Provided by: libgfshare-bin_2.0.0-4_amd64 bug


       gfshare - explanation of Shamir Secret Sharing in gf(2**8)


       In  simple  terms, this package provides a library for implementing the sharing of secrets
       and two tools for simple use-cases of the algorithm.  The library implements what is known
       as  Shamir's  method  for  secret  sharing  in the Galois Field 2**8.  In slightly simpler
       words, this is N-of-M secret-sharing byte-by-byte.  Essentially this allows us to split  a
       secret  S  into  any  M shares S(1) to S(M) such that any N of those shares can be used to
       reconstruct S but any less than N shares yields no information whatsoever.


       Alice has a GPG secret key on a usb keyring. If she loses that keyring, she will  have  to
       revoke the key. This sucks because she go to conferences lots and is scared that she will,
       eventually, lose the key somewhere. So, if, instead she needed both her laptop and the usb
       keyring  in  order to have her secret key, losing one or the other does not compromise her
       gpg key. Now, if she splits the key into a 3-of-5 share, put one share on her desktop, one
       on  the  laptop, one on her server at home, and two on the keyring, then the keyring-plus-
       any-machine will yield the secret  gpg  key,  but  if  she  loses  the  keyring,  She  can
       reconstruct  the  gpg key (and thus make a new share, rendering the shares on the lost usb
       keyring worthless) with her three machines at home.


       What Shamir's method relies on is the creation of a random  polynomial,  the  sampling  of
       various  coordinates along the curve of the polynomial and then the interpolation of those
       points in order to re-calculate the y-intercept of the polynomial in order to  reconstruct
       the  secret.  Consider  the  formula  for a straight line: Y = Mx + C. This formula (given
       values for M and C) uniquely defines a line in two dimensions and  such  a  formula  is  a
       polynomial of order 1.  Any line in two dimensions can also be uniquely defined by stating
       any two points along the line.  The  number  of  points  required  to  uniquely  define  a
       polynomial is thus one higher than the order of the polynomial. So a line needs two points
       where a quadratic curve needs three, a cubic curve four, etc.

       When we create a N-of-M share, we encode the secret as the y-intercept of a polynomial  of
       order  N-1  since  such a polynomial needs N points to uniquely define it. Let us consider
       the situation where N is 2: We need a polynomial of order 1 (a straight line). Let us also
       consider  the secret to be 9, giving the formula for our polynomial as: Y = Ax + 9. We now
       pick a random coefficient for the graph, we'll use 3 in  this  example.  This  yields  the
       final  polynomial:  Sx  =  3x  +  9.  Thus  the  share  of the secret at point x is easily
       calculated.  We want some number of shares to give out to our secret-keepers; let's choose
       three as this number. We now need to select three points on the graph for our shares.  For
       simplicity's sake, let us choose 1, 2 and 3. This makes our shares have the values 12,  15
       and  18.  No  single  share  gives  away any information whatsoever about the value of the
       coefficient A and thus no single share can be used to reconstruct the secret.

       Now, consider the shares as coordinates (1, 12) (2, 15) and (3, 18)  -  again,  no  single
       share  is  of any use, but any two of the shares uniquely define a line in two-dimensional
       space. Let us consider the use of the second and third shares.  They give us the  pair  of
       simulaneous equations: 15 = 2M + S and 18 = 3M + S. We can trivially solve these equations
       for A and S and thus recover our secret of 9.

       Solving simultaneous equations isn't ideal for our use due to its complexity,  so  we  use
       something  called  a  'Lagrange Interpolating Polynomial'. Such a polynomial is defined as
       being the polynomial P(x) of degree n-1 which passes through the n points (x1, y1 = f(x1))
       ...  (xn,  yn  =  f(xn)).  There  is  a long and complex formula which can then be used to
       interpolate the y-intercept of P(x) given the n sets  of  coordinates.  There  is  a  good
       explanation of this at


       A  Galois  Field  is  essentially  a finite set of values. In particular, the field we are
       using in this library is gf(2**8) or gf(256) which is the  values  0  to  255.   This  is,
       cunningly  enough,  exactly  the  field of a byte and is thus rather convenient for use in
       manipulating arbitrary amounts of data. In particular, performing the share in gf(256) has
       the property of yielding shares of exactly the same size as the secret. Mathematics within
       this field has various properties which  we  can  use  to  great  effect.  In  particular,
       addition  in  any  Galois  Field  of  the  form gf(2**n) is directly equivalent to bitwise
       exclusive-or (an operation computers are quite fast at indeed). Also, given that (X op  Y)
       mod  F  ==  ((X mod F) op (Y mod F)) mod F we can perform maths on values inside the field
       and keep them within the field trivially by truncating them to the relevant number of bits


       For  speed  reasons,  this  implementation  uses  log  and exp as lookup tables to perform
       multiplication in the field. Since exp( log(X) + log(Y) ) == X * Y and since table lookups
       are much faster than multiplication and then truncation to fit in a byte, this is a faster
       but still 100% correct way to do the maths.


       Written by Daniel Silverstone.


       Report bugs against the libgfshare product on


       libgfshare is copyright © 2006 Daniel Silverstone.
       This is free software. You may redistribute copies of  it  under  the  terms  of  the  MIT
       licence  (the  COPYRIGHT  file  in the source distribution).  There is NO WARRANTY, to the
       extent permitted by law.


       gfsplit(1), gfcombine(1), libgfshare(3)