Provided by: e2fsprogs_1.45.3-4ubuntu2_amd64 bug

NAME

       debugfs - ext2/ext3/ext4 file system debugger

SYNOPSIS

       debugfs [ -DVwcin ] [ -b blocksize ] [ -s superblock ] [ -f cmd_file ] [ -R request ] [ -d
       data_source_device ] [ -z undo_file ] [ device ]

DESCRIPTION

       The debugfs program is an interactive file system debugger. It can be used to examine  and
       change the state of an ext2, ext3, or ext4 file system.

       device is a block device (e.g., /dev/sdXX) or a file containing the file system.

OPTIONS

       -w     Specifies  that  the file system should be opened in read-write mode.  Without this
              option, the file system is opened in read-only mode.

       -n     Disables metadata checksum verification.  This should only be used if  you  believe
              the metadata to be correct despite the complaints of e2fsprogs.

       -c     Specifies  that the file system should be opened in catastrophic mode, in which the
              inode and group bitmaps are not read initially.  This can be useful for filesystems
              with  significant  corruption,  but  because  of this, catastrophic mode forces the
              filesystem to be opened read-only.

       -i     Specifies that device represents an ext2 image file created by the e2image program.
              Since  the  ext2  image  file only contains the superblock, block group descriptor,
              block and inode allocation bitmaps, and the inode table, many debugfs commands will
              not  function  properly.   Warning:  no safety checks are in place, and debugfs may
              fail in interesting ways if commands such as  ls,  dump,  etc.  are  tried  without
              specifying  the  data_source_device  using  the  -d option.  debugfs is a debugging
              tool.  It has rough edges!

       -d data_source_device
              Used with the -i option, specifies that  data_source_device  should  be  used  when
              reading  blocks  not  found in the ext2 image file.  This includes data, directory,
              and indirect blocks.

       -b blocksize
              Forces the use of the given block size (in bytes) for the file system, rather  than
              detecting  the correct block size automatically.  (This option is rarely needed; it
              is used primarily when the file system is extremely badly damaged/corrupted.)

       -s superblock
              Causes the file system superblock to be read from the given block  number,  instead
              of  using  the  primary  superblock  (located  at  an offset of 1024 bytes from the
              beginning of the filesystem).  If you specify the -s option, you must also  provide
              the blocksize of the filesystem via the -b option.   (This option is rarely needed;
              it is used primarily when the file system is extremely badly damaged/corrupted.)

       -f cmd_file
              Causes debugfs to read in commands from cmd_file, and execute them.   When  debugfs
              is finished executing those commands, it will exit.

       -D     Causes  debugfs  to  open  the device using Direct I/O, bypassing the buffer cache.
              Note that some Linux devices, notably device mapper as  of  this  writing,  do  not
              support Direct I/O.

       -R request
              Causes debugfs to execute the single command request, and then exit.

       -V     print the version number of debugfs and exit.

       -z undo_file
              Before  overwriting  a file system block, write the old contents of the block to an
              undo file.  This undo file can be used with e2undo(8) to restore the  old  contents
              of the file system should something go wrong.  If the empty string is passed as the
              undo_file argument, the undo  file  will  be  written  to  a  file  named  debugfs-
              device.e2undo  in  the  directory  specified via the E2FSPROGS_UNDO_DIR environment
              variable.

              WARNING: The undo file cannot be used to recover from a power or system crash.

SPECIFYING FILES

       Many debugfs commands take a filespec as an argument to specify an inode (as opposed to  a
       pathname)  in  the filesystem which is currently opened by debugfs.  The filespec argument
       may be specified in two forms.  The first form is an  inode  number  surrounded  by  angle
       brackets,  e.g.,  <2>.   The  second  form is a pathname; if the pathname is prefixed by a
       forward slash ('/'), then it is interpreted relative to the root of the  filesystem  which
       is  currently  opened  by  debugfs.   If  not, the pathname is interpreted relative to the
       current working directory as maintained by debugfs.  This may be  modified  by  using  the
       debugfs command cd.

COMMANDS

       This is a list of the commands which debugfs supports.

       blocks filespec
              Print the blocks used by the inode filespec to stdout.

       bmap [ -a ] filespec logical_block [physical_block]
              Print  or  set  the physical block number corresponding to the logical block number
              logical_block in the inode filespec.  If the -a flag is specified, try to  allocate
              a block if necessary.

       block_dump '[ -x ] [-f filespec] block_num
              Dump  the  filesystem  block  given  by  block_num  in  hex and ASCII format to the
              console.  If the -f option is specified, the block number is relative to the  start
              of  the given filespec.  If the -x option is specified, the block is interpreted as
              an extended attribute block and printed to show the structure of extended attribute
              data structures.

       cat filespec
              Dump the contents of the inode filespec to stdout.

       cd filespec
              Change the current working directory to filespec.

       chroot filespec
              Change the root directory to be the directory filespec.

       close [-a]
              Close the currently open file system.  If the -a option is specified, write out any
              changes to the superblock  and  block  group  descriptors  to  all  of  the  backup
              superblocks, not just to the master superblock.

       clri filespec
              Clear the contents of the inode filespec.

       copy_inode source_inode destination_inode
              Copy  the  contents  of the inode structure in source_inode and use it to overwrite
              the inode structure at destination_inode.

       dirsearch filespec filename
              Search the directory filespec for filename.

       dirty [-clean]
              Mark the filesystem as dirty, so that the superblocks  will  be  written  on  exit.
              Additionally, clear the superblock's valid flag, or set it if -clean is specified.

       dump [-p] filespec out_file
              Dump  the  contents  of  the inode filespec to the output file out_file.  If the -p
              option is given set the owner, group and permissions  information  on  out_file  to
              match filespec.

       dump_mmp [mmp_block]
              Display  the  multiple-mount  protection  (mmp)  field  values.   If  mmp_block  is
              specified then verify and  dump  the  MMP  values  from  the  given  block  number,
              otherwise  use  the  s_mmp_block  field  in  the  superblock  to locate and use the
              existing MMP block.

       dx_hash [-h hash_alg] [-s hash_seed] filename
              Calculate the directory hash of filename.  The hash algorithm specified with -h may
              be  legacy,  half_md4,  or  tea.   The  hash seed specified with -s must be in UUID
              format.

       dump_extents [-n] [-l] filespec
              Dump the  the  extent  tree  of  the  inode  filespec.   The  -n  flag  will  cause
              dump_extents  to  only display the interior nodes in the extent tree.   The -l flag
              will cause dump_extents to only display the leaf nodes in the extent tree.

              (Please note that the length and range of blocks for the last extent in an interior
              node  is  an  estimate  by  the  extents  library  functions,  and is not stored in
              filesystem data structures.   Hence, the values displayed may  not  necessarily  by
              accurate and does not indicate a problem or corruption in the file system.)

       dump_unused
              Dump unused blocks which contain non-null bytes.

       ea_get [-f outfile]|[-xVC] [-r] filespec attr_name
              Retrieve  the  value  of  the extended attribute attr_name in the file filespec and
              write it either to stdout or to outfile.

       ea_list filespec
              List the extended attributes associated with the file filespec to standard output.

       ea_set [-f infile] [-r] filespec attr_name attr_value
              Set the value of the extended attribute attr_name  in  the  file  filespec  to  the
              string value attr_value or read it from infile.

       ea_rm filespec attr_names...
              Remove the extended attribute attr_name from the file filespec.

       expand_dir filespec
              Expand the directory filespec.

       fallocate filespec start_block [end_block]
              Allocate   and  map  uninitialized  blocks  into  filespec  between  logical  block
              start_block and end_block, inclusive.  If end_block is not supplied, this  function
              maps  until  it  runs  out of free disk blocks or the maximum file size is reached.
              Existing mappings are left alone.

       feature [fs_feature] [-fs_feature] ...
              Set or clear various filesystem features  in  the  superblock.   After  setting  or
              clearing  any  filesystem  features that were requested, print the current state of
              the filesystem feature set.

       filefrag [-dvr] filespec
              Print the number of contiguous extents in filespec.  If filespec is a directory and
              the  -d  option  is  not  specified,  filefrag  will print the number of contiguous
              extents for each file in the directory.  The -v option will cause filefrag print  a
              tabular  listing  of  the contiguous extents in the file.  The -r option will cause
              filefrag to do a recursive listing of the directory.

       find_free_block [count [goal]]
              Find the first count free  blocks,  starting  from  goal  and  allocate  it.   Also
              available as ffb.

       find_free_inode [dir [mode]]
              Find  a  free inode and allocate it.  If present, dir specifies the inode number of
              the directory which the inode is to be located.  The second optional argument  mode
              specifies  the  permissions  of the new inode.  (If the directory bit is set on the
              mode, the allocation routine will function differently.)  Also available as ffi.

       freeb block [count]
              Mark the block number block as not allocated.  If the optional  argument  count  is
              present,  then  count  blocks  starting at block number block will be marked as not
              allocated.

       freefrag [-c chunk_kb]
              Report free space fragmentation on the currently  open  file  system.   If  the  -c
              option  is  specified  then the filefrag command will print how many free chunks of
              size chunk_kb can be found in the file system.  The chunk size must be a  power  of
              two and be larger than the file system block size.

       freei filespec [num]
              Free the inode specified by filespec.  If num is specified, also clear num-1 inodes
              after the specified inode.

       get_quota quota_type id
              Display quota information for given quota type (user, group, or project) and ID.

       help   Print a list of commands understood by debugfs.

       htree_dump filespec
              Dump the hash-indexed directory filespec, showing its tree structure.

       icheck block ...
              Print a listing of the inodes which use the one or more  blocks  specified  on  the
              command line.

       inode_dump [-b]|[-e]|[-x] filespec
              Print  the  contents  of  the inode data structure in hex and ASCII format.  The -b
              option causes the command to only dump the contents of the i_blocks array.  The  -e
              option causes the command to only dump the contents of the extra inode space, which
              is used to store in-line extended attributes. The -x option causes the  command  to
              dump  the extra inode space interpreted and extended attributes.  This is useful to
              debug corrupted inodes containing extended attributes.

       imap filespec
              Print the location of the inode data structure (in the inode table)  of  the  inode
              filespec.

       init_filesys device blocksize
              Create  an  ext2  file system on device with device size blocksize.  Note that this
              does not fully initialize all of the data structures; to do this, use the mke2fs(8)
              program.   This  is  just  a  call  to  the  low-level  library,  which sets up the
              superblock and block descriptors.

       journal_close
              Close the open journal.

       journal_open [-c] [-v ver] [-f ext_jnl]
              Opens the journal for reading and writing.  Journal checksumming can be enabled  by
              supplying  -c;  checksum  formats  2  and 3 can be selected with the -v option.  An
              external journal can be loaded from ext_jnl.

       journal_run
              Replay all transactions in the open journal.

       journal_write [-b blocks] [-r revoke] [-c] file
              Write a transaction to the open journal.  The list of blocks  to  write  should  be
              supplied  as  a  comma-separated  list  in  blocks; the blocks themselves should be
              readable from file.  A list of blocks  to  revoke  can  be  supplied  as  a  comma-
              separated  list  in revoke.  By default, a commit record is written at the end; the
              -c switch writes an uncommitted transaction.

       kill_file filespec
              Deallocate the inode filespec and its blocks.  Note that this does not  remove  any
              directory  entries  (if  any)  to this inode.  See the rm(1) command if you wish to
              unlink a file.

       lcd directory
              Change the current working directory of the debugfs process  to  directory  on  the
              native filesystem.

       list_quota quota_type
              Display quota information for given quota type (user, group, or project).

       ln filespec dest_file
              Create a link named dest_file which is a hard link to filespec.  Note this does not
              adjust the inode reference counts.

       logdump [-acsOS] [-b block] [-i filespec] [-f journal_file] [output_file]
              Dump the contents of the ext3 journal.  By  default,  dump  the  journal  inode  as
              specified  in  the superblock.  However, this can be overridden with the -i option,
              which dumps the journal from the internal inode given by filespec.  A regular  file
              containing  journal  data  can  be  specified using the -f option.  Finally, the -s
              option utilizes the backup information in the superblock to locate the journal.

              The -S option causes logdump to print the contents of the journal superblock.

              The -a option causes the logdump program to  print  the  contents  of  all  of  the
              descriptor  blocks.  The -b option causes logdump to print all journal records that
              refer to the specified block.  The -c option will print out the contents of all  of
              the data blocks selected by the -a and -b options.

              The  -O  option causes logdump to display old (checkpointed) journal entries.  This
              can be used to try to track down journal problems even after the journal  has  been
              replayed.

       ls [-l] [-c] [-d] [-p] [-r] filespec
              Print  a  listing  of  the  files  in  the  directory filespec.  The -c flag causes
              directory block checksums (if present) to be displayed.   The  -d  flag  will  list
              deleted entries in the directory.  The -l flag will list files using a more verbose
              format.  The -p flag will list the files in a format which is more easily  parsable
              by  scripts,  as  well  as making it more clear when there are spaces or other non-
              printing characters at the end of filenames.  The -r flag will force  the  printing
              of the filename, even if it is encrypted.

       list_deleted_inodes [limit]
              List  deleted inodes, optionally limited to those deleted within limit seconds ago.
              Also available as lsdel.

              This command was useful for recovering from accidental file deletions for ext2 file
              systems.   Unfortunately,  it  is  not  useful  for  this purpose if the files were
              deleted using ext3 or ext4, since the inode's data blocks are no  longer  available
              after the inode is released.

       modify_inode filespec
              Modify  the  contents of the inode structure in the inode filespec.  Also available
              as mi.

       mkdir filespec
              Make a directory.

       mknod filespec [p|[[c|b] major minor]]
              Create a special device file (a named pipe,  character  or  block  device).   If  a
              character or block device is to be made, the major and minor device numbers must be
              specified.

       ncheck [-c] inode_num ...
              Take the requested list of inode numbers, and print a listing of pathnames to those
              inodes.   The  -c  flag  will  enable  checking  the  file  type information in the
              directory entry to make sure it matches the inode's type.

       open [-weficD] [-b blocksize] [-d image_filename] [-s superblock] [-z undo_file] device
              Open a filesystem for editing.  The -f flag forces the filesystem to be opened even
              if  there are some unknown or incompatible filesystem features which would normally
              prevent the filesystem from being opened.  The -e flag causes the filesystem to  be
              opened  in  exclusive  mode.  The -b, -c, -d, -i, -s, -w, and -D options behave the
              same as the command-line options to debugfs.

       punch filespec start_blk [end_blk]
              Delete the blocks in the inode ranging from start_blk to end_blk.   If  end_blk  is
              omitted  then this command will function as a truncate command; that is, all of the
              blocks starting at start_blk through to the end of the file will be deallocated.

       symlink filespec target
              Make a symbolic link.

       pwd    Print the current working directory.

       quit   Quit debugfs

       rdump directory[...] destination
              Recursively  dump  directory,  or  multiple  directories,  and  all  its   contents
              (including  regular  files,  symbolic  links, and other directories) into the named
              destination, which should be an existing directory on the native filesystem.

       rm pathname
              Unlink pathname.  If this causes the inode pointed to by pathname to have no  other
              references,  deallocate  the  file.   This command functions as the unlink() system
              call.

       rmdir filespec
              Remove the directory filespec.

       setb block [count]
              Mark the block number block as  allocated.   If  the  optional  argument  count  is
              present,  then  count  blocks  starting  at  block  number  block will be marked as
              allocated.

       set_block_group bgnum field value
              Modify the block group descriptor specified  by  bgnum  so  that  the  block  group
              descriptor field field has value value.  Also available as set_bg.

       set_current_time time
              Set current time in seconds since Unix epoch to use when setting filesystem fields.

       seti filespec [num]
              Mark  inode  filespec as in use in the inode bitmap.  If num is specified, also set
              num-1 inodes after the specified inode.

       set_inode_field filespec field value
              Modify the inode specified by filespec so that the  inode  field  field  has  value
              value.   The  list  of  valid inode fields which can be set via this command can be
              displayed by using the command: set_inode_field -l Also available as sif.

       set_mmp_value field value
              Modify the multiple-mount protection (MMP) data so that the  MMP  field  field  has
              value value.  The list of valid MMP fields which can be set via this command can be
              displayed by using the command: set_mmp_value -l Also available as smmp.

       set_super_value field value
              Set the superblock field field to value.  The list of valid superblock fields which
              can  be set via this command can be displayed by using the command: set_super_value
              -l Also available as ssv.

       show_debugfs_params
              Display debugfs parameters such as information about currently opened filesystem.

       show_super_stats [-h]
              List the contents of the super block and the block group descriptors.   If  the  -h
              flag is given, only print out the superblock contents. Also available as stats.

       stat filespec
              Display the contents of the inode structure of the inode filespec.

       supported_features
              Display filesystem features supported by this version of debugfs.

       testb block [count]
              Test  if the block number block is marked as allocated in the block bitmap.  If the
              optional argument count is present, then count  blocks  starting  at  block  number
              block will be tested.

       testi filespec
              Test if the inode filespec is marked as allocated in the inode bitmap.

       undel <inode_number> [pathname]
              Undelete the specified inode number (which must be surrounded by angle brackets) so
              that it and its blocks are marked in use, and optionally link the  recovered  inode
              to the specified pathname.  The e2fsck command should always be run after using the
              undel command to recover deleted files.

              Note that if you are recovering a large number of deleted files, linking the  inode
              to  a  directory  may  require the directory to be expanded, which could allocate a
              block that had been used by one of the yet-to-be-undeleted files.  So it  is  safer
              to  undelete  all of the inodes without specifying a destination pathname, and then
              in a separate pass, use  the  debugfs  link  command  to  link  the  inode  to  the
              destination  pathname,  or  use  e2fsck to check the filesystem and link all of the
              recovered inodes to the lost+found directory.

       unlink pathname
              Remove the link specified by pathname to an inode.  Note this does not  adjust  the
              inode reference counts.

       write source_file out_file
              Copy  the contents of source_file into a newly-created file in the filesystem named
              out_file.

       zap_block [-f filespec] [-o offset] [-l length] [-p pattern] block_num
              Overwrite the block specified by block_num with zero (NUL) bytes, or if -p is given
              use  the  byte  specified by pattern.  If -f is given then block_num is relative to
              the start of the file given by filespec.  The -o and -l options limit the range  of
              bytes to zap to the specified offset and length relative to the start of the block.

       zap_block [-f filespec] [-b bit] block_num
              Bit-flip  portions  of the physical block_num.  If -f is given, then block_num is a
              logical block relative to the start of filespec.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       DEBUGFS_PAGER, PAGER
              The debugfs program always pipes the output of the some commands  through  a  pager
              program.   These  commands  include: show_super_stats (stats), list_directory (ls),
              show_inode_info (stat), list_deleted_inodes (lsdel), and htree_dump.  The  specific
              pager can explicitly specified by the DEBUGFS_PAGER environment variable, and if it
              is not set, by the PAGER environment variable.

              Note that since a pager is always used,  the  less(1)  pager  is  not  particularly
              appropriate, since it clears the screen before displaying the output of the command
              and clears the output the screen when the pager is exited.  Many  users  prefer  to
              use the less(1) pager for most purposes, which is why the DEBUGFS_PAGER environment
              variable is available to override the more general PAGER environment variable.

AUTHOR

       debugfs was written by Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu>.

SEE ALSO

       dumpe2fs(8), tune2fs(8), e2fsck(8), mke2fs(8), ext4(5)