Provided by: ganeti-2.16_2.16.0-5ubuntu1_all bug

Name

       gnt-instance - Ganeti instance administration

Synopsis

       gnt-instance {command} [arguments...]

DESCRIPTION

       The gnt-instance command is used for instance administration in the Ganeti system.

COMMANDS

   Creation/removal/querying
   ADD
       add
       {-t|--disk-template {diskless | file | plain | drbd | rbd}}
       {--disk=*N*: {size=*VAL*[,spindles=*VAL*] | adopt=*LV*}[,options...]
        | {size=*VAL*,provider=*PROVIDER*}[,param=*value*...  ][,options...]
        | {-s|--os-size} SIZE}
       [--no-ip-check] [--no-name-check] [--no-conflicts-check]
       [--no-start] [--no-install] [{--forthcoming | --commit}]
       [--net=*N* [:options...] | --no-nics]
       [{-B|--backend-parameters} BEPARAMS]
       [{-H|--hypervisor-parameters} HYPERVISOR [: option=*value*...  ]]
       [{-O|--os-parameters} param=*value*...  ]
       [--os-parameters-private param=*value*...  ]
       [--os-parameters-secret param=*value*...  ]
       [--file-storage-dir dir_path] [--file-driver {loop | blktap | blktap2}]
       {{-n--iallocator} name | {-g|--node-group} nodegroup}
       {{-o|--os-type} os-type}
       [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       [--ignore-ipolicy]
       [--no-wait-for-sync]
       [{-cno}]
       {instance-name}

       Creates  a new instance on the specified host.  The instance-name argument must be in DNS,
       but depending on the bridge/routing setup, need not be in the same network as the nodes in
       the cluster.

       The  disk option specifies the parameters for the disks of the instance.  The numbering of
       disks starts at zero, and at least one disk needs to be passed.  For each disk, either the
       size  or  the adoption source needs to be given.  The size is interpreted (when no unit is
       given) in mebibytes.  You can also use one of the suffixes m, g or t to specify the  exact
       the  units  used; these suffixes map to mebibytes, gibibytes and tebibytes.  Each disk can
       also take these parameters (all optional):

       spindles
              How many spindles (physical disks on the node) the disk should span.

       mode   The access mode.  Either ro (read-only) or the default rw (read-write).

       name   This option specifies a name for the disk, which can be used as a disk  identifier.
              An instance can not have two disks with the same name.

       vg     The LVM volume group.  This works only for LVM and DRBD devices.

       metavg This  option specifies a different VG for the metadata device.  This works only for
              DRBD devices.  If not specified, the default metavg  of  the  node-group  (possibly
              inherited from the cluster-wide settings) will be used.

       access If  'userspace',  instance  will  access this disk directly without going through a
              block device, avoiding expensive context switches with kernel space.   This  option
              works  only for RBD, Gluster and ExtStorage devices.  If not specified, the default
              access of the node-group (possibly inherited from the cluster-wide  settings)  will
              be used.

       When creating ExtStorage disks, also arbitrary parameters can be passed, to the ExtStorage
       provider.  Those parameters are passed as additional comma separated options.   Therefore,
       an  ExtStorage  disk  provided  by  provider pvdr1 with parameters param1, param2 would be
       passed as --disk 0:size=10G,provider=pvdr1,param1=val1,param2=val2.

       When using the adopt key in the disk definition, Ganeti will reuse those volumes  (instead
       of  creating  new  ones) as the instance's disks.  Ganeti will rename these volumes to the
       standard format, and (without installing the OS) will use them  as-is  for  the  instance.
       This  allows migrating instances from non-managed mode (e.g.  plain KVM with LVM) to being
       managed via Ganeti.  Please note that this works only for the `plain' disk  template  (see
       below for template details).

       Alternatively,  a  single-disk  instance  can  be  created via the -s option which takes a
       single argument, the size of the disk.  This is similar to the  Ganeti  1.2  version  (but
       will only create one disk).

       The minimum disk specification is therefore --disk 0:size=20G (or -s 20G when using the -s
       option),     and     a     three-disk     instance      can      be      specified      as
       --disk 0:size=20G --disk 1:size=4G --disk 2:size=100G.

       The  minimum  information  needed  to  specify  an  ExtStorage  disk  are the size and the
       provider.  For example: --disk 0:size=20G,provider=pvdr1.

       The --no-ip-check skips the checks that are done to  see  if  the  instance's  IP  is  not
       already alive (i.e.  reachable from the master node).

       The  --no-name-check  skips the check for the instance name via the resolver (e.g.  in DNS
       or /etc/hosts, depending on your setup).  Since the name check is used to compute  the  IP
       address, if you pass this option you must also pass the --no-ip-check option.

       If you don't want the instance to automatically start after creation, this is possible via
       the --no-start option.  This will leave the instance down until a subsequent  gnt-instance
       start command.

       The  NICs  of the instances can be specified via the --net option.  By default, one NIC is
       created for the instance, with a random MAC, and set up according to the cluster level NIC
       parameters.  Each NIC can take these parameters (all optional):

       mac    either a value or 'generate' to generate a new unique MAC

       ip     specifies the IP address assigned to the instance from the Ganeti side (this is not
              necessarily what the instance will use, but what the node expects the  instance  to
              use).   Note that if an IP in the range of a network configured with gnt-network(8)
              is used, and the NIC is not already connected to it, this network has to be  passed
              in  the network parameter if this NIC is meant to be connected to the said network.
              --no-conflicts-check can be used to override this check.  The  special  value  pool
              causes  Ganeti to select an IP from the network the NIC is or will be connected to.
              One can pick an externally reserved IP of a network along with --no-conflict-check.
              Note that this IP cannot be assigned to any other instance until it gets released.

       mode   specifies the connection mode for this NIC: routed, bridged or openvswitch.

       link   in  bridged  or  openvswitch mode specifies the interface to attach this NIC to, in
              routed  mode   it's   intended   to   differentiate   between   different   routing
              tables/instance  groups  (but  the  meaning is dependent on the network script, see
              gnt-cluster(8) for more details).  Note that openvswitch support is also hypervisor
              dependent.

       network
              derives  the mode and the link from the settings of the network which is identified
              by its name.  If the network option is chosen, link and mode must not be specified.
              Note  that  the  mode  and link depend on the network-to-nodegroup connection, thus
              allowing different nodegroups to be connected to  the  same  network  in  different
              ways.

       name   this  option  specifies  a name for the NIC, which can be used as a NIC identifier.
              An instance can not have two NICs with the same name.

       vlan   in openvswitch mode specifies the VLANs that the NIC  will  be  connected  to.   To
              connect  as  an access port use n or .n with n being the VLAN ID.  To connect as an
              trunk port use :n[:n].  A hybrid port can be created with .n:n[:n]

       Of these "mode" and "link" are NIC parameters, and inherit their default at cluster level.
       Alternatively,  if  no network is desired for the instance, you can prevent the default of
       one NIC with the --no-nics option.

       The -o (--os-type) option specifies the operating system to be installed.   The  available
       operating  systems can be listed with gnt-os list.  Passing --no-install will however skip
       the  OS  installation,  allowing  a  manual  import  if  so  desired.    Note   that   the
       no-installation  mode  will automatically disable the start-up of the instance (without an
       OS, it most likely won't be able to start-up successfully).

       Passing the --forthcoming option, Ganeti will not at all try to create the instance or its
       disks.   Instead  the  instance  will  only  be  added  to  the configuration, so that the
       resources are reserved.  If the --commit option is passed, then it is a prerequisite  that
       an  instance  with  that name has already been added to the configuration as a forthcoming
       instance and the request is to replace this instance by the newly created real one.   Note
       that  if  the  reason  for  reserving  an  instance  is  that  DNS  names still need to be
       propagated, the reservation has to be done with --no-name-check and --no-ip-check as these
       options are not implied by --forthcoming.

       The  -B (--backend-parameters)  option  specifies the backend parameters for the instance.
       If no such parameters are specified, the values are inherited from the cluster.   Possible
       parameters are:

       maxmem the  maximum  memory size of the instance; as usual, suffixes can be used to denote
              the unit, otherwise the value is taken in mebibytes

       minmem the minimum memory size of the instance; as usual, suffixes can be used  to  denote
              the unit, otherwise the value is taken in mebibytes

       vcpus  the  number  of  VCPUs to assign to the instance (if this value makes sense for the
              hypervisor)

       auto_balance
              whether the instance is considered in the N+1 cluster checks (enough redundancy  in
              the cluster to survive a node failure)

       always_failover
              True  or  False,  whether the instance must be failed over (shut down and rebooted)
              always or it may be migrated (briefly suspended)

       Note that before 2.6 Ganeti had a memory parameter, which was the only value of memory  an
       instance  could  have.   With the maxmem/minmem change Ganeti guarantees that at least the
       minimum memory is always available for an instance, but allows more memory to be used  (up
       to the maximum memory) should it be free.

       The  -H (--hypervisor-parameters)  option specified the hypervisor to use for the instance
       (must be one of the enabled hypervisors on the cluster) and optionally  custom  parameters
       for  this  instance.  If not other options are used (i.e.  the invocation is just -H NAME)
       the instance will inherit the cluster  options.   The  defaults  below  show  the  cluster
       defaults at cluster creation time.

       The possible hypervisor options are as follows:

       boot_order
              Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              A string value denoting the boot order.  This has different meaning for the Xen HVM
              hypervisor and for the KVM one.

              For Xen HVM, The boot order is a string of letters listing the boot  devices,  with
              valid device letters being:

              a      floppy drive

              c      hard disk

              d      CDROM drive

              n      network boot (PXE)

              The default is not to set an HVM boot order, which is interpreted as 'dc'.

              For  KVM  the  boot order is either "floppy", "cdrom", "disk" or "network".  Please
              note that older versions of KVM couldn't netboot from virtio interfaces.  This  has
              been  fixed in more recent versions and is confirmed to work at least with qemu-kvm
              0.11.1.  Also note that if you have set the kernel_path option, that will  be  used
              for booting, and this setting will be silently ignored.

       blockdev_prefix
              Valid for the Xen HVM and PVM hypervisors.

              Relevant  to  non-pvops  guest kernels, in which the disk device names are given by
              the host.  Allows one to specify 'xvd', which helps run Red Hat  based  installers,
              driven by anaconda.

       floppy_image_path
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              The  path  to  a  floppy  disk  image to attach to the instance.  This is useful to
              install Windows operating systems on Virt/IO disks because you can specify here the
              floppy for the drivers at installation time.

       cdrom_image_path
              Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              The path to a CDROM image to attach to the instance.

       cdrom2_image_path
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              The path to a second CDROM image to attach to the instance.  NOTE: This image can't
              be used to boot the system.  To do that you  have  to  use  the  'cdrom_image_path'
              option.

       nic_type
              Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              This  parameter determines the way the network cards are presented to the instance.
              The possible options are:

              · rtl8139 (default for Xen HVM) (HVM & KVM)

              · ne2k_isa (HVM & KVM)

              · ne2k_pci (HVM & KVM)

              · i82551 (KVM)

              · i82557b (KVM)

              · i82559er (KVM)

              · pcnet (KVM)

              · e1000 (KVM)

              · paravirtual (default for KVM) (HVM & KVM)

       vif_type
              Valid for the Xen HVM hypervisor.

              This parameter specifies the vif type of the nic  configuration  of  the  instance.
              Unsetting  the  value  leads to no type being specified in the configuration.  Note
              that this parameter only takes effect when the 'nic_type' is not set.  The possible
              options are:

              · ioemu

              · vif

       scsi_controller_type
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This  parameter  specifies  which  type  of  SCSI  controller to use.  The possible
              options are:

              · lsi [default]

              · megasas

              · virtio-scsi-pci

       kvm_pci_reservations
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              The nubmer of PCI slots that QEMU will manage implicitly.  By default  Ganeti  will
              let  QEMU  use  the first 12 slots (i.e.  PCI slots 0-11) on its own and will start
              adding disks and NICs from the 13rd slot  (i.e.   PCI  slot  12)  onwards.   So  by
              default  one  can  add  20  PCI devices (32 - 12).  To support more than that, this
              hypervisor parameter should be set accordingly (e.g.  to 8).

       disk_type
              Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              This parameter determines the way the disks are presented  to  the  instance.   The
              possible options are:

              · ioemu [default] (HVM & KVM)

              · paravirtual (HVM & KVM)

              · ide (KVM)

              · scsi (KVM)

              · sd (KVM)

              · mtd (KVM)

              · pflash (KVM)

       cdrom_disk_type
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This  parameter  determines the way the cdroms disks are presented to the instance.
              The default behavior is to get the same value of the earlier parameter (disk_type).
              The possible options are:

              · paravirtual

              · ide

              · scsi

              · sd

              · mtd

              · pflash

       vnc_bind_address
              Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              Specifies  the  address  that  the  VNC  listener for this instance should bind to.
              Valid values are IPv4 addresses.  Use the address 0.0.0.0 to bind to all  available
              interfaces (this is the default) or specify the address of one of the interfaces on
              the node to restrict listening to that interface.

       vnc_password_file
              Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              Specifies the location of the file containing the password  for  connections  using
              VNC.   The  default  is a file named vnc-cluster-password which can be found in the
              configuration directory.

       vnc_tls
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              A boolean option that controls whether the VNC connection is secured with TLS.

       vnc_x509_path
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              If vnc_tls is enabled, this options specifies the path to the x509  certificate  to
              use.

       vnc_x509_verify
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

       spice_bind
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Specifies  the  address  or interface on which the SPICE server will listen.  Valid
              values are:

              · IPv4 addresses, including 0.0.0.0 and 127.0.0.1

              · IPv6 addresses, including :: and ::1

              · names of network interfaces

              If a network interface is specified, the SPICE server will be bound to one  of  the
              addresses of that interface.

       spice_ip_version
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Specifies which version of the IP protocol should be used by the SPICE server.

              It is mainly intended to be used for specifying what kind of IP addresses should be
              used if a network interface with both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses is specified via  the
              spice_bind parameter.  In this case, if the spice_ip_version parameter is not used,
              the default IP version of the cluster will be used.

       spice_password_file
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Specifies a file containing the password that must be used when connecting via  the
              SPICE  protocol.   If  the  option  is  not specified, passwordless connections are
              allowed.

       spice_image_compression
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Configures the SPICE lossless image compression.  Valid values are:

              · auto_glz

              · auto_lz

              · quic

              · glz

              · lz

              · off

       spice_jpeg_wan_compression
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Configures how SPICE should use the jpeg algorithm for lossy image  compression  on
              slow links.  Valid values are:

              · auto

              · never

              · always

       spice_zlib_glz_wan_compression
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Configures  how SPICE should use the zlib-glz algorithm for lossy image compression
              on slow links.  Valid values are:

              · auto

              · never

              · always

       spice_streaming_video
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Configures how SPICE should detect video streams.  Valid values are:

              · off

              · all

              · filter

       spice_playback_compression
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Configures whether SPICE should compress audio streams or not.

       spice_use_tls
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Specifies that the SPICE server must use TLS to encrypt all the  traffic  with  the
              client.

       spice_tls_ciphers
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Specifies  a  list  of  comma-separated  ciphers  that  SPICE  should  use  for TLS
              connections.  For the format, see man cipher(1).

       spice_use_vdagent
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Enables or disables passing mouse events via SPICE vdagent.

       cpu_type
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This parameter determines the emulated cpu for the instance.  If this parameter  is
              empty (which is the default configuration), it will not be passed to KVM.

              Be  aware of setting this parameter to "host" if you have nodes with different CPUs
              from each other.  Live migration may stop working in this situation.

              For more information please refer to the KVM manual.

       acpi   Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              A boolean option that specifies if the hypervisor should enable  ACPI  support  for
              this instance.  By default, ACPI is disabled.

              ACPI should be enabled for user shutdown detection.  See user_shutdown.

       pae    Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              A  boolean  option  that  specifies if the hypervisor should enable PAE support for
              this instance.  The default is false, disabling PAE support.

       viridian
              Valid for the Xen HVM hypervisor.

              A boolean option that specifies if the hypervisor should enable viridian  (Hyper-V)
              for this instance.  The default is false, disabling viridian support.

       use_guest_agent
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              A  boolean  option  that  specifies  if the hypervisor should enable the QEMU Guest
              Agent protocol for this instance.  By default, the Guest Agent is disabled.

       use_localtime
              Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              A boolean option that specifies if the instance should be started  with  its  clock
              set  to  the  localtime of the machine (when true) or to the UTC (When false).  The
              default is false, which is useful for Linux/Unix machines; for Windows OSes, it  is
              recommended to enable this parameter.

       kernel_path
              Valid for the Xen PVM and KVM hypervisors.

              This  option  specifies  the  path (on the node) to the kernel to boot the instance
              with.  Xen PVM instances always require this, while  for  KVM  if  this  option  is
              empty,  it  will  cause the machine to load the kernel from its disks (and the boot
              will be done accordingly to boot_order).

       kernel_args
              Valid for the Xen PVM and KVM hypervisors.

              This options specifies extra arguments to the kernel that will be loaded.  This  is
              always used for Xen PVM, while for KVM it is only used if the kernel_path option is
              also specified.

              The default setting for this value is simply  "ro",  which  mounts  the  root  disk
              (initially)  in  read-only one.  For example, setting this to single will cause the
              instance to start in single-user mode.

              Note     that     the      hypervisor      setting      serial_console      appends
              "console=ttyS0,<serial_speed>" to the end of kernel_args in KVM.

       initrd_path
              Valid for the Xen PVM and KVM hypervisors.

              This  option  specifies  the  path (on the node) to the initrd to boot the instance
              with.  Xen PVM instances can use this always, while for KVM if this option is  only
              used  if  the  kernel_path  option  is also specified.  You can pass here either an
              absolute filename (the path to the initrd) if you want to use an initrd, or use the
              format no_initrd_path for no initrd.

       root_path
              Valid for the Xen PVM and KVM hypervisors.

              This  options specifies the name of the root device.  This is always needed for Xen
              PVM, while for KVM it is only used if the kernel_path option is also specified.

              Please note, that if this setting is an empty string and the hypervisor is  Xen  it
              will not be written to the Xen configuration file

       serial_console
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This boolean option specifies whether to emulate a serial console for the instance.
              Note that some versions of KVM have a bug that will  make  an  instance  hang  when
              configured to use the serial console unless a connection is made to it within about
              2 seconds of the instance's startup.  For such case  it's  recommended  to  disable
              this option, which is enabled by default.

              Enabling  serial  console  emulation also appends "console=ttyS0,<serial_speed>" to
              the end of kernel_args in KVM and may infere with previous settings.

       serial_speed
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This integer option specifies the speed of the serial console.  Common  values  are
              9600,  19200,  38400,  57600 and 115200: choose the one which works on your system.
              (The default is 38400 for historical reasons, but newer versions of  kvm/qemu  work
              with 115200)

       disk_cache
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              The disk cache mode.  It can be either default to not pass any cache option to KVM,
              or one of the KVM cache modes: none (for direct I/O), writethrough (to use the host
              cache  but  report  completion  to  the  guest only when the host has committed the
              changes to disk) or writeback (to use the host cache and report completion as  soon
              as  the data is in the host cache).  Note that there are special considerations for
              the cache mode depending on version of KVM used and  disk  type  (always  raw  file
              under Ganeti), please refer to the KVM documentation for more details.

       disk_aio
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This  is  an  optional  parameter  that  specifies the aio mode for the disks.  KVM
              default is to use the 'threads' mode, so if not explicitly  specified,  the  native
              mode will not be used.  Possible values are: threads or native.

       disk_discard
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              discard is one of "ignore", "unmap" or "default" and controls whether discard (also
              known as trim or unmap) requests are ignored or passed  to  the  filesystem.   Some
              machine  types may not support discard requests.  For compatibility with older qemu
              versions "default" will not pass any discard option to KVM.

       security_model
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              The security model for kvm.  Currently one of none, user or pool.  Under none,  the
              default,  nothing is done and instances are run as the Ganeti daemon user (normally
              root).

              Under user  kvm  will  drop  privileges  and  become  the  user  specified  by  the
              security_domain parameter.

              Under  pool  a  global  cluster  pool  of  users  will  be used, making sure no two
              instances share the same user on the same node.  (this mode is not implemented yet)

       security_domain
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Under security model user the username to run the instance under.   It  must  be  a
              valid username existing on the host.

              Cannot be set under security model none or pool.

       kvm_flag
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              If  enabled  the  -enable-kvm  flag  is passed to kvm.  If disabled -disable-kvm is
              passed.  If unset no flag is passed, and the default  running  mode  for  your  kvm
              binary will be used.

       mem_path
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This option passes the -mem-path argument to kvm with the path (on the node) to the
              mount point of the hugetlbfs file system, along  with  the  -mem-prealloc  argument
              too.

       use_chroot
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This  boolean  option  determines  whether  to  run  the  KVM  instance in a chroot
              directory.

              If it is set to true, an empty directory is created before  starting  the  instance
              and  its path is passed via the -chroot flag to kvm.  The directory is removed when
              the instance is stopped.

              It is set to false by default.

       user_shutdown
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This boolean option determines whether  the  KVM  instance  suports  user  shutdown
              detection.  This option does not necessarily require ACPI enabled, but ACPI must be
              enabled for users to poweroff their KVM instances.

              If it is set to true, the user can shutdown this KVM instance  and  its  status  is
              reported as USER_down.

              It is set to false by default.

       migration_downtime
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              The  maximum amount of time (in ms) a KVM instance is allowed to be frozen during a
              live migration, in order to copy dirty memory pages.  Default value  is  30ms,  but
              you may need to increase this value for busy instances.

              This  option  is  only  effective  with kvm versions >= 87 and qemu-kvm versions >=
              0.11.0.

       cpu_mask
              Valid for the Xen, KVM and LXC hypervisors.

              The processes belonging to the given instance are only scheduled on  the  specified
              CPUs.

              The  format  of the mask can be given in three forms.  First, the word "all", which
              signifies the common case where all VCPUs  can  live  on  any  CPU,  based  on  the
              hypervisor's decisions.

              Second, a comma-separated list of CPU IDs or CPU ID ranges.  The ranges are defined
              by a lower and higher boundary,  separated  by  a  dash,  and  the  boundaries  are
              inclusive.   In this form, all VCPUs of the instance will be mapped on the selected
              list of CPUs.  Example: 0-2,5, mapping all VCPUs (no matter how many) onto physical
              CPUs 0, 1, 2 and 5.

              The last form is used for explicit control of VCPU-CPU pinnings.  In this form, the
              list of VCPU mappings is given as a colon (:) separated list,  whose  elements  are
              the  possible  values for the second or first form above.  In this form, the number
              of elements in the colon-separated list _must () equal the number of VCPUs  of  the
              instance.

              Example:

                     # Map the entire instance to CPUs 0-2
                     gnt-instance modify -H cpu_mask=0-2 my-inst

                     # Map vCPU 0 to physical CPU 1 and vCPU 1 to CPU 3 (assuming 2 vCPUs)
                     gnt-instance modify -H cpu_mask=1:3 my-inst

                     # Pin vCPU 0 to CPUs 1 or 2, and vCPU 1 to any CPU
                     gnt-instance modify -H cpu_mask=1-2:all my-inst

                     # Pin vCPU 0 to any CPU, vCPU 1 to CPUs 1, 3, 4 or 5, and CPU 2 to
                     # CPU 0 (backslashes for escaping the comma)
                     gnt-instance modify -H cpu_mask=all:1\\,3-5:0 my-inst

                     # Pin entire VM to CPU 0
                     gnt-instance modify -H cpu_mask=0 my-inst

                     # Turn off CPU pinning (default setting)
                     gnt-instance modify -H cpu_mask=all my-inst

       cpu_cap
              Valid for the Xen hypervisor.

              Set the maximum amount of cpu usage by the VM.  The value is a percentage between 0
              and (100 * number of VCPUs).  Default cap is 0: unlimited.

       cpu_weight
              Valid for the Xen hypervisor.

              Set the cpu time ratio to be allocated to the VM.  Valid values are between  1  and
              65535.  Default weight is 256.

       usb_mouse
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This  option  specifies  the  usb  mouse  type  to  be  used.  It can be "mouse" or
              "tablet".  When using VNC it's recommended to set it to "tablet".

       keymap Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This option specifies the keyboard mapping to be used.   It  is  only  needed  when
              using the VNC console.  For example: "fr" or "en-gb".

       reboot_behavior
              Valid for Xen PVM, Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              Normally if an instance reboots, the hypervisor will restart it.  If this option is
              set to exit, the hypervisor will treat a reboot as a shutdown instead.

              It is set to reboot by default.

       cpu_cores
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Number of emulated CPU cores.

       cpu_threads
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Number of emulated CPU threads.

       cpu_sockets
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Number of emulated CPU sockets.

       soundhw
              Valid for Xen PVM, Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              Comma separated list of emulated sounds cards, or "all" to enable all the available
              ones.  See the qemu(1) manpage for valid options and additional details.

       cpuid  Valid for the XEN hypervisor.

              Modify   the   values   returned   by   CPUID  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CPUID)
              instructions run within instances.

              This allows you to enable migration between nodes  with  different  CPU  attributes
              like  cores,  threads,  hyperthreading  or SS4 support by hiding the extra features
              where needed.

              See the XEN documentation for syntax and more information.

       usb_devices
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Space separated list of usb devices.  These can be emulated devices or  passthrough
              ones,  and  each  one  gets  passed to kvm with its own -usbdevice option.  See the
              qemu(1) manpage for the syntax of the possible components.  Note  that  values  set
              with  this  parameter  are  split  on a space character and currently don't support
              quoting.  For backwards compatibility reasons, the RAPI interface  keeps  accepting
              comma separated lists too.

       vga    Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Emulated vga mode, passed the the kvm -vga option.

       kvm_extra
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Any  other  option  to  the  KVM  hypervisor,  useful tweaking anything that Ganeti
              doesn't support.  Note that values set with this parameter are  split  on  a  space
              character and currently don't support quoting.

       machine_version
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Use  in  case an instance must be booted with an exact type of machine version (due
              to e.g.  outdated drivers).  In case it's not set the default version supported  by
              your version of kvm is used.

       migration_caps
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Enable  specific  migration  capabilities  by  providing  a  ":"  separated list of
              supported capabilites.  QEMU version 1.7.0 defines  x-rdma-pin-all,  auto-converge,
              zero-blocks,  and  xbzrle.   Please  note  that  while  a combination of xbzrle and
              auto-converge might speed up the migration process  significantly,  the  first  may
              cause BSOD on Windows8r2 instances running on drbd.

       kvm_path
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Path to the userspace KVM (or qemu) program.

       vnet_hdr
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This  boolean option determines whether the tap devices used by the KVM paravirtual
              nics (virtio-net) will get created with VNET_HDR (IFF_VNET_HDR) support.

              If set to false, it effectively disables offloading on  the  virio-net  interfaces,
              which  prevents  host kernel tainting and log flooding, when dealing with broken or
              malicious virtio-net drivers.

              It is set to true by default.

       virtio_net_queues
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Set a number of queues (file descriptors) for tap  device  to  parallelize  packets
              sending   or   receiving.    Tap   devices   will   be   created  with  MULTI_QUEUE
              (IFF_MULTI_QUEUE) support.  This only works with KVM paravirtual nics  (virtio-net)
              and  the maximum number of queues is limited to 8.  Tehnically this is an extension
              of vnet_hdr which must be enabled for multiqueue support.

              If set to 1 queue, it effectively  disables  multiqueue  support  on  the  tap  and
              virio-net devices.

              For  instances  it  is  necessary to manually set number of queues (on Linux using:
              ethtool -L ethX combined $queues).

              It is set to 1 by default.

       startup_timeout
              Valid for the LXC hypervisor.

              This integer option specifies the number of seconds to wait for the state of an LXC
              container  changes  to "RUNNING" after startup, as reported by lxc-wait.  Otherwise
              we assume an error has occurred and report it.

              It is set to 30 by default.

       extra_cgroups
              Valid for the LXC hypervisor.

              This option specifies the list of cgroup subsystems that will be mounted  alongside
              the needed ones before starting LXC containers.

              Since  LXC  version  >=  1.0.0,  LXC  strictly requires all cgroup subsystems to be
              mounted before starting a container.  Users can control the list of desired  cgroup
              subsystems for LXC containers by specifying the lxc.cgroup.use parameter in the LXC
              system configuration file(see: lxc.system.conf(5)).  Its default value is "@kernel"
              which means all cgroup kernel subsystems.

              The  LXC hypervisor of Ganeti ensures that all cgroup subsystems needed to start an
              LXC container are mounted, as well as the subsystems specified in  this  parameter.
              The needed subsystems are currently cpuset, memory, devices, and cpuacct.

              The  value  of  this parameter should be a list of cgroup subsystems separated by a
              comma(e.g., "net_cls,perf_event,blkio").

              If this parameter is not specified,  a  list  of  subsystems  will  be  taken  from
              /proc/cgroups instead.

       drop_capabilities
              Valid for the LXC hypervisor.

              This  option  specifies  the list of capabilities which should be dropped for a LXC
              container.  Each value of this option must be in the same form as the  lxc.cap.drop
              configuration  parameter  of  lxc.container.conf(5).   It  is the lower case of the
              capability name without  the  "CAP_"  prefix  (e.g.,  "sys_module,sys_time").   See
              capabilities(7)  for  more  details  about  Linux  capabilities.   Note  that  some
              capabilities are required by the LXC container (see: lxc.container.conf(5)).   Also
              note  that  the CAP_SYS_BOOT is required(should not be dropped) to perform the soft
              reboot for the LXC container.

              The default value is mac_override,sys_boot,sys_module,sys_time.

       devices
              Valid for the LXC hypervisor.

              This option specifies the list of devices that can be accessed from inside  of  the
              LXC  container.   Each  value  of  this  option  must  have  the  same  form as the
              lxc.cgroup.devices.allow  configuration  parameter  of  lxc.container.conf(5).   It
              consists of the type(a: all, b: block, c: character), the major-minor pair, and the
              access type sequence(r: read, w: write, m: mknod), e.g.  "c 1:3 rw".  If you'd like
              to  allow  the  LXC  container  to  access  /dev/null and /dev/zero with read-write
              access, you can set this parameter to: "c 1:3 rw,c 1:5  rw".   The  LXC  hypervisor
              drops  all  direct  device  access  by  default,  so  if  you want to allow the LXC
              container to access an additional device which is not included in the default value
              of this parameter, you have to set this parameter manually.

              By  default, this parameter contains (/dev/null, /dev/zero, /dev/full, /dev/random,
              /dev/urandom, /dev/aio, /dev/tty, /dev/console, /dev/ptmx and first block of Unix98
              PTY slaves) with read-write(rw) access.

       extra_config
              Valid for the LXC hypervisor.

              This  option  specifies the list of extra config parameters which are not supported
              by the Ganeti LXC hypervisor natively.  Each value of this option must be  a  valid
              line of the LXC container config file(see: lxc.container.conf(5)).

              This parameter is not set by default.

       num_ttys
              Valid for the LXC hypervisor.

              This  option  specifies  the number of ttys(actually ptys) that should be allocated
              for the LXC container.   You  can  disable  pty  devices  allocation  for  the  LXC
              container by setting this parameter to 0, but you can't use gnt-instance console in
              this case.

              It is set to 6 by default.

       The -O (--os-parameters) option allows customisation of the  OS  parameters.   The  actual
       parameter  names  and  values  depend  on  the  OS  being used, but the syntax is the same
       key=value.  For example, setting a hypothetical dhcp parameter to yes can be achieved by:

              gnt-instance add -O dhcp=yes ...

       You can also specify OS parameters that should not  be  logged  but  reused  at  the  next
       reinstall  with  --os-parameters-private  and  OS  parameters that should not be logged or
       saved to configuration with --os-parameters-secret.  Bear in mind that:

              · Launching the daemons in debug mode will cause debug  logging  to  happen,  which
                leaks  private and secret parameters to the log files.  Do not use the debug mode
                in production.  Deamons will emit a warning on startup if they are in debug mode.

              · You will have to pass again all --os-parameters-secret parameters should you want
                to reinstall this instance.

       The  -I (--iallocator)  option specifies the instance allocator plugin to use (. means the
       default allocator).  If you pass in this option the allocator will select nodes  for  this
       instance  automatically,  so  you  don't  need  to pass them with the -n option.  For more
       information please refer to the instance allocator documentation.

       The -g (--node-group) option can be used to create  the  instance  in  a  particular  node
       group, specified by name.

       The  -t (--disk-template)  options specifies the disk layout type for the instance.  If no
       disk template is specified, the default disk template is used.  The default disk  template
       is  the  first  in  the list of enabled disk templates, which can be adjusted cluster-wide
       with gnt-cluster modify.  The available choices for disk templates are:

       diskless
              This creates an instance with no disks.  Its useful  for  testing  only  (or  other
              special cases).

       file   Disk devices will be regular files.

       sharedfile
              Disk devices will be regulare files on a shared directory.

       plain  Disk devices will be logical volumes.

       drbd   Disk devices will be drbd (version 8.x) on top of lvm volumes.

       rbd    Disk devices will be rbd volumes residing inside a RADOS cluster.

       blockdev
              Disk devices will be adopted pre-existent block devices.

       ext    Disk  devices  will  be provided by external shared storage, through the ExtStorage
              Interface using ExtStorage providers.

       The optional second value of the -n (--node) is  used  for  the  drbd  template  type  and
       specifies the remote node.

       If  you  do  not  want  gnt-instance  to  wait  for  the disk mirror to be synced, use the
       --no-wait-for-sync option.

       The --file-storage-dir specifies the relative path under  the  cluster-wide  file  storage
       directory to store file-based disks.  It is useful for having different subdirectories for
       different instances.  The full path of the directory where the disk files are stored  will
       consist  of  cluster-wide  file storage directory + optional subdirectory + instance name.
       This option is only relevant for instances using the file storage backend.

       The --file-driver specifies the driver to use for file-based disks.  Note  that  currently
       these  drivers  work  with  the  xen  hypervisor  only.   This option is only relevant for
       instances using the file storage backend.  The available choices are:

       loop   Kernel loopback driver.  This driver uses loopback devices to access the filesystem
              within  the  file.   However,  running  I/O intensive applications in your instance
              using the loop driver might result in  slowdowns.   Furthermore,  if  you  use  the
              loopback driver consider increasing the maximum amount of loopback devices (on most
              systems it's 8) using the max_loop param.

       blktap The blktap driver (for Xen hypervisors).  In order to be able  to  use  the  blktap
              driver  you  should  check  if  the  'blktapctrl'  user space disk agent is running
              (usually automatically started via xend).  This user-level disk I/O  interface  has
              the  advantage  of better performance.  Especially if you use a network file system
              (e.g.  NFS) to store your instances this is the recommended choice.

       blktap2
              Analogous to the blktap driver, but used by newer versions of Xen.

       If --ignore-ipolicy is given any instance policy violations occuring during this operation
       are ignored.

       The -c and --communication specify whether to enable/disable instance communication, which
       is a communication mechanism between the instance and the host.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example:

              # gnt-instance add -t file --disk 0:size=30g -B maxmem=512 -o debian-etch \
                -n node1.example.com --file-storage-dir=mysubdir instance1.example.com
              # gnt-instance add -t plain --disk 0:size=30g -B maxmem=1024,minmem=512 \
                -o debian-etch -n node1.example.com instance1.example.com
              # gnt-instance add -t plain --disk 0:size=30g --disk 1:size=100g,vg=san \
                -B maxmem=512 -o debian-etch -n node1.example.com instance1.example.com
              # gnt-instance add -t drbd --disk 0:size=30g -B maxmem=512 -o debian-etch \
                -n node1.example.com:node2.example.com instance2.example.com
              # gnt-instance add -t rbd --disk 0:size=30g -B maxmem=512 -o debian-etch \
                -n node1.example.com instance1.example.com
              # gnt-instance add -t ext --disk 0:size=30g,provider=pvdr1 -B maxmem=512 \
                -o debian-etch -n node1.example.com instance1.example.com
              # gnt-instance add -t ext --disk 0:size=30g,provider=pvdr1,param1=val1 \
                --disk 1:size=40g,provider=pvdr2,param2=val2,param3=val3 -B maxmem=512 \
                -o debian-etch -n node1.example.com instance1.example.com

   BATCH-CREATE
       batch-create
       [{-I|--iallocator} instance allocator]
       {instances_file.json}

       This command (similar to the Ganeti 1.2 batcher tool) submits multiple  instance  creation
       jobs  based  on a definition file.  This file can contain all options which are valid when
       adding an instance with the exception of the iallocator field.   The  IAllocator  is,  for
       optimization  purposes,  only  allowed  to  be set for the whole batch operation using the
       --iallocator parameter.

       The instance file must be a valid-formed JSON file, containing an  array  of  dictionaries
       with instance creation parameters.  All parameters (except iallocator) which are valid for
       the instance creation OP code are allowed.  The most important ones are:

       instance_name
              The FQDN of the new instance.

       disk_template
              The disk template to use for the instance, the same as in the add command.

       disks  Array of disk specifications.  Each entry describes one disk  as  a  dictionary  of
              disk parameters.

       beparams
              A dictionary of backend parameters.

       hypervisor
              The hypervisor for the instance.

       hvparams
              A  dictionary  with  the hypervisor options.  If not passed, the default hypervisor
              options will be inherited.

       nics   List of NICs that will be created for the instance.  Each entry should be  a  dict,
              with  mac,  ip, mode and link as possible keys.  Please don't provide the "mac, ip,
              mode, link" parent keys if you use this method for specifying NICs.

       pnode, snode
              The primary and optionally the secondary node to use for the instance (in  case  an
              iallocator  script  is  not  used).  If those parameters are given, they have to be
              given consistently for all instances in the batch operation.

       start  whether to start the instance

       ip_check
              Skip the check for already-in-use instance; see the description in the add  command
              for details.

       name_check
              Skip  the  name  check  for  instances;  see the description in the add command for
              details.

       file_storage_dir, file_driver
              Configuration for the file disk type, see the add command for details.

       A simple definition for one instance can be (with most of the parameters  taken  from  the
       cluster defaults):

              [
                {
                  "mode": "create",
                  "instance_name": "instance1.example.com",
                  "disk_template": "drbd",
                  "os_type": "debootstrap",
                  "disks": [{"size":"1024"}],
                  "nics": [{}],
                  "hypervisor": "xen-pvm"
                },
                {
                  "mode": "create",
                  "instance_name": "instance2.example.com",
                  "disk_template": "drbd",
                  "os_type": "debootstrap",
                  "disks": [{"size":"4096", "mode": "rw", "vg": "xenvg"}],
                  "nics": [{}],
                  "hypervisor": "xen-hvm",
                  "hvparams": {"acpi": true},
                  "beparams": {"maxmem": 512, "minmem": 256}
                }
              ]

       The command will display the job id for each submitted instance, as follows:

              # gnt-instance batch-create instances.json
              Submitted jobs 37, 38

       Note:  If  the  allocator  is used for computing suitable nodes for the instances, it will
       only take into account disk information for the default disk template.  That  means,  even
       if  other  disk  templates  are  specified for the instances, storage space information of
       these disk templates will not be considered in the allocation computation.

   REMOVE
       remove [--ignore-failures] [--shutdown-timeout=*N*] [--submit]
       [--print-jobid] [--force] {instance-name}

       Remove an instance.  This will remove all data from the instance and there is no way back.
       If  you  are not sure if you use an instance again, use shutdown first and leave it in the
       shutdown state for a while.

       The --ignore-failures option will cause the removal to proceed even  in  the  presence  of
       errors during the removal of the instance (e.g.  during the shutdown or the disk removal).
       If this option is not given, the command will stop at the first error.

       The --shutdown-timeout is used to specify  how  much  time  to  wait  before  forcing  the
       shutdown (e.g.  xm destroy in Xen, killing the kvm process for KVM, etc.).  By default two
       minutes are given to each instance to stop.

       The --force option is used to skip the interactive confirmation.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example:

              # gnt-instance remove instance1.example.com

   LIST
       list
       [--no-headers] [--separator=*SEPARATOR*] [--units=*UNITS*] [-v]
       [{-o|--output} [+]FIELD,...] [--filter] [instance-name...]

       Shows the currently configured instances with memory usage, disk usage, the node they  are
       running on, and their run status.

       The  --no-headers  option will skip the initial header line.  The --separator option takes
       an argument which denotes what will be used between the output fields.  Both these options
       are to help scripting.

       The  units  used  to  display  the  numeric  values in the output varies, depending on the
       options given.  By default, the values will be formatted in the most appropriate unit.  If
       the  --separator  option is given, then the values are shown in mebibytes to allow parsing
       by scripts.  In both cases, the --units option can be used to enforce a given output unit.

       The -v option activates verbose mode, which changes the display of  special  field  states
       (see ganeti(7)).

       The  -o (--output)  option  takes  a comma-separated list of output fields.  The available
       fields and their meaning are:

       admin_state
              Desired state of the instance

       admin_state_source
              Who last changed the desired state of the instance

       admin_up
              Desired state of the instance

       be/always_failover
              The "always_failover" backend parameter

       be/auto_balance
              The "auto_balance" backend parameter

       be/maxmem
              The "maxmem" backend parameter

       be/memory
              The "maxmem" backend parameter

       be/minmem
              The "minmem" backend parameter

       be/spindle_use
              The "spindle_use" backend parameter

       be/vcpus
              The "vcpus" backend parameter

       beparams
              Backend parameters (merged)

       bridge Bridge of 1st network interface

       console
              Instance console information

       ctime  Creation timestamp

       custom_beparams
              Custom backend parameters

       custom_hvparams
              Custom hypervisor parameters

       custom_nicparams
              Custom network interface parameters

       custom_osparams
              Custom operating system parameters

       disk.count
              Number of disks

       disk.name/0
              Name of 1st disk

       disk.name/1
              Name of 2nd disk

       disk.name/2
              Name of 3rd disk

       disk.name/3
              Name of 4th disk

       disk.name/4
              Name of 5th disk

       disk.name/5
              Name of 6th disk

       disk.name/6
              Name of 7th disk

       disk.name/7
              Name of 8th disk

       disk.name/8
              Name of 9th disk

       disk.name/9
              Name of 10th disk

       disk.name/10
              Name of 11th disk

       disk.name/11
              Name of 12th disk

       disk.name/12
              Name of 13th disk

       disk.name/13
              Name of 14th disk

       disk.name/14
              Name of 15th disk

       disk.name/15
              Name of 16th disk

       disk.names
              List of disk names

       disk.size/0
              Disk size of 1st disk

       disk.size/1
              Disk size of 2nd disk

       disk.size/2
              Disk size of 3rd disk

       disk.size/3
              Disk size of 4th disk

       disk.size/4
              Disk size of 5th disk

       disk.size/5
              Disk size of 6th disk

       disk.size/6
              Disk size of 7th disk

       disk.size/7
              Disk size of 8th disk

       disk.size/8
              Disk size of 9th disk

       disk.size/9
              Disk size of 10th disk

       disk.size/10
              Disk size of 11th disk

       disk.size/11
              Disk size of 12th disk

       disk.size/12
              Disk size of 13th disk

       disk.size/13
              Disk size of 14th disk

       disk.size/14
              Disk size of 15th disk

       disk.size/15
              Disk size of 16th disk

       disk.sizes
              List of disk sizes

       disk.spindles
              List of disk spindles

       disk.spindles/0
              Spindles of 1st disk

       disk.spindles/1
              Spindles of 2nd disk

       disk.spindles/2
              Spindles of 3rd disk

       disk.spindles/3
              Spindles of 4th disk

       disk.spindles/4
              Spindles of 5th disk

       disk.spindles/5
              Spindles of 6th disk

       disk.spindles/6
              Spindles of 7th disk

       disk.spindles/7
              Spindles of 8th disk

       disk.spindles/8
              Spindles of 9th disk

       disk.spindles/9
              Spindles of 10th disk

       disk.spindles/10
              Spindles of 11th disk

       disk.spindles/11
              Spindles of 12th disk

       disk.spindles/12
              Spindles of 13th disk

       disk.spindles/13
              Spindles of 14th disk

       disk.spindles/14
              Spindles of 15th disk

       disk.spindles/15
              Spindles of 16th disk

       disk.uuid/0
              UUID of 1st disk

       disk.uuid/1
              UUID of 2nd disk

       disk.uuid/2
              UUID of 3rd disk

       disk.uuid/3
              UUID of 4th disk

       disk.uuid/4
              UUID of 5th disk

       disk.uuid/5
              UUID of 6th disk

       disk.uuid/6
              UUID of 7th disk

       disk.uuid/7
              UUID of 8th disk

       disk.uuid/8
              UUID of 9th disk

       disk.uuid/9
              UUID of 10th disk

       disk.uuid/10
              UUID of 11th disk

       disk.uuid/11
              UUID of 12th disk

       disk.uuid/12
              UUID of 13th disk

       disk.uuid/13
              UUID of 14th disk

       disk.uuid/14
              UUID of 15th disk

       disk.uuid/15
              UUID of 16th disk

       disk.uuids
              List of disk UUIDs

       disk_template
              Instance disk template

       disk_usage
              Total disk space used by instance on each of its nodes; this is not the  disk  size
              visible to the instance, but the usage on the node

       disks_active
              Desired state of the instance disks

       forthcoming
              Whether the Instance is forthcoming

       hv/acpi
              The "acpi" hypervisor parameter

       hv/blockdev_prefix
              The "blockdev_prefix" hypervisor parameter

       hv/boot_order
              The "boot_order" hypervisor parameter

       hv/bootloader_args
              The "bootloader_args" hypervisor parameter

       hv/bootloader_path
              The "bootloader_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cdrom2_image_path
              The "cdrom2_image_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cdrom_disk_type
              The "cdrom_disk_type" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cdrom_image_path
              The "cdrom_image_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cpu_cap
              The "cpu_cap" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cpu_cores
              The "cpu_cores" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cpu_mask
              The "cpu_mask" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cpu_sockets
              The "cpu_sockets" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cpu_threads
              The "cpu_threads" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cpu_type
              The "cpu_type" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cpu_weight
              The "cpu_weight" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cpuid
              The "cpuid" hypervisor parameter

       hv/device_model
              The "device_model" hypervisor parameter

       hv/devices
              The "devices" hypervisor parameter

       hv/disk_aio
              The "disk_aio" hypervisor parameter

       hv/disk_cache
              The "disk_cache" hypervisor parameter

       hv/disk_discard
              The "disk_discard" hypervisor parameter

       hv/disk_type
              The "disk_type" hypervisor parameter

       hv/drop_capabilities
              The "drop_capabilities" hypervisor parameter

       hv/extra_cgroups
              The "extra_cgroups" hypervisor parameter

       hv/extra_config
              The "extra_config" hypervisor parameter

       hv/floppy_image_path
              The "floppy_image_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/init_script
              The "init_script" hypervisor parameter

       hv/initrd_path
              The "initrd_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/kernel_args
              The "kernel_args" hypervisor parameter

       hv/kernel_path
              The "kernel_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/keymap
              The "keymap" hypervisor parameter

       hv/kvm_extra
              The "kvm_extra" hypervisor parameter

       hv/kvm_flag
              The "kvm_flag" hypervisor parameter

       hv/kvm_path
              The "kvm_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/kvm_pci_reservations
              The "kvm_pci_reservations" hypervisor parameter

       hv/machine_version
              The "machine_version" hypervisor parameter

       hv/mem_path
              The "mem_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/migration_caps
              The "migration_caps" hypervisor parameter

       hv/migration_downtime
              The "migration_downtime" hypervisor parameter

       hv/nic_type
              The "nic_type" hypervisor parameter

       hv/num_ttys
              The "num_ttys" hypervisor parameter

       hv/pae The "pae" hypervisor parameter

       hv/pci_pass
              The "pci_pass" hypervisor parameter

       hv/reboot_behavior
              The "reboot_behavior" hypervisor parameter

       hv/root_path
              The "root_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/scsi_controller_type
              The "scsi_controller_type" hypervisor parameter

       hv/security_domain
              The "security_domain" hypervisor parameter

       hv/security_model
              The "security_model" hypervisor parameter

       hv/serial_console
              The "serial_console" hypervisor parameter

       hv/serial_speed
              The "serial_speed" hypervisor parameter

       hv/soundhw
              The "soundhw" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_bind
              The "spice_bind" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_image_compression
              The "spice_image_compression" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_ip_version
              The "spice_ip_version" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_jpeg_wan_compression
              The "spice_jpeg_wan_compression" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_password_file
              The "spice_password_file" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_playback_compression
              The "spice_playback_compression" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_streaming_video
              The "spice_streaming_video" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_tls_ciphers
              The "spice_tls_ciphers" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_use_tls
              The "spice_use_tls" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_use_vdagent
              The "spice_use_vdagent" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_zlib_glz_wan_compression
              The "spice_zlib_glz_wan_compression" hypervisor parameter

       hv/startup_timeout
              The "startup_timeout" hypervisor parameter

       hv/usb_devices
              The "usb_devices" hypervisor parameter

       hv/usb_mouse
              The "usb_mouse" hypervisor parameter

       hv/use_bootloader
              The "use_bootloader" hypervisor parameter

       hv/use_chroot
              The "use_chroot" hypervisor parameter

       hv/use_guest_agent
              The "use_guest_agent" hypervisor parameter

       hv/use_localtime
              The "use_localtime" hypervisor parameter

       hv/user_shutdown
              The "user_shutdown" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vga The "vga" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vhost_net
              The "vhost_net" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vif_script
              The "vif_script" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vif_type
              The "vif_type" hypervisor parameter

       hv/viridian
              The "viridian" hypervisor parameter

       hv/virtio_net_queues
              The "virtio_net_queues" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vnc_bind_address
              The "vnc_bind_address" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vnc_password_file
              The "vnc_password_file" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vnc_tls
              The "vnc_tls" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vnc_x509_path
              The "vnc_x509_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vnc_x509_verify
              The "vnc_x509_verify" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vnet_hdr
              The "vnet_hdr" hypervisor parameter

       hvparams
              Hypervisor parameters (merged)

       hypervisor
              Hypervisor name

       ip     IP address of 1st network interface

       mac    MAC address of 1st network interface

       mtime  Modification timestamp

       name   Instance name

       network_port
              Instance network port if available (e.g.  for VNC console)

       nic.bridge/0
              Bridge of 1st network interface

       nic.bridge/1
              Bridge of 2nd network interface

       nic.bridge/2
              Bridge of 3rd network interface

       nic.bridge/3
              Bridge of 4th network interface

       nic.bridge/4
              Bridge of 5th network interface

       nic.bridge/5
              Bridge of 6th network interface

       nic.bridge/6
              Bridge of 7th network interface

       nic.bridge/7
              Bridge of 8th network interface

       nic.bridges
              List containing each network interface's bridge

       nic.count
              Number of network interfaces

       nic.ip/0
              IP address of 1st network interface

       nic.ip/1
              IP address of 2nd network interface

       nic.ip/2
              IP address of 3rd network interface

       nic.ip/3
              IP address of 4th network interface

       nic.ip/4
              IP address of 5th network interface

       nic.ip/5
              IP address of 6th network interface

       nic.ip/6
              IP address of 7th network interface

       nic.ip/7
              IP address of 8th network interface

       nic.ips
              List containing each network interface's IP address

       nic.link/0
              Link of 1st network interface

       nic.link/1
              Link of 2nd network interface

       nic.link/2
              Link of 3rd network interface

       nic.link/3
              Link of 4th network interface

       nic.link/4
              Link of 5th network interface

       nic.link/5
              Link of 6th network interface

       nic.link/6
              Link of 7th network interface

       nic.link/7
              Link of 8th network interface

       nic.links
              List containing each network interface's link

       nic.mac/0
              MAC address of 1st network interface

       nic.mac/1
              MAC address of 2nd network interface

       nic.mac/2
              MAC address of 3rd network interface

       nic.mac/3
              MAC address of 4th network interface

       nic.mac/4
              MAC address of 5th network interface

       nic.mac/5
              MAC address of 6th network interface

       nic.mac/6
              MAC address of 7th network interface

       nic.mac/7
              MAC address of 8th network interface

       nic.macs
              List containing each network interface's MAC address

       nic.mode/0
              Mode of 1st network interface

       nic.mode/1
              Mode of 2nd network interface

       nic.mode/2
              Mode of 3rd network interface

       nic.mode/3
              Mode of 4th network interface

       nic.mode/4
              Mode of 5th network interface

       nic.mode/5
              Mode of 6th network interface

       nic.mode/6
              Mode of 7th network interface

       nic.mode/7
              Mode of 8th network interface

       nic.modes
              List containing each network interface's mode

       nic.name/0
              Name address of 1st network interface

       nic.name/1
              Name address of 2nd network interface

       nic.name/2
              Name address of 3rd network interface

       nic.name/3
              Name address of 4th network interface

       nic.name/4
              Name address of 5th network interface

       nic.name/5
              Name address of 6th network interface

       nic.name/6
              Name address of 7th network interface

       nic.name/7
              Name address of 8th network interface

       nic.names
              List containing each network interface's name

       nic.network.name/0
              Network name of 1st network interface

       nic.network.name/1
              Network name of 2nd network interface

       nic.network.name/2
              Network name of 3rd network interface

       nic.network.name/3
              Network name of 4th network interface

       nic.network.name/4
              Network name of 5th network interface

       nic.network.name/5
              Network name of 6th network interface

       nic.network.name/6
              Network name of 7th network interface

       nic.network.name/7
              Network name of 8th network interface

       nic.network/0
              Network of 1st network interface

       nic.network/1
              Network of 2nd network interface

       nic.network/2
              Network of 3rd network interface

       nic.network/3
              Network of 4th network interface

       nic.network/4
              Network of 5th network interface

       nic.network/5
              Network of 6th network interface

       nic.network/6
              Network of 7th network interface

       nic.network/7
              Network of 8th network interface

       nic.networks
              List containing each interface's network

       nic.networks.names
              List containing each interface's network

       nic.uuid/0
              UUID address of 1st network interface

       nic.uuid/1
              UUID address of 2nd network interface

       nic.uuid/2
              UUID address of 3rd network interface

       nic.uuid/3
              UUID address of 4th network interface

       nic.uuid/4
              UUID address of 5th network interface

       nic.uuid/5
              UUID address of 6th network interface

       nic.uuid/6
              UUID address of 7th network interface

       nic.uuid/7
              UUID address of 8th network interface

       nic.uuids
              List containing each network interface's UUID

       nic.vlan/0
              VLAN of 1st network interface

       nic.vlan/1
              VLAN of 2nd network interface

       nic.vlan/2
              VLAN of 3rd network interface

       nic.vlan/3
              VLAN of 4th network interface

       nic.vlan/4
              VLAN of 5th network interface

       nic.vlan/5
              VLAN of 6th network interface

       nic.vlan/6
              VLAN of 7th network interface

       nic.vlan/7
              VLAN of 8th network interface

       nic.vlans
              List containing each network interface's VLAN

       nic_link
              Link of 1st network interface

       nic_mode
              Mode of 1st network interface

       nic_network
              Network of 1st network interface

       oper_ram
              Actual memory usage as seen by hypervisor

       oper_state
              Actual state of instance

       oper_vcpus
              Actual number of VCPUs as seen by hypervisor

       os     Operating system

       osparams
              Operating system parameters (merged)

       pnode  Primary node

       pnode.group
              Primary node's group

       pnode.group.uuid
              Primary node's group UUID

       sda_size
              Disk size of 1st disk

       sdb_size
              Disk size of 2nd disk

       serial_no
              Instance object serial number, incremented on each modification

       snodes Secondary nodes; usually this will just be one node

       snodes.group
              Node groups of secondary nodes

       snodes.group.uuid
              Node group UUIDs of secondary nodes

       status Instance  status;  "running"  if  instance  is  set  to be running and actually is,
              "ADMIN_down" if instance is  stopped  and  is  not  running,  "ERROR_wrongnode"  if
              instance  running,  but  not on its designated primary node, "ERROR_up" if instance
              should be stopped, but is actually running, "ERROR_down" if  instance  should  run,
              but    doesn't,    "ERROR_nodedown"   if   instance's   primary   node   is   down,
              "ERROR_nodeoffline" if instance's primary node is marked  offline,  "ADMIN_offline"
              if  instance  is offline and does not use dynamic, "USER_down" if the user shutdown
              the instance resources

       tags   Tags

       uuid   Instance UUID

       vcpus  The "vcpus" backend parameter

       If the value of the option starts with the character +, the new field(s) will be added  to
       the  default  list.   This  allows  one  to  quickly see the default list plus a few other
       fields, instead of retyping the entire list of fields.

       There is a subtle grouping about the  available  output  fields:  all  fields  except  for
       oper_state,  oper_ram,  oper_vcpus  and  status  are  configuration value and not run-time
       values.  So if you don't select any of the these  fields,  the  query  will  be  satisfied
       instantly  from  the cluster configuration, without having to ask the remote nodes for the
       data.  This can be helpful for big clusters when you only want  some  data  and  it  makes
       sense to specify a reduced set of output fields.

       If  exactly one argument is given and it appears to be a query filter (see ganeti(7)), the
       query result is filtered accordingly.  For ambiguous cases (e.g.  a single field name as a
       filter)  the  --filter  (-F)  option  forces  the argument to be treated as a filter (e.g.
       gnt-instance list -F admin_state).

       The default output field list is: name, os, pnode, admin_state, oper_state, oper_ram.

   LIST-FIELDS
       list-fields [field...]

       Lists available fields for instances.

   INFO
       info [-s | --static] [--roman] {--all | instance-name}

       Show detailed information about the given instance(s).  This is different from list as  it
       shows  detailed  data  about  the  instance's  disks  (especially useful for the drbd disk
       template).

       If the option -s is  used,  only  information  available  in  the  configuration  file  is
       returned, without querying nodes, making the operation faster.

       Use  the  --all  to  get info about all instances, rather than explicitly passing the ones
       you're interested in.

       The --roman option can be used to cause envy among people who like ancient  cultures,  but
       are stuck with non-latin-friendly cluster virtualization technologies.

   MODIFY
       modify
       [{-H|--hypervisor-parameters} HYPERVISOR_PARAMETERS]
       [{-B|--backend-parameters} BACKEND_PARAMETERS]
       [{-m|--runtime-memory} SIZE]
       [--net add[:options...] |
        --net [N:]add[,options...] |
        --net [ID:]remove |
        --net ID:modify[,options...]]
       [--disk add:size=*SIZE*[,options...] |
        --disk N:add,size=*SIZE*[,options...] |
        --disk N:add,size=*SIZE*,provider=*PROVIDER*[,options...][,param=*value*...  ] |
        --disk N:attach,{name=*NAME* | uuid=*UUID*}|
        --disk ID:modify[,options...]
        --disk [ID:]remove]
        --disk [ID:]detach]
       [{-t rbd } |
        {-t|--disk-template} drbd -n new_secondary] [--no-wait-for-sync] |
        {-t--ext-params} {provider=*PROVIDER*}[,param=*value*...  ] |
        {-t sharedfile | gluster }
        | [--file-storage-dir dir_path] [--file-driver {loop | blktap | blktap2}]
       [--new-primary=*node*]
       [--os-type=*OS* [--force-variant]]
       [{-O|--os-parameters} param=*value*...  ]
       [--os-parameters-private param=*value*...  ]
       [--offline | --online]
       [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       [--ignore-ipolicy]
       [--hotplug]
       [--hotplug-if-possible]
       {instance-name}

       Modifies  the  memory size, number of vcpus, ip address, MAC address and/or NIC parameters
       for an instance.  It can also add and remove disks and NICs to/from  the  instance.   Note
       that you need to give at least one of the arguments, otherwise the command complains.

       The   -H (--hypervisor-parameters),   -B (--backend-parameters)  and  -O (--os-parameters)
       options  specifies  hypervisor,  backend  and  OS  parameter  options  in  the   form   of
       name=value[,...].  For details which options can be specified, see the add command.

       The -t (--disk-template) option will change the disk template of the instance.  Currently,
       conversions between all the available templates are supported, except the diskless and the
       blockdev  templates.  For the blockdev disk template, only partial support is provided and
       acts only as a source template.   Since  these  volumes  are  adopted  pre-existent  block
       devices, conversions targeting this template are not supported.  Also, there is no support
       for conversions to or from the diskless template.  The instance  must  be  stopped  before
       attempting  the conversion.  When changing from the plain to the drbd disk template, a new
       secondary node must be specified via the -n option.  The option --no-wait-for-sync can  be
       used  when  converting  to  the  drbd template in order to make the instance available for
       startup before DRBD has finished resyncing.  When changing to a file-based disk  template,
       i.e.,  file, sharedfile and gluster, the file storage directory and the file driver can be
       specified via the --file-storage-dir and --file-driver options,  respectively.   For  more
       details on these options please refer to the add command section.  When changing to an ext
       template, the provider's name must  be  specified.   Also,  arbitrary  parameters  can  be
       passed, as additional comma separated options.  Those parameters along with the ExtStorage
       provider must be passed using either the --ext-params or -e option.   It  is  not  allowed
       specifying  existing  disk  parameters  such  as  the size, mode, name, access, adopt, vg,
       metavg, provider, or spindles options.

       The -m (--runtime-memory) option will change an instance's runtime  memory  to  the  given
       size  (in  MB  if a different suffix is not specified), by ballooning it up or down to the
       new value.

       The  --disk add:size=*SIZE*,[options..]  option  adds  a  disk  to   the   instance,   and
       --disk *N*:add,size=*SIZE*,[options..]   will  add  a  disk  to the instance at a specific
       index.  The available options are the same as in the add command  (spindles,  mode,  name,
       vg,  metavg  and access).  By default, gnt-instance waits for the disk mirror to sync.  If
       you do not want  this  behavior,  use  the  --no-wait-for-sync  option.   When  adding  an
       ExtStorage  disk,  the  provider=*PROVIDER*  option  is  also  mandatory and specifies the
       ExtStorage provider.  Also, for ExtStorage disks arbitrary parameters  can  be  passed  as
       additional    comma    separated   options,   same   as   in   the   add   command.    The
       --disk attach:name=*NAME* option attaches an existing disk to the  instance  at  the  last
       disk  index  and  --disk *N*:attach,name=*NAME*  will  attach  a disk to the instance at a
       specific index.  The accepted disk identifiers are its name or  uuid.   The  --disk remove
       option  will  remove the last disk of the instance.  Use --disk ID:remove to remove a disk
       by its identifier.  ID can be the index of the disk, the disks's name or the disks's UUID.
       The  above  apply  also to the --disk detach option, which removes a disk from an instance
       but   keeps   it    in    the    configuration    and    doesn't    destroy    it.     The
       --disk *ID*:modify[,options...]  will  change  the options of the disk.  Available options
       are:

       mode   The access mode.  Either ro (read-only) or the default rw (read-write).

       name   This option specifies a name for the disk, which can be used as a disk  identifier.
              An instance can not have two disks with the same name.

       The  --net *N*:add[,options..]  will  add  a  new  network interface to the instance.  The
       available options are the same as in the add command (mac, ip, link, mode, network).   The
       --net *ID*,remove will remove the intances' NIC with ID identifier, which can be the index
       of the NIC, the NIC's name or the NIC's UUID.   The  --net *ID*:modify[,options..]  option
       will change the parameters of the instance network interface with the ID identifier.

       The   option   -o (--os-type)   will   change  the  OS  name  for  the  instance  (without
       reinstallation).  In case an OS variant is specified that is not found,  then  by  default
       the modification is refused, unless --force-variant is passed.  An invalid OS will also be
       refused, unless the --force option is given.

       The option --new-primary will set the new primary node of an instance assuming  the  disks
       have already been moved manually.  Unless the --force option is given, it is verified that
       the instance is no longer running on its current primary node.

       The --online and --offline options are used to transition an instance into and out of  the
       offline  state.   An  instance  can be turned offline only if it was previously down.  The
       --online option fails if the instance was not in the offline state, otherwise  it  changes
       instance's state to down.  These modifications take effect immediately.

       If --ignore-ipolicy is given any instance policy violations occuring during this operation
       are ignored.

       If --hotplug is given any disk and NIC modifications will take effect without the need  of
       actual  reboot.   Please  note  that  this  feature  is  currently  supported only for KVM
       hypervisor and there are some restrictions: a) NIC/Disk hot-remove should  work  for  QEMU
       versions  >= 1.0 b) instances with chroot or pool/user security model support disk hot-add
       only for QEMU version > 1.7 where add-fd QMP command exists c) For the  previous  case  as
       well  as for NIC hot-add, python-fdsend package must be installed d) if hotplug fails (for
       any reason) a  warning  is  printed  but  execution  is  continued  e)  for  existing  NIC
       modification interactive verification is needed unless --force option is passed.

       If  --hotplug-if-possible  is  given  then  ganeti  won't  abort  in  case  hotplug is not
       supported.  It will continue execution and modification  will  take  place  after  reboot.
       This covers use cases where instances are not running or hypervisor is not KVM.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Most of the changes take effect at the next restart.  If the instance is running, there is
       no effect on the instance.

   REINSTALL
       reinstall [{-o|--os-type} os-type] [--select-os] [-f force]
       [--force-multiple]
       [--instance | --node | --primary | --secondary | --all]
       [{-O|--os-parameters} OS_PARAMETERS]
       [--os-parameters-private} OS_PARAMETERS]
       [--os-parameters-secret} OS_PARAMETERS]
       [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       {instance...}

       Reinstalls the operating system on the given instance(s).  The instance(s) must be stopped
       when  running  this  command.  If the -o (--os-type) is specified, the operating system is
       changed.

       The --select-os option switches to an interactive OS reinstall.  The user is  prompted  to
       select  the  OS  template  from  the list of available OS templates.  OS parameters can be
       overridden using -O (--os-parameters) (more documentation for this option  under  the  add
       command).

       Since  this  is a potentially dangerous command, the user will be required to confirm this
       action, unless the -f flag is passed.  When multiple instances  are  selected  (either  by
       passing  multiple  arguments  or  by  using  the  --node,  --primary, --secondary or --all
       options), the user  must  pass  the  --force-multiple  options  to  skip  the  interactive
       confirmation.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

   RENAME
       rename [--no-ip-check] [--no-name-check] [--force]
       [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       {instance} {new_name}

       Renames  the given instance.  The instance must be stopped when running this command.  The
       requirements for the new name are the same as for adding an instance: the new name must be
       resolvable  and the IP it resolves to must not be reachable (in order to prevent duplicate
       IPs the next time  the  instance  is  started).   The  IP  test  can  be  skipped  if  the
       --no-ip-check option is passed.

       Note  that  you  can  rename  an  instance  to  its  same  name, to force re-executing the
       os-specific rename script for that instance, if needed.

       The --no-name-check skips the check for the new instance name via the resolver  (e.g.   in
       DNS  or  /etc/hosts,  depending  on  your  setup)  and  that the resolved name matches the
       provided name.  Since the name check is used to compute the IP address, if you  pass  this
       option you must also pass the --no-ip-check option.

       The  --force  option  is used to skip the interactive confirmation when --no-name-check is
       passed.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

   Starting/stopping/connecting to console
   STARTUP
       startup
       [--force] [--ignore-offline]
       [--force-multiple] [--no-remember]
       [--instance | --node | --primary | --secondary | --all |
       --tags | --node-tags | --pri-node-tags | --sec-node-tags]
       [{-H|--hypervisor-parameters} key=value...]
       [{-B|--backend-parameters} key=value...]
       [--submit] [--print-jobid] [--paused]
       {instance...}

       Starts one or more instances, depending on the  following  options.   The  four  available
       modes are:

       --instance
              will  start the instances given as arguments (at least one argument required); this
              is the default selection

       --node will start the instances who have the given node as either primary or secondary

       --primary
              will start all instances whose primary node is in  the  list  of  nodes  passed  as
              arguments (at least one node required)

       --secondary
              will  start  all  instances  whose secondary node is in the list of nodes passed as
              arguments (at least one node required)

       --all  will start all instances in the cluster (no arguments accepted)

       --tags will start all instances in the cluster with the tags given as arguments

       --node-tags
              will start all instances in the cluster on nodes with the tags given as arguments

       --pri-node-tags
              will start all instances in the cluster on primary nodes with  the  tags  given  as
              arguments

       --sec-node-tags
              will  start  all instances in the cluster on secondary nodes with the tags given as
              arguments

       Note that although you can pass more than one selection option, the last one wins,  so  in
       order to guarantee the desired result, don't pass more than one such option.

       Use --force to start even if secondary disks are failing.  --ignore-offline can be used to
       ignore offline primary nodes and mark the instance as started even if the primary  is  not
       available.

       The  --force-multiple will skip the interactive confirmation in the case the more than one
       instance will be affected.

       The --no-remember option will perform the startup but not change the state of the instance
       in  the  configuration file (if it was stopped before, Ganeti will still think it needs to
       be stopped).  This can be used for testing, or for a one shot-start where you  don't  want
       the watcher to restart the instance if it crashes.

       The  -H (--hypervisor-parameters)  and -B (--backend-parameters) options specify temporary
       hypervisor and backend parameters that can be used to  start  an  instance  with  modified
       parameters.   They  can  be  useful for quick testing without having to modify an instance
       back and forth, e.g.:

              # gnt-instance start -H kernel_args="single" instance1
              # gnt-instance start -B maxmem=2048 instance2

       The first form will start the instance instance1 in single-user  mode,  and  the  instance
       instance2  with 2GB of RAM (this time only, unless that is the actual instance memory size
       already).  Note that the values override the instance parameters (and not extend them): an
       instance  with  "kernel_args=ro"  when  started  with -H kernel_args=single will result in
       "single", not "ro single".

       The --paused option is only valid for Xen and kvm hypervisors.  This pauses  the  instance
       at  the  start of bootup, awaiting gnt-instance console to unpause it, allowing the entire
       boot process to be monitored for debugging.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example:

              # gnt-instance start instance1.example.com
              # gnt-instance start --node node1.example.com node2.example.com
              # gnt-instance start --all

   SHUTDOWN
       shutdown
       [--timeout=*N*]
       [--force] [--force-multiple] [--ignore-offline] [--no-remember]
       [--instance | --node | --primary | --secondary | --all |
       --tags | --node-tags | --pri-node-tags | --sec-node-tags]
       [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       {instance...}

       Stops one or more instances.  If the instance cannot be cleanly stopped during a hardcoded
       interval  (currently  2  minutes),  it  will  forcibly  stop  the  instance (equivalent to
       switching off the power on a physical machine).

       The --timeout is used to specify how much time to wait before forcing the  shutdown  (e.g.
       xm destroy  in  Xen,  killing  the kvm process for KVM, etc.).  By default two minutes are
       given to each instance to stop.

       The   --instance,   --node,   --primary,   --secondary,   --all,   --tags,    --node-tags,
       --pri-node-tags  and  --sec-node-tags  options  are similar as for the startup command and
       they influence the actual instances being shutdown.

       --ignore-offline can be used to ignore offline primary nodes and force the instance to  be
       marked as stopped.  This option should be used with care as it can lead to an inconsistent
       cluster state.

       Use --force to be able to shutdown an instance even when it's marked as offline.  This  is
       useful is an offline instance ends up in the ERROR_up state, for example.

       The  --no-remember  option  will  perform  the  shutdown  but  not change the state of the
       instance in the configuration file (if it was running before, Ganeti will still thinks  it
       needs  to  be  running).   This  can  be  useful  for  a cluster-wide shutdown, where some
       instances are marked as up and some as down, and you don't  want  to  change  the  running
       state:  you  just  need to disable the watcher, shutdown all instances with --no-remember,
       and when the watcher is activated again it will restore the correct runtime state for  all
       instances.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example:

              # gnt-instance shutdown instance1.example.com
              # gnt-instance shutdown --all

   REBOOT
       reboot
       [{-t|--type} REBOOT-TYPE]
       [--ignore-secondaries]
       [--shutdown-timeout=*N*]
       [--force-multiple]
       [--instance | --node | --primary | --secondary | --all |
       --tags | --node-tags | --pri-node-tags | --sec-node-tags]
       [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       [instance...]

       Reboots one or more instances.  The type of reboot depends on the value of -t (--type).  A
       soft reboot does a hypervisor reboot, a hard reboot does a instance  stop,  recreates  the
       hypervisor  config  for  the  instance  and  starts  the instance.  A full reboot does the
       equivalent of gnt-instance shutdown && gnt-instance startup.  The default is hard reboot.

       For the hard reboot the option --ignore-secondaries ignores errors for the secondary  node
       while re-assembling the instance disks.

       The    --instance,   --node,   --primary,   --secondary,   --all,   --tags,   --node-tags,
       --pri-node-tags and --sec-node-tags options are similar as for  the  startup  command  and
       they influence the actual instances being rebooted.

       The  --shutdown-timeout  is  used  to  specify  how  much  time to wait before forcing the
       shutdown (xm destroy in xen, killing the kvm process, for kvm).  By  default  two  minutes
       are given to each instance to stop.

       The  --force-multiple will skip the interactive confirmation in the case the more than one
       instance will be affected.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example:

              # gnt-instance reboot instance1.example.com
              # gnt-instance reboot --type=full instance1.example.com

   CONSOLE
       console [--show-cmd] {instance}

       Connects to the console of the given instance.  If the instance is not  up,  an  error  is
       returned.  Use the --show-cmd option to display the command instead of executing it.

       For HVM instances, this will attempt to connect to the serial console of the instance.  To
       connect to the virtualized "physical" console of a HVM instance, use a VNC client with the
       connection info from the info command.

       For  Xen/kvm  instances,  if the instance is paused, this attempts to unpause the instance
       after waiting a few seconds for the connection to the console to be made.

       Example:

              # gnt-instance console instance1.example.com

   Disk management
   REPLACE-DISKS
       replace-disks [--submit] [--print-jobid] [--early-release]
       [--ignore-ipolicy] {-p} [--disks idx] {instance-name}

       replace-disks [--submit] [--print-jobid] [--early-release]
       [--ignore-ipolicy] {-s} [--disks idx] {instance-name}

       replace-disks [--submit] [--print-jobid] [--early-release]
       [--ignore-ipolicy]
       {{-I|--iallocator} name | {{-n|--new-secondary} node }
       {instance-name}

       replace-disks [--submit] [--print-jobid] [--early-release]
       [--ignore-ipolicy] {-a|--auto} {instance-name}

       This command is a generalized form for replacing disks.  It is currently  only  valid  for
       the mirrored (DRBD) disk template.

       The  first  form (when passing the -p option) will replace the disks on the primary, while
       the second form (when passing the -s option will replace the disks on the secondary  node.
       For  these  two cases (as the node doesn't change), it is possible to only run the replace
       for a subset of the disks, using the option --disks which takes a list of  comma-delimited
       disk indices (zero-based), e.g.  0,2 to replace only the first and third disks.

       The  third  form  (when  passing either the --iallocator or the --new-secondary option) is
       designed to change secondary node of the instance.  Specifying --iallocator makes the  new
       secondary  be  selected automatically by the specified allocator plugin (use . to indicate
       the default allocator), otherwise the new secondary node will be the one  chosen  manually
       via the --new-secondary option.

       Note that it is not possible to select an offline or drained node as a new secondary.

       The  fourth  form  (when  using  --auto)  will  automatically  determine which disks of an
       instance are faulty and replace them within the same node.  The --auto option  works  only
       when an instance has only faulty disks on either the primary or secondary node; it doesn't
       work when both sides have faulty disks.

       The --early-release changes the code so that the  old  storage  on  secondary  node(s)  is
       removed  early  (before  the  resync  is  completed) and the internal Ganeti locks for the
       current (and new, if any) secondary node are also released, thus allowing more parallelism
       in the cluster operation.  This should be used only when recovering from a disk failure on
       the current secondary (thus the old storage is already broken) or when the storage on  the
       primary  node  is  known  to  be  fine  (thus  we won't need the old storage for potential
       recovery).

       The --ignore-ipolicy let the command ignore instance policy  violations  if  replace-disks
       changes groups and the instance would violate the new groups instance policy.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

   ACTIVATE-DISKS
       activate-disks [--submit] [--print-jobid] [--ignore-size]
       [--wait-for-sync] {instance-name}

       Activates  the  block devices of the given instance.  If successful, the command will show
       the location and name of the block devices:

              node1.example.com:disk/0:/dev/drbd0
              node1.example.com:disk/1:/dev/drbd1

       In this example, node1.example.com is the name of the node on which the devices have  been
       activated.  The disk/0 and disk/1 are the Ganeti-names of the instance disks; how they are
       visible inside the instance is hypervisor-specific.  /dev/drbd0  and  /dev/drbd1  are  the
       actual block devices as visible on the node.

       The  --ignore-size  option can be used to activate disks ignoring the currently configured
       size in Ganeti.  This can be used in cases where the configuration has gotten out of  sync
       with the real-world (e.g.  after a partially-failed grow-disk operation or due to rounding
       in LVM devices).  This should not be used in normal cases, but  only  when  activate-disks
       fails without it.

       The  --wait-for-sync option will ensure that the command returns only after the instance's
       disks are synchronised (mostly for DRBD); this can be useful  to  ensure  consistency,  as
       otherwise there are no commands that can wait until synchronisation is done.  However when
       passing this option, the command will have additional output, making it  harder  to  parse
       the disk information.

       Note that it is safe to run this command while the instance is already running.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

   DEACTIVATE-DISKS
       deactivate-disks [-f] [--submit] [--print-jobid] {instance-name}

       De-activates  the  block devices of the given instance.  Note that if you run this command
       for an instance with a drbd disk template, while it is running, it will  not  be  able  to
       shutdown  the block devices on the primary node, but it will shutdown the block devices on
       the secondary nodes, thus breaking the replication.

       The -f/--force option will skip checks that the instance is down; in case  the  hypervisor
       is  confused and we can't talk to it, normally Ganeti will refuse to deactivate the disks,
       but with this option passed it will skip this check and directly  try  to  deactivate  the
       disks.  This can still fail due to the instance actually running or other issues.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

   GROW-DISK
       grow-disk [--no-wait-for-sync] [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       [--absolute]
       {instance-name} {disk} {amount}

       Grows an instance's disk.  This is only possible for instances having a plain, drbd, file,
       sharedfile, rbd or ext disk template.  For  the  ext  template  to  work,  the  ExtStorage
       provider should also support growing.  This means having a grow script that actually grows
       the volume of the external shared storage.

       Note that this command only change the block device size; it  will  not  grow  the  actual
       filesystems, partitions, etc.  that live on that disk.  Usually, you will need to:

       1. use gnt-instance grow-disk

       2. reboot the instance (later, at a convenient time)

       3. use  a  filesystem  resizer,  such  as  ext2online(8)  or  xfs_growfs(8)  to resize the
          filesystem, or use fdisk(8) to change the partition table on the disk

       The disk argument is the index of the instance disk to grow.  The amount argument is given
       as a number which can have a suffix (like the disk size in instance create); if the suffix
       is missing, the value will be interpreted as mebibytes.

       By default, the amount value represents the desired increase in the disk  size  (e.g.   an
       amount  of 1G will take a disk of size 3G to 4G).  If the optional --absolute parameter is
       passed, then the amount argument doesn't represent the  delta,  but  instead  the  desired
       final disk size (e.g.  an amount of 8G will take a disk of size 4G to 8G).

       For  instances  with  a drbd template, note that the disk grow operation might complete on
       one node but fail on the other; this will leave the instance with different-sized  LVs  on
       the two nodes, but this will not create problems (except for unused space).

       If  you  do  not  want  gnt-instance to wait for the new disk region to be synced, use the
       --no-wait-for-sync option.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example (increase the first disk for instance1 by 16GiB):

              # gnt-instance grow-disk instance1.example.com 0 16g

       Example for increasing the disk size to a certain size:

              # gnt-instance grow-disk --absolute instance1.example.com 0 32g

       Also note that disk shrinking is not supported; use gnt-backup export and then  gnt-backup
       import to reduce the disk size of an instance.

   RECREATE-DISKS
       recreate-disks [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       [{-n node1:[node2] | {-I|--iallocator name}}]
       [--disk=*N*[:[size=*VAL*][,spindles=*VAL*][,mode=*ro|rw*]]]
       {instance-name}

       Recreates all or a subset of disks of the given instance.

       Note  that  this  functionality should only be used for missing disks; if any of the given
       disks already exists, the operation will fail.  While this is  suboptimal,  recreate-disks
       should hopefully not be needed in normal operation and as such the impact of this is low.

       If  only  a  subset  should be recreated, any number of disk options can be specified.  It
       expects a disk index and an optional list  of  disk  parameters  to  change.   Only  size,
       spindles,  and  mode  can  be changed while recreating disks.  To recreate all disks while
       changing parameters on a subset only, a --disk option must be given for every disk of  the
       instance.

       Optionally  the  instance's disks can be recreated on different nodes.  This can be useful
       if, for example, the original nodes of  the  instance  have  gone  down  (and  are  marked
       offline), so we can't recreate on the same nodes.  To do this, pass the new node(s) via -n
       option, with a syntax similar to the add command.  The number of nodes passed  must  equal
       the  number  of  nodes  that the instance currently has.  Note that changing nodes is only
       allowed when all disks are replaced, e.g.  when no --disk option is passed.

       Another method of choosing which nodes to place the instance on is by using the  specified
       iallocator,  passing  the  --iallocator  option.   The primary and secondary nodes will be
       chosen by the specified iallocator plugin, or by the default allocator if . is specified.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

   Recovery/moving
   FAILOVER
       failover [-f] [--ignore-consistency] [--ignore-ipolicy]
       [--shutdown-timeout=*N*]
       [{-n--iallocator} name]
       [--cleanup]
       [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       {instance-name}

       Failover will stop the instance (if running), change its  primary  node,  and  if  it  was
       originally  running it will start it again (on the new primary).  This works for instances
       with drbd template (in which case you can  only  fail  to  the  secondary  node)  and  for
       externally  mirrored  templates (sharedfile, blockdev, rbd and ext) (in which case you can
       fail to any other node).

       If the instance's disk template is of type sharedfile, blockdev, rbd or ext, then you  can
       explicitly  specify  the target node (which can be any node) using the -n or --target-node
       option, or specify an iallocator plugin using the -I or --iallocator option.  If you  omit
       both, the default iallocator will be used to specify the target node.

       If the instance's disk template is of type drbd, the target node is automatically selected
       as  the  drbd's  secondary  node.   Changing  the  secondary  node  is  possible  with   a
       replace-disks operation.

       Normally  the  failover  will  check  the consistency of the disks before failing over the
       instance.  If you are trying to migrate instances off a dead node, this  will  fail.   Use
       the  --ignore-consistency option for this purpose.  Note that this option can be dangerous
       as errors in shutting down the instance will be ignored, resulting in possibly having  the
       instance  running  on  two  machines in parallel (on disconnected DRBD drives).  This flag
       requires the source node to be marked offline first to succeed.

       The --shutdown-timeout is used to specify  how  much  time  to  wait  before  forcing  the
       shutdown  (xm  destroy  in xen, killing the kvm process, for kvm).  By default two minutes
       are given to each instance to stop.

       If --ignore-ipolicy is given any instance policy violations occuring during this operation
       are ignored.

       If  the  --cleanup  option  is  passed, the operation changes from performin a failover to
       attempting recovery from a failed previous failover.  In this mode, Ganeti checks  if  the
       instance  runs  on the correct node (and updates its configuration if not) and ensures the
       instances' disks are configured correctly.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example:

              # gnt-instance failover instance1.example.com

       For externally mirrored templates also -n is available:

              # gnt-instance failover -n node3.example.com instance1.example.com

   MIGRATE
       migrate [-f] [--allow-failover] [--non-live]
       [--migration-mode=live|non-live] [--ignore-ipolicy] [--ignore-hvversions]
       [--no-runtime-changes] [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       [{-n--iallocator} name] {instance-name}

       migrate [-f] --cleanup [--submit] [--print-jobid] {instance-name}

       Migrate will move the instance to its secondary node without shutdown.  As with  failover,
       it  works  for  instances  having  the  drbd  disk template or an externally mirrored disk
       template type such as sharedfile, blockdev, rbd or ext.

       If the instance's disk template is of type sharedfile, blockdev, rbd or ext, then you  can
       explicitly  specify  the target node (which can be any node) using the -n or --target-node
       option, or specify an iallocator plugin using the -I or --iallocator option.  If you  omit
       both,  the default iallocator will be used to specify the target node.  Alternatively, the
       default iallocator can be requested by specifying . as the name of the plugin.

       If the instance's disk template is of type drbd, the target node is automatically selected
       as   the  drbd's  secondary  node.   Changing  the  secondary  node  is  possible  with  a
       replace-disks operation.

       The migration command needs a perfectly healthy instance for drbd instances, as we rely on
       the  dual-master  capability  of drbd8 and the disks of the instance are not allowed to be
       degraded.

       The --non-live and --migration-mode=non-live options will switch (for the hypervisors that
       support  it)  between  a  "fully  live" (i.e.  the interruption is as minimal as possible)
       migration and one in which the instance is frozen, its state saved and transported to  the
       remote  node,  and then resumed there.  This all depends on the hypervisor support for two
       different methods.  In any case, it is not an error to pass this parameter (it  will  just
       be ignored if the hypervisor doesn't support it).  The option --migration-mode=live option
       will request a fully-live migration.  The default, when neither option is passed,  depends
       on the hypervisor parameters (and can be viewed with the gnt-cluster info command).

       If  the  --cleanup  option  is  passed, the operation changes from migration to attempting
       recovery from a failed previous migration.  In this mode, Ganeti checks  if  the  instance
       runs on the correct node (and updates its configuration if not) and ensures the instances'
       disks are configured correctly.  In this mode, the --non-live option is ignored.

       The option -f will skip the prompting for confirmation.

       If --allow-failover is specified it tries to  fallback  to  failover  if  it  already  can
       determine  that  a migration won't work (e.g.  if the instance is shut down).  Please note
       that the fallback will not happen during execution.  If a migration fails during execution
       it still fails.

       If --ignore-ipolicy is given any instance policy violations occuring during this operation
       are ignored.

       Normally, Ganeti will verify that  the  hypervisor  versions  on  source  and  target  are
       compatible  and  error  out if they are not.  If --ignore-hvversions is given, Ganeti will
       only warn in this case.

       The --no-runtime-changes option forbids migrate to  alter  an  instance's  runtime  before
       migrating it (eg.  ballooning an instance down because the target node doesn't have enough
       available memory).

       If an instance has the backend parameter always_failover set to true, then  the  migration
       is automatically converted into a failover.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example (and expected output):

              # gnt-instance migrate instance1
              Instance instance1 will be migrated. Note that migration
              might impact the instance if anything goes wrong (e.g. due to bugs in
              the hypervisor). Continue?
              y/[n]/?: y
              Migrating instance instance1.example.com
              * checking disk consistency between source and target
              * switching node node2.example.com to secondary mode
              * changing into standalone mode
              * changing disks into dual-master mode
              * wait until resync is done
              * preparing node2.example.com to accept the instance
              * migrating instance to node2.example.com
              * switching node node1.example.com to secondary mode
              * wait until resync is done
              * changing into standalone mode
              * changing disks into single-master mode
              * wait until resync is done
              * done
              #

   MOVE
       move [-f] [--ignore-consistency]
       [-n node] [--compress=*compression-mode*] [--shutdown-timeout=*N*]
       [--submit] [--print-jobid] [--ignore-ipolicy]
       {instance-name}

       Move  will  move  the  instance  to an arbitrary node in the cluster.  This works only for
       instances having a plain or file disk template.

       Note that since this operation is done via data copy, it will take a  long  time  for  big
       disks (similar to replace-disks for a drbd instance).

       The  --compress  option is used to specify which compression mode is used during the move.
       Valid values are 'none' (the default) and any values specified in the  'compression_tools'
       cluster parameter.

       The  --shutdown-timeout  is  used  to  specify  how  much  time to wait before forcing the
       shutdown (e.g.  xm destroy in XEN, killing the kvm process for KVM, etc.).  By default two
       minutes are given to each instance to stop.

       The  --ignore-consistency  option will make Ganeti ignore any errors in trying to shutdown
       the instance on its node; useful if the hypervisor is broken and you want to  recover  the
       data.

       If --ignore-ipolicy is given any instance policy violations occuring during this operation
       are ignored.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example:

              # gnt-instance move -n node3.example.com instance1.example.com

   CHANGE-GROUP
       change-group [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       [--iallocator name] [--to group...]  {instance-name}

       This command moves an instance to another node  group.   The  move  is  calculated  by  an
       iallocator,  either  given  on  the  command  line or as a cluster default.  Note that the
       iallocator does only consider disk information of the default disk template, even  if  the
       instances' disk templates differ from that.

       If  no  specific  destination  groups  are specified using --to, all groups except the one
       containing the instance are considered.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example:

              # gnt-instance change-group -I hail --to rack2 inst1.example.com

   Tags
   ADD-TAGS
       add-tags [--from file] {instance-name} {tag...}

       Add tags to the given instance.  If any of  the  tags  contains  invalid  characters,  the
       entire operation will abort.

       If the --from option is given, the list of tags will be extended with the contents of that
       file (each line becomes a tag).  In this case, there is not  need  to  pass  tags  on  the
       command line (if you do, both sources will be used).  A file name of - will be interpreted
       as stdin.

   LIST-TAGS
       list-tags {instance-name}

       List the tags of the given instance.

   REMOVE-TAGS
       remove-tags [--from file] {instance-name} {tag...}

       Remove tags from the given instance.  If any of the tags are not existing on the node, the
       entire operation will abort.

       If  the  --from  option is given, the list of tags to be removed will be extended with the
       contents of that file (each line becomes a tag).  In this case, there is not need to  pass
       tags on the command line (if you do, tags from both sources will be removed).  A file name
       of - will be interpreted as stdin.

REPORTING BUGS

       Report  bugs  to  project  website  (http://code.google.com/p/ganeti/)  or   contact   the
       developers using the Ganeti mailing list (ganeti@googlegroups.com).

SEE ALSO

       Ganeti  overview  and specifications: ganeti(7) (general overview), ganeti-os-interface(7)
       (guest OS definitions), ganeti-extstorage-interface(7) (external storage providers).

       Ganeti  commands:  gnt-cluster(8)   (cluster-wide   commands),   gnt-job(8)   (job-related
       commands),  gnt-node(8)  (node-related  commands),  gnt-instance(8)  (instance  commands),
       gnt-os(8) (guest OS commands), gnt-storage(8) (storage commands), gnt-group(8) (node group
       commands), gnt-backup(8) (instance import/export commands), gnt-debug(8) (debug commands).

       Ganeti  daemons:  ganeti-watcher(8) (automatic instance restarter), ganeti-cleaner(8) (job
       queue cleaner), ganeti-noded(8) (node daemon), ganeti-rapi(8) (remote API daemon).

       Ganeti htools: htools(1) (generic binary), hbal(1) (cluster balancer), hspace(1) (capacity
       calculation),  hail(1) (IAllocator plugin), hscan(1) (data gatherer from remote clusters),
       hinfo(1) (cluster information printer), mon-collector(7) (data collectors interface).

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright (C) 2006-2015 Google Inc.  All rights reserved.

       Redistribution and use in source and binary  forms,  with  or  without  modification,  are
       permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

       1.   Redistributions  of  source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of
       conditions and the following disclaimer.

       2.  Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of
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