Provided by: knot-resolver_3.2.1-3_amd64 bug


       kresd.systemd - managing Knot Resolver through systemd.




       This  manual  page  describes  how  to manage kresd using systemd units. Depending on your
       distribution, this can be either be done with socket-based activation or without  it.  The
       following assumes socket-based activation.  For differences see NOTES below.

       kresd  daemon can be executed in multiple independent processes, which can be managed with
       systemd via systemd templates (see systemd.unit(5)).  Each  systemd  service  instance  of
       kresd (kresd@.service) represents a single, independent kresd process.

       The  systemd-managed  kresd  service  set is grouped in the system-kresd.slice slice.  The
       slice includes one or more running daemons (instances of kresd@.service), public listening
       sockets  (the  same  listening  sockets are shared by all daemons) and a dedicated control
       socket for each running daemon.

       Each  instance  of  kresd@.service  has  three  systemd  sockets  (see  systemd.socket(5))
       associated with it:

              kresd.socket - UDP/TCP network socket (default: localhost:53), shared with other instances
              kresd-tls.socket - network socket for DNS-over-TLS (default: localhost:853), shared with other instances
              kresd-control@.socket - UNIX socket with control terminal, dedicated

       Configuring network interfaces

       When  using  socket-based  activation, the daemon requires neither root privileges nor any
       special capabilities, because the sockets are created by systemd and passed to kresd. This
       means   kresd   can't   bind   to   ports   below   1024  when  configured  in  /etc/knot-

       To configure kresd to listen on public interfaces,  drop-in  files  (see  systemd.unit(5))
       should be used. These can be created with:

           systemctl edit kresd.socket
           systemctl edit kresd-tls.socket

       For  example, to configure kresd to listen on on ports 53 and 853, the drop-in
       files would look like:

           # /etc/systemd/system/kresd.socket.d/override.conf

           # /etc/systemd/system/kresd-tls.socket.d/override.conf

       For more detailed socket configuration, see systemd.socket(5).

       Concurrent daemons

       If you have more than one CPU core available, a single running kresd daemon will  only  be
       able  to  make use of one core at a time, leaving the other cores idle.  If you want kresd
       to take advantage of all available cores, while sharing both cache  and  public  listening
       ports,  you  should  enable  and start as many instances of the kresd@.service as you have
       cores.  Typically, each instance is just named  kresd@N.service,  where  N  is  a  decimal
       number.  To enable 3 concurrent daemons:

           systemctl enable --now kresd@1.service kresd@2.service kresd@3.service

       Using system-kresd.slice and

       The  following commands may not work with older systemd (e.g. on CentOS 7).  See notes for
       more info.

       The easiest way to view the status of systemd-supervised kresd instances  is  to  use  the

           systemctl status system-kresd.slice

       You can also use the slice to restart all sockets as well as daemons:

           systemctl restart system-kresd.slice

       Or you can use it to stop kresd altogether (e.g. during package removal):

           systemctl stop system-kresd.slice

       To start all enabled kresd daemons, use the provided

           systemctl start


       * When  an  instance  of  kresd@.service  is started, stopped or restarted, its associated
         control socket is also automatically started,  stopped  or  restarted,  but  the  public
         listening  sockets  remain open.  As long as either of the public sockets are listening,
         at least kresd@1.service will be automatically activated when a request arrives.

       * If your distribution doesn't use socket-based activation, you can configure the  network
         interfaces  for  kresd  in /etc/knot-resolver/kresd.conf.  The service can be started or
         enabled in the same way as in the examples  below,  but  it  doesn't  have  any  sockets
         associated with it.

       * Controlling the service with system-kresd.slice requires newer systemd.  It may not work
         in some distributions, notably CentOS  7.  To  control  multiple  kresd  instances,  use
         kresd@*.service or Brace Expansion mentioned below.


       Single instance

           To start the service:
               systemctl start kresd@1.service

           To start the service at boot:
               systemctl enable kresd@1.service

           To  delay  the  service startup until some traffic arrives, start (or enable) just the
               systemctl start kresd.socket
               systemctl start kresd-tls.socket

           To disable the TLS socket, you can mask it:

               systemctl mask kresd-tls.socket

       Multiple instances

           Multiple instances can be handled with the use of Brace Expansion (see bash(1)).

           To enable multiple concurrent daemons, for example 16:
                  systemctl enable kresd@{1..16}.service

           To start all enabled daemons:
                  systemctl start


       kresd(8), systemd.unit(5), systemd.socket(5),


       kresd developers are mentioned in the AUTHORS file in the distribution.