EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match
          SUBSTR caseExactIA5SubstringsMatch
          SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.26 )

       attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.2
          NAME 'sudoHost'
          DESC 'Host(s) who may run sudo'
          EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match
          SUBSTR caseExactIA5SubstringsMatch
          SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.26 )

       attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.3
          NAME 'sudoCommand'
          DESC 'Command(s) to be executed by sudo'
          EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match
          SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.26 )

       attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.4
          NAME 'sudoRunAs'
          DESC 'User(s) impersonated by sudo'
          EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match
          SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.26 )

       attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.5
          NAME 'sudoOption'
          DESC 'Options(s) followed by sudo'
          EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match
          SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.26 )

       attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.6
          NAME 'sudoRunAsUser'
          DESC 'User(s) impersonated by sudo'
          EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match
          SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.26 )

       attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.7
          NAME 'sudoRunAsGroup'
          DESC 'Group(s) impersonated by sudo'
          EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match
          SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.26 )

       attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.8
          NAME 'sudoNotBefore'
          DESC 'Start of time interval for which the entry is valid'
          EQUALITY generalizedTimeMatch
          ORDERING generalizedTimeOrderingMatch
          SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.24 )

       attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.9
          NAME 'sudoNotAfter'
          DESC 'End of time interval for which the entry is valid'
          EQUALITY generalizedTimeMatch
          ORDERING generalizedTimeOrderingMatch
          SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.24 )

       attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.10
           NAME 'sudoOrder'
           DESC 'an integer to order the sudoRole entries'
           EQUALITY integerMatch
           ORDERING integerOrderingMatch
           SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27 )

       objectclass ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.2.1 NAME 'sudoRole' SUP top STRUCTURAL
          DESC 'Sudoer Entries'
          MUST ( cn )
          MAY ( sudoUser $ sudoHost $ sudoCommand $ sudoRunAs $ sudoRunAsUser $
                sudoRunAsGroup $ sudoOption $ sudoNotBefore $ sudoNotAfter $
                sudoOrder $ description )
          )

SEE ALSO

     cvtsudoers(1), ldap.conf(5), sssd-sudo(5), sudo.conf(5), sudoers(5)

AUTHORS

     Many people have worked on sudo over the years; this version consists of code written
     primarily by:

           Todd C. Miller

     See the CONTRIBUTORS file in the sudo distribution (https://www.sudo.ws/contributors.html)
     for an exhaustive list of people who have contributed to sudo.

CAVEATS

     Note that there are differences in the way that LDAP-based sudoers is parsed compared to
     file-based sudoers.  See the Differences between LDAP and non-LDAP sudoers section for more
     information.

BUGS

     If you feel you have found a bug in sudo, please submit a bug report at
     https://bugzilla.sudo.ws/

SUPPORT

     Limited free support is available via the sudo-users mailing list, see
     https://www.sudo.ws/mailman/listinfo/sudo-users to subscribe or search the archives.

DISCLAIMER

     sudo is provided “AS IS” and any express or implied warranties, including, but not limited
     to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose are
     disclaimed.  See the LICENSE file distributed with sudo or https://www.sudo.ws/license.html
     for complete details.