Provided by: libvmem-dev_1.6.1-1ubuntu1_amd64 bug

NAME

       libvmem - volatile memory allocation library

SYNOPSIS

              #include <libvmem.h>
              cc ... -lvmem

   Managing overall library behavior:
              const char *vmem_check_version(
                  unsigned major_required,
                  unsigned minor_required);

              void vmem_set_funcs(
                  void *(*malloc_func)(size_t size),
                  void (*free_func)(void *ptr),
                  void *(*realloc_func)(void *ptr, size_t size),
                  char *(*strdup_func)(const char *s),
                  void (*print_func)(const char *s));

   Error handling:
              const char *vmem_errormsg(void);

   Other library functions:
       A description of other libvmem functions can be found on the following manual pages:

       · memory pool management: vmem_create(3)

       · memory allocation related functions: vmem_malloc(3)

DESCRIPTION

       libvmem  provides  common  malloc-like  interfaces  to memory pools built on memory-mapped
       files.  These interfaces are for traditional volatile memory allocation  but,  unlike  the
       functions  described  in  malloc(3),  the  memory  managed  by  libvmem may have different
       attributes,  depending  on  the  file  system  containing  the  memory-mapped  files.   In
       particular,  libvmem  is  part  of  the  Persistent  Memory  Development Kit because it is
       sometimes useful to use non-volatile memory as a  volatile  memory  pool,  leveraging  its
       capacity, cost, or performance characteristics.

       libvmem  uses the mmap(2) system call to create a pool of volatile memory.  The library is
       most useful when used with  Direct  Access  storage  (DAX),  which  is  memory-addressable
       persistent storage that supports load/store access without being paged via the system page
       cache.  A Persistent Memory-aware file system is typically used to provide  this  type  of
       access.  Memory-mapping a file from a Persistent Memory-aware file system provides the raw
       memory pools, and this library supplies the more familiar malloc-like interfaces on top of
       those pools.

       Under  normal  usage, libvmem will never print messages or intentionally cause the process
       to exit.  Exceptions to this are prints caused by  calls  to  vmem_stats_print(3),  or  by
       enabling  debugging  as  described  under DEBUGGING AND ERROR HANDLING below.  The library
       uses pthreads to be fully MT-safe, but never creates  or  destroys  threads  itself.   The
       library  does  not  make  use  of  any  signals,  networking, and never calls select(2) or
       poll(2).  The system memory allocation routines like malloc(3) and  free(3)  are  used  by
       libvmem  for  managing  a  small amount of run-time state, but applications are allowed to
       override these calls if necessary (see the description of vmem_set_funcs() below).

       libvmem interfaces are grouped into three categories:  those  that  manage  memory  pools,
       those  providing the basic memory allocation functions, and those interfaces less commonly
       used for managing the overall library behavior.

MANAGING LIBRARY BEHAVIOR

       The vmem_check_version() function is used to see if the  installed  libvmem  supports  the
       version  of the library API required by an application.  The easiest way to do this is for
       the application to supply the compile-time version information,  supplied  by  defines  in
       <libvmem.h>, like this:

              reason = vmem_check_version(VMEM_MAJOR_VERSION,
                                          VMEM_MINOR_VERSION);
              if (reason != NULL) {
                  /* version check failed, reason string tells you why */
              }

       Any  mismatch  in  the  major version number is considered a failure, but a library with a
       newer minor version number will pass this check  since  increasing  minor  versions  imply
       backwards compatibility.

       An  application  can also check specifically for the existence of an interface by checking
       for the version where that interface was introduced.  These  versions  are  documented  in
       this  man  page  as follows: unless otherwise specified, all interfaces described here are
       available in version 1.0 of the library.  Interfaces added after version 1.0 will  contain
       the text introduced in version x.y in the section of this manual describing the feature.

       When  the  version  check  is  successful,  vmem_check_version() returns NULL.  Otherwise,
       vmem_check_version() returns a static string describing the reason for failing the version
       check.  The returned string must not be modified or freed.

       The  vmem_set_funcs()  function  allows  an  application  to override some interfaces used
       internally by libvmem.  Passing NULL for any  of  the  handlers  will  cause  the  libvmem
       default  function to be used.  The only functions in the malloc family used by the library
       are represented by the first four arguments to vmem_set_funcs().  While the  library  does
       not  make  heavy  use  of  the system malloc functions, it does allocate approximately 4-8
       kilobytes for each memory pool in use.  The print_func function is called by libvmem  when
       the  vmem_stats_print()  entry point is used, or when additional tracing is enabled in the
       debug version of the library as described in DEBUGGING AND  ERROR  HANDLING,  below.   The
       default  print_func  used by the library prints to the file specified by the VMEM_LOG_FILE
       environment variable, or to stderr if that variable is not set.

CAVEATS

       libvmem relies on the library destructor being called from  the  main  thread.   For  this
       reason,  all  functions that might trigger destruction (e.g.  dlclose(3)) should be called
       in the main thread.  Otherwise some of the resources associated with that thread might not
       be cleaned up properly.

DEBUGGING AND ERROR HANDLING

       If  an  error  is  detected  during  the  call  to a libvmem function, the application may
       retrieve an error message describing the reason  for  the  failure  from  vmem_errormsg().
       This  function  returns  a  pointer  to  a static buffer containing the last error message
       logged for the current thread.  If  errno  was  set,  the  error  message  may  include  a
       description of the corresponding error code as returned by strerror(3).  The error message
       buffer is thread-local; errors encountered in one thread do not affect its value in  other
       threads.   The buffer is never cleared by any library function; its content is significant
       only when the return value of  the  immediately  preceding  call  to  a  libvmem  function
       indicated  an  error,  or  if  errno was set.  The application must not modify or free the
       error message string, but it  may  be  modified  by  subsequent  calls  to  other  library
       functions.

       Two  versions  of  libvmem  are  typically  available on a development system.  The normal
       version is optimized for performance.  That version skips checks that  impact  performance
       and  never  logs  any  trace  information  or  performs any run-time assertions.  A second
       version,  accessed  when  using  libraries  from  /usr/lib/pmdk_debug,  contains  run-time
       assertions  and  trace  points.  The typical way to access the debug version is to set the
       LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable to /usr/lib/pmdk_debug or  /usr/lib64/pmdk_debug,  as
       appropriate.   Debugging  output  is controlled using the following environment variables.
       These variables have no effect on the non-debug version of the library.

       · VMEM_LOG_LEVEL

       The value of VMEM_LOG_LEVEL enables trace points in the debug version of the  library,  as
       follows:

       · 0  -  Tracing  is  disabled.   This is the default level when VMEM_LOG_LEVEL is not set.
         Only statistics are logged, and then only in response to a call to vmem_stats_print().

       · 1 - Additional details on any errors detected are logged, in addition to  returning  the
         errno-based errors as usual.

       · 2 - A trace of basic operations is logged.

       · 3 - Enables a very verbose amount of function call tracing in the library.

       · 4   -   Enables   voluminous  tracing  information  about  all  memory  allocations  and
         deallocations.

       Unless VMEM_LOG_FILE is set, debugging output is written to stderr.

       · VMEM_LOG_FILE

       Specifies the name of a file where all logging information should be written.  If the last
       character  in the name is “-”, the PID of the current process will be appended to the file
       name when the log file is created.  If VMEM_LOG_FILE is not  set,  output  is  written  to
       stderr.

              NOTE:  On Debian/Ubuntu systems, this extra debug version of the library is shipped
              in the respective -debug Debian package and placed in the  /usr/lib/$ARCH/pmdk_dbg/
              directory.

EXAMPLE

       The  following  example creates a memory pool, allocates some memory to contain the string
       “hello, world”, and then frees that memory.

              #include <stdio.h>
              #include <stdlib.h>
              #include <string.h>
              #include <libvmem.h>

              int
              main(int argc, char *argv[])
              {
                  VMEM *vmp;
                  char *ptr;

                  /* create minimum size pool of memory */
                  if ((vmp = vmem_create("/pmem-fs",
                          VMEM_MIN_POOL)) == NULL) {
                      perror("vmem_create");
                      exit(1);
                  }

                  if ((ptr = vmem_malloc(vmp, 100)) == NULL) {
                      perror("vmem_malloc");
                      exit(1);
                  }

                  strcpy(ptr, "hello, world");

                  /* give the memory back */
                  vmem_free(vmp, ptr);

                  /* ... */

                  vmem_delete(vmp);
              }

       See <http://pmem.io/pmdk/libvmem> for more examples using the libvmem API.

BUGS

       Unlike the normal malloc(3), which asks the system for additional memory when it runs out,
       libvmem  allocates the size it is told to and never attempts to grow or shrink that memory
       pool.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

       libvmem depends on jemalloc, written by Jason Evans, to do the heavy lifting  of  managing
       dynamic memory allocation.  See: <http://www.canonware.com/jemalloc>

       libvmem  builds  on  the  persistent  memory programming model recommended by the SNIA NVM
       Programming Technical Work Group: <http://snia.org/nvmp>

SEE ALSO

       mmap(2),  dlclose(3),  malloc(3),   strerror(3),   vmem_create(3),   vmem_malloc(3),   and
       <http://pmem.io>

       On Linux:

       jemalloc(3), pthreads(7)

       On FreeBSD:

       pthread(3)