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       wngloss - glossary of terms used in WordNet system


       The  WordNet Reference Manual consists of Unix-style manual pages divided into sections as

                          │SectionDescription               │
                          │   1    │ WordNet User Commands                   │
                          │   3    │ WordNet Library Functions               │
                          │   5    │ WordNet File Formats                    │
                          │   7    │ Miscellaneous Information about WordNet │

   System Description
       The WordNet system consists of lexicographer files, code to convert  these  files  into  a
       database,  and  search routines and interfaces that display information from the database.
       The lexicographer files organize nouns, verbs,  adjectives  and  adverbs  into  groups  of
       synonyms,  and  describe  relations  between  synonym  groups.   grind(1WN)  converts  the
       lexicographer files into a database that encodes the relations between the synonym groups.
       The  different  interfaces  to  the  WordNet  database  utilize a common library of search
       routines to display these relations.  Note that the  lexicographer  files  and  grind(1WN)
       program are not generally distributed.

   Database Organization
       Information  in WordNet is organized around logical groupings called synsets.  Each synset
       consists of a list of synonymous words or collocations (eg. "fountain  pen",  "take  in"),
       and pointers that describe the relations between this synset and other synsets.  A word or
       collocation may appear in more than one synset, and in more than one part of speech.   The
       words in a synset are grouped such that they are interchangeable in some context.

       Two  kinds  of  relations  are  represented  by  pointers:  lexical and semantic.  Lexical
       relations hold between semantically related word forms; semantic  relations  hold  between
       word  meanings.   These  relations  include  (but  are  not limited to) hypernymy/hyponymy
       (superordinate/subordinate), antonymy, entailment, and meronymy/holonymy.

       Nouns and verbs are organized into hierarchies based on  the  hypernymy/hyponymy  relation
       between synsets.  Additional pointers are be used to indicate other relations.

       Adjectives  are  arranged in clusters containing head synsets and satellite synsets.  Each
       cluster is organized around antonymous pairs (and occasionally antonymous triplets).   The
       antonymous  pairs (or triplets) are indicated in the head synsets of a cluster.  Most head
       synsets have one or more satellite synsets, each of which represents  a  concept  that  is
       similar in meaning to the concept represented by the head synset.  One way to think of the
       adjective cluster organization is to visualize a wheel, with a head synset as the hub  and
       satellite synsets as the spokes.  Two or more wheels are logically connected via antonymy,
       which can be thought of as an axle between the wheels.

       Pertainyms are relational adjectives and do  not  follow  the  structure  just  described.
       Pertainyms  do  not have antonyms; the synset for a pertainym most often contains only one
       word or collocation and a lexical pointer to the noun that the  adjective  is  "pertaining
       to".   Participial  adjectives  have  lexical  pointers to the verbs that they are derived

       Adverbs are often derived from adjectives, and  sometimes  have  antonyms;  therefore  the
       synset  for an adverb usually contains a lexical pointer to the adjective from which it is

       See wndb(5WN) for a detailed description of the  database  files  and  how  the  data  are


       Many  terms  used in the WordNet Reference Manual are unique to the WordNet system.  Other
       general terms have specific meanings when used in the WordNet documentation.   Definitions
       for many of these terms are given to help with the interpretation and understanding of the
       reference manual, and in the use of the WordNet system.

       In following definitions word is used in place of word or collocation.

       adjective cluster        A group of adjective synsets that are organized around antonymous
                                pairs  or  triplets.   An  adjective cluster contains two or more
                                head synsets which  represent  antonymous  concepts.   Each  head
                                synset has one or more satellite synsets.

       attribute                A  noun  for which adjectives express values.  The noun weight is
                                an attribute, for which the adjectives light  and  heavy  express

       base form                The  base  form  of  a  word  or collocation is the form to which
                                inflections are added.

       basic synset             Syntactically, same as synset.  Term is used in  wninput(5WN)  to
                                help  explain  differences  in  entering synsets in lexicographer

       collocation              A collocation in WordNet is  a  string  of  two  or  more  words,
                                connected  by spaces or hyphens.  Examples are: man-eating shark,
                                blue-collar, depend on, line of products.  In the database  files
                                spaces are represented as underscore (_) characters.

       coordinate               Coordinate terms are nouns or verbs that have the same hypernym.

       cross-cluster pointer    A semantic pointer from one adjective cluster to another.

       derivationally related forms
                                Terms  in  different syntactic categories that have the same root
                                form and are semantically related.

       direct antonyms          A pair of words  between  which  there  is  an  associative  bond
                                resulting   from  their  frequent  co-occurrence.   In  adjective
                                clusters, direct antonyms appears only in head synsets.

       domain                   A topical classification to which a synset has been linked with a
                                CATEGORY, REGION or USAGE pointer.

       domain term              A  synset belonging to a topical class.  A domain term is further
                                identified as being a CATEGORY_TERM, REGION_TERM or USAGE_TERM.

       entailment               A verb X entails Y if X cannot be done unless Y is, or has  been,

       exception list           Morphological  transformations for words that are not regular and
                                therefore cannot be processed in an algorithmic manner.

       group                    Verb senses that  similar  in  meaning  and  have  been  manually
                                grouped together.

       gloss                    Each  synset  contains  gloss  consisting  of  a  definition  and
                                optionally example sentences.

       head synset              Synset in an adjective cluster containing at least one word  that
                                has a direct antonym.

       holonym                  The  name of the whole of which the meronym names a part.  Y is a
                                holonym of X if X is a part of Y.

       hypernym                 The generic term used to designate  a  whole  class  of  specific
                                instances.  Y is a hypernym of X if X is a (kind of) Y.

       hyponym                  The  specific term used to designate a member of a class.  X is a
                                hyponym of Y if X is a (kind of) Y.

       indirect antonym         An adjective in a satellite synset that does not  have  a  direct
                                antonym  has  an  indirect antonyms via the direct antonym of the
                                head synset.

       instance                 A proper noun that refers to a particular,  unique  referent  (as
                                distinguished  from  nouns  that  refer  to  classes).  This is a
                                specific form of hyponym.

       lemma                    Lower case ASCII text of word as found in  the  WordNet  database
                                index files.  Usually the base form for a word or collocation.

       lexical pointer          A  lexical  pointer indicates a relation between words in synsets
                                (word forms).

       lexicographer file       Files containing the raw data  for  WordNet  synsets,  edited  by
                                lexicographers, that are input to the grind program to generate a
                                WordNet database.

       lexicographer id (lex id)
                                A decimal  integer  that,  when  appended  onto  lemma,  uniquely
                                identifies a sense within a lexicographer file.

       monosemous               Having only one sense in a syntactic category.

       meronym                  The  name of a constituent part of, the substance of, or a member
                                of something.  X is a meronym of Y if X is a part of Y.

       part of speech           WordNet defines "part of speech" as either noun, verb, adjective,
                                or adverb.  Same as syntactic category.

       participial adjective    An adjective that is derived from a verb.

       pertainym                A  relational  adjective.   Adjectives  that  are  pertainyms are
                                usually defined by such phrases as "of or pertaining to"  and  do
                                not  have  antonyms.   A pertainym can point to a noun or another

       polysemous               Having more than one sense in a syntactic category.

       polysemy count           Number of senses of a word in a syntactic category, in WordNet.

       postnominal              A postnominal adjective occurs  only  immediately  following  the
                                noun that it modifies.

       predicative              An  adjective that can be used only in predicate positions.  If X
                                is a predicate adjective, it can only be used in such phrases  as
                                "it is X" and never prenominally.

       prenominal               An  adjective  that  can  occur  only  before  the  noun  that it
                                modifies: it cannot be used predicatively.

       satellite synset         Synset in an adjective cluster representing  a  concept  that  is
                                similar in meaning to the concept represented by its head synset.

       semantic concordance     A  textual  corpus  (e.g.  the  Brown Corpus) and a lexicon (e.g.
                                WordNet) so combined that every substantive word in the  text  is
                                linked  to  its  appropriate  sense in the lexicon via a semantic

       semantic tag             A pointer from a word in a text file to a specific sense of  that
                                word  in  the  WordNet  database.   A  semantic tag in a semantic
                                concordance is represented by a sense key.

       semantic pointer         A  semantic  pointer  indicates  a   relation   between   synsets

       sense                    A  meaning  of  a  word in WordNet.  Each sense of a word is in a
                                different synset.

       sense key                Information necessary to find a sense in the WordNet database.  A
                                sense  key  combines a lemma field and codes for the synset type,
                                lexicographer id,  lexicographer  file  number,  and  information
                                about  a satellite's head synset, if required.  See senseidx(5WN)
                                for a description of the format of a sense key.

       subordinate              Same as hyponym.

       superordinate            Same as hypernym.

       synset                   A synonym set; a set of words that are  interchangeable  in  some
                                context  without  changing  the truth value of the preposition in
                                which they are embedded.

       troponym                 A verb expressing a specific manner elaboration of another  verb.
                                X is a troponym of Y if to X is to Y in some manner.

       unique beginner          A noun synset with no superordinate.