Provided by: dirmngr_2.2.12-1ubuntu3_amd64 bug


       dirmngr - CRL and OCSP daemon


       dirmngr [options] command [args]


       Since  version  2.1  of GnuPG, dirmngr takes care of accessing the OpenPGP keyservers.  As
       with previous versions  it  is  also  used  as  a  server  for  managing  and  downloading
       certificate   revocation   lists   (CRLs)   for   X.509  certificates,  downloading  X.509
       certificates, and providing access to OCSP providers.  Dirmngr is  invoked  internally  by
       gpg, gpgsm, or via the gpg-connect-agent tool.


       Commands  are  not distinguished from options except for the fact that only one command is

              Print the  program  version  and  licensing  information.   Note  that  you  cannot
              abbreviate this command.

       --help, -h
              Print  a usage message summarizing the most useful command-line options.  Note that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.

              Print a list  of  all  available  options  and  commands.   Note  that  you  cannot
              abbreviate this command.

              Run  in  server  mode  and  wait for commands on the stdin.  The default mode is to
              create a socket and listen for commands there.  This is only used for testing.

              Run in background daemon mode and listen for commands on a socket.  This is the way
              dirmngr  is  started  on  demand  by the other GnuPG components.  To force starting
              dirmngr it is in general best to use gpgconf --launch dirmngr.

              Run in the foreground, sending logs to stderr, and listening on file descriptor  3,
              which  must  already  be  bound to a listening socket.  This is useful when running
              under systemd or other similar process supervision schemes.   This  option  is  not
              supported on Windows.

              List  the  contents  of  the  CRL cache on stdout. This is probably only useful for
              debugging purposes.

       --load-crl file
              This command requires a filename as additional argument, and it will  make  Dirmngr
              try to import the CRL in file into it's cache.  Note, that this is only possible if
              Dirmngr is able to retrieve the CA's certificate directly by  its  own  means.   In
              general it is better to use gpgsm's --call-dirmngr loadcrl filename command so that
              gpgsm can help dirmngr.

       --fetch-crl url
              This command requires an URL as additional argument, and it will make  dirmngr  try
              to  retrieve  and  import  the  CRL  from that url into it's cache.  This is mainly
              useful for debugging purposes.  The dirmngr-client provides the same feature for  a
              running dirmngr.

              This  commands  shuts  down  an  running  instance  of  Dirmngr.   This command has
              currently no effect.

              This command removes all CRLs from Dirmngr's  cache.   Client  requests  will  thus
              trigger reading of fresh CRLs.


       Note that all long options with the exception of --options and --homedir may also be given
       in the configuration file after stripping off the two leading dashes.

       --options file
              Reads configuration from file instead of from the  default  per-user  configuration
              file.   The  default configuration file is named ‘dirmngr.conf’ and expected in the
              home directory.

       --homedir dir
              Set the name of the home directory to dir.  This option is only effective when used
              on  the  command  line.  The default is the directory named ‘.gnupg’ directly below
              the home directory of the user unless the environment variable GNUPGHOME  has  been
              set  in  which  case  its value will be used.  Many kinds of data are stored within
              this directory.


              Outputs additional information while running.  You can increase  the  verbosity  by
              giving several verbose commands to dirmngr, such as -vv.

       --log-file file
              Append  all  logging output to file.  This is very helpful in seeing what the agent
              actually does.  Use ‘socket://’ to log to socket.

       --debug-level level
              Select the debug level for investigating problems.  level may be a numeric value or
              by a keyword:

              none   No  debugging  at  all.   A  value of less than 1 may be used instead of the

              basic  Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may be used  instead  of
                     the keyword.

                     More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may be used instead of
                     the keyword.

              expert Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may be used instead of
                     the keyword.

              guru   All  of  the  debug messages you can get. A value greater than 8 may be used
                     instead of the keyword.  The creation of hash tracing files is only  enabled
                     if the keyword is used.

       How  these  messages  are  mapped  to  the actual debugging flags is not specified and may
       change with newer releases of this program. They are however carefully  selected  to  best
       aid in debugging.

       --debug flags
              Set debugging flags.  This option is only useful for debugging and its behavior may
              change with a new release.  All flags are or-ed and may be given in C syntax  (e.g.
              0x0042) or as a comma separated list of flag names.  To get a list of all supported
              flags the single word "help" can be used.

              Same as --debug=0xffffffff

       --tls-debug level
              Enable debugging of the TLS layer at level.  The details of the debug level  depend
              on the used TLS library and are not set in stone.

       --debug-wait n
              When  running  in server mode, wait n seconds before entering the actual processing
              loop and print the pid.  This gives time to attach a debugger.

              On some platforms dirmngr is able to detect the removal  of  its  socket  file  and
              shutdown itself.  This option disable this self-test for debugging purposes.

       --csh  Format  the  info  output  in  daemon  mode  for use with the standard Bourne shell
              respective the C-shell. The default  is  to  guess  it  based  on  the  environment
              variable SHELL which is in almost all cases sufficient.

              Enabling  this  option  forces  loading  of  expired  CRLs; this is only useful for

              The option --use-tor switches Dirmngr and thus GnuPG into ``Tor mode'' to route all
              network access via Tor (an anonymity network).  Certain other features are disabled
              in this mode.  The effect of --use-tor cannot be overridden by any other command or
              even be reloading gpg-agent.  The use of --no-use-tor disables the use of Tor.  The
              default is to use Tor if it is available on startup or after reloading dirmngr.

              This option forces the use of the system's standard DNS  resolver  code.   This  is
              mainly  used  for  debugging.  Note that on Windows a standard resolver is not used
              and all DNS access will return the error ``Not Implemented'' if  this  function  is

              When possible use a recursive resolver instead of a stub resolver.

       --resolver-timeout n
              Set the timeout for the DNS resolver to N seconds.  The default are 30 seconds.

       --connect-timeout n

       --connect-quick-timeout n
              Set  the  timeout  for  HTTP and generic TCP connection attempts to N seconds.  The
              value set with the quick variant is used when the --quick option has been given  to
              certain  Assuan  commands.   The  quick value is capped at the value of the regular
              connect timeout.  The default values are 15 and 2 seconds.  Note that  the  timeout
              values are for each connection attempt; the connection code will attempt to connect
              all addresses listed for a server.

       --listen-backlog n
              Set the size of the queue for pending connections.  The default is 64.

              Allow Dirmngr to connect to to get the list  of  current
              software  versions.   On  debian-packaged  versions, this option does nothing since
              software updates should be handled by the distribution.  See  the  option  --query-
              swdb of the command gpgconf for more details.  Note, that regardless of this option
              a version check can always be triggered using this command:

                gpg-connect-agent --dirmngr 'loadswdb --force' /bye

       --keyserver name
              Use name as your keyserver.  This is the  server  that  gpg  communicates  with  to
              receive  keys,  send  keys,  and search for keys.  The format of the name is a URI:
              `scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]' The scheme is the type of  keyserver:  "hkp"  for
              the  HTTP  (or  compatible) keyservers, "ldap" for the LDAP keyservers, or "mailto"
              for the Graff email keyserver. Note that your particular installation of GnuPG  may
              have  other  keyserver  types  available  as  well.  Keyserver  schemes  are  case-
              insensitive. After the keyserver name, optional keyserver configuration options may
              be  provided.  These are the same as the --keyserver-options of gpg, but apply only
              to this particular keyserver.

              Most keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is generally no need to  send
              keys  to  more than one server. The keyserver hkp:// uses round robin
              DNS to give a different keyserver each time you use it.

              If exactly two keyservers are configured and only  one  is  a  Tor  hidden  service
              (.onion),  Dirmngr selects the keyserver to use depending on whether Tor is locally
              running or not.  The check for a running Tor is done for each new connection.

              If no keyserver is explicitly configured, dirmngr will use the built-in default  of

       --nameserver ipaddr
              In  ``Tor  mode''  Dirmngr uses a public resolver via Tor to resolve DNS names.  If
              the default public resolver, which is, shall not be used  a  different  one
              can  be  given  using  this option.  Note that a numerical IP address must be given
              (IPv6 or IPv4) and that no error checking is done for ipaddr.


              Disable the use of all IPv4 or IPv6 addresses.

              Entirely disables the use of LDAP.

              Entirely disables the use of HTTP.

              When looking for the location of a  CRL,  the  to  be  tested  certificate  usually
              contains  so  called  CRL Distribution Point (DP) entries which are URLs describing
              the way to access the CRL.  The first found DP entry is used.  With this option all
              entries using the HTTP scheme are ignored when looking for a suitable DP.

              This  is  similar  to  --ignore-http-dp  but ignores entries using the LDAP scheme.
              Both options may be combined resulting in ignoring DPs entirely.

              Ignore all OCSP URLs contained in the certificate.  The effect is to force the  use
              of the default responder.

              If the environment variable ‘http_proxy’ has been set, use its value to access HTTP

       --http-proxy host[:port]
              Use host and port to access HTTP servers.  The use of  this  option  overrides  the
              environment  variable  ‘http_proxy’  regardless whether --honor-http-proxy has been

       --ldap-proxy host[:port]
              Use host and port to connect to  LDAP  servers.   If  port  is  omitted,  port  389
              (standard LDAP port) is used.  This overrides any specified host and port part in a
              LDAP URL and will also be used if host and port have been omitted from the URL.

              Never use anything else but the  LDAP  "proxy"  as  configured  with  --ldap-proxy.
              Usually  dirmngr  tries to use other configured LDAP server if the connection using
              the "proxy" failed.

       --ldapserverlist-file file
              Read the list of LDAP servers to  consult  for  CRLs  and  certificates  from  file
              instead  of  the default per-user ldap server list file. The default value for file
              is ‘dirmngr_ldapservers.conf’.

              This server list file contains one LDAP server per line in the format


              Lines starting with a  '#' are comments.

              Note that as usual all strings entered are expected to be UTF-8 encoded.  Obviously
              this  will lead to problems if the password has originally been encoded as Latin-1.
              There is no other solution here than to put such a password in the binary  encoding
              into  the  file  (i.e.  non-ascii characters won't show up readable). ([The gpgconf
              tool might be helpful for frontends as it enables editing this  configuration  file
              using percent-escaped strings.])

       --ldaptimeout secs
              Specify  the  number  of  seconds to wait for an LDAP query before timing out.  The
              default are 15 seconds.  0 will never timeout.

              This option makes dirmngr add any servers it discovers when validating certificates
              against CRLs to the internal list of servers to consult for certificates and CRLs.

              This  option  is  useful  when  trying  to  validate  a  certificate that has a CRL
              distribution point that points to a server  that  is  not  already  listed  in  the
              ldapserverlist.  Dirmngr will always go to this server and try to download the CRL,
              but chances are high that the certificate used to sign the CRL is  located  on  the
              same  server.  So if dirmngr doesn't add that new server to list, it will often not
              be able to verify the signature of the CRL unless the --add-servers option is used.

              Note: The current version of dirmngr has this option disabled by default.

              This option enables OCSP support if requested by the client.

              OCSP requests are rejected by default because they may violate the privacy  of  the
              user; for example it is possible to track the time when a user is reading a mail.

       --ocsp-responder url
              Use  url  as  the  default  OCSP  Responder  if  the  certificate  does not contain
              information about an assigned responder.  Note, that --ocsp-signer must also be set
              to a valid certificate.

       --ocsp-signer fpr|file
              Use  the certificate with the fingerprint fpr to check the responses of the default
              OCSP Responder.  Alternatively a filename can be given in which case  the  response
              is  expected  to  be signed by one of the certificates described in that file.  Any
              argument which contains a slash, dot or tilde  is  considered  a  filename.   Usual
              filename  expansion  takes  place:  A  tilde  at  the  start followed by a slash is
              replaced by the content of ‘HOME’, no slash at start describes a relative  filename
              which  will  be  searched  at  the  home  directory.  To make sure that the file is
              searched in the home directory, either prepend the name with "./"  or  use  a  name
              which contains a dot.

              If  a  response has been signed by a certificate described by these fingerprints no
              further check upon the validity of this certificate is done.

              The format of the FILE is a list of SHA-1 fingerprint, one per line  with  optional
              colons  between  the  bytes.   Empty  lines  and  lines prefix with a hash mark are

       --ocsp-max-clock-skew n
              The number of seconds a skew between the OCSP responder and  them  local  clock  is
              accepted.  Default is 600 (10 minutes).

       --ocsp-max-period n
              Seconds  a  response  is  at  maximum  considered valid after the time given in the
              thisUpdate field.  Default is 7776000 (90 days).

       --ocsp-current-period n
              The number of seconds an OCSP response is considered valid after the time given  in
              the NEXT_UPDATE datum.  Default is 10800 (3 hours).

       --max-replies n
              Do not return more that n items in one query.  The default is 10.

       --ignore-cert-extension oid
              Add  oid  to the list of ignored certificate extensions.  The oid is expected to be
              in dotted decimal form, like  This option may be  used  more  than  once.
              Critical  flagged  certificate  extensions matching one of the OIDs in the list are
              treated as if they are actually handled and thus the certificate won't be  rejected
              due to an unknown critical extension.  Use this option with care because extensions
              are usually flagged as critical for a reason.

       --hkp-cacert file
              Use the root certificates in file for verification of  the  TLS  certificates  used
              with  hkps  (keyserver  access over TLS).  If the file is in PEM format a suffix of
              .pem is expected for file.  This option may be given multiple  times  to  add  more
              root certificates.  Tilde expansion is supported.

              If  no  hkp-cacert  directive is present, dirmngr will make a reasonable choice: if
              the keyserver in question is the special pool, it will
              use  the bundled root certificate for that pool.  Otherwise, it will use the system


       Here is an example on how to show dirmngr's internal table of OpenPGP keyserver addresses.
       The output is intended for debugging purposes and not part of a defined API.

           gpg-connect-agent --dirmngr 'keyserver --hosttable' /bye

       To  inhibit  the  use of a particular host you have noticed in one of the keyserver pools,
       you may use

          gpg-connect-agent --dirmngr 'keyserver --dead' /bye

       The description of the keyserver command can be printed using

          gpg-connect-agent --dirmngr 'help keyserver' /bye


       Dirmngr makes use of several directories when running in daemon  mode:  There  are  a  few
       configuration  files  whih  control  the operation of dirmngr.  By default they may all be
       found in the current home directory (see: [option --homedir]).

              This is the standard configuration file read by dirmngr on startup.  It may contain
              any valid long option; the leading two dashes may not be entered and the option may
              not be abbreviated.  This file is also read after a SIGHUP however not all  options
              will actually have an effect.  This default name may be changed on the command line
              (see: [option --options]).  You should backup this file.

              This directory should be filled with certificates of Root CAs you are  trusting  in
              checking the CRLs and signing OCSP Responses.

              Usually these are the same certificates you use with the applications making use of
              dirmngr.  It is expected that each of these certificate files contain  exactly  one
              DER  encoded certificate in a file with the suffix ‘.crt’ or ‘.der’.  dirmngr reads
              those certificates on startup and when given a SIGHUP.  Certificates which are  not
              readable or do not make up a proper X.509 certificate are ignored; see the log file
              for details.

              Applications using dirmngr (e.g. gpgsm) can request these certificates to  complete
              a trust chain in the same way as with the extra-certs directory (see below).

              Note  that  for  OCSP  responses the certificate specified using the option --ocsp-
              signer is always considered valid to sign OCSP requests.

              This directory may contain extra certificates which are preloaded into the internal
              cache  on  startup.  Applications  using  dirmngr  (e.g.  gpgsm) can request cached
              certificates to complete a trust chain.  This is convenient in  cases  you  have  a
              couple  intermediate  CA  certificates  or  certificates  usually used to sign OCSP
              responses.  These certificates are first tried before going out to the net to  look
              for  them.  These certificates must also be DER encoded and suffixed with ‘.crt’ or

              This directory is used to store cached CRLs.  The ‘crls.d’ part will be created  by
              dirmngr  if  it  does not exists but you need to make sure that the upper directory


       A running dirmngr may be controlled by signals, i.e. using the  kill  command  to  send  a
       signal to the process.

       Here is a list of supported signals:

       SIGHUP This  signal flushes all internally cached CRLs as well as any cached certificates.
              Then the certificate cache is reinitialized as on  startup.   Options  are  re-read
              from the configuration file.  Instead of sending this signal it is better to use
         gpgconf --reload dirmngr

              Shuts  down the process but waits until all current requests are fulfilled.  If the
              process has received 3 of these signals and requests are still pending, a  shutdown
              is forced.  You may also use
         gpgconf --kill dirmngr
       instead of this signal

       SIGINT Shuts down the process immediately.

              This prints some caching statistics to the log file.


       gpgsm(1), dirmngr-client(1)

       The  full documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If GnuPG and the
       info program are properly installed at your site, the command

         info gnupg

       should give you access to the complete manual including a menu structure and an index.