Provided by: horst_5.1-2_amd64
horst - Highly Optimized Radio Scanning Tool
horst [-v] [-h] [-q] [-D] [-a] [-c file] [-C channel] [-i interface] [-t sec] [-V view] [-d ms] [-b bytes] [-M file] [-s] [-u] [-N] [-n IP] [-p port] [-o file] [-X name] [-x command] [-e mac] [-f pkt_name] [-m mode] [-B BSSID]
horst is a small, lightweight IEEE802.11 wireless LAN analyzer with a text interface. Its basic function is similar to tcpdump, Wireshark or Kismet, but it's much smaller and shows different, aggregated information which is not easily available from other tools. It is mainly targeted at debugging wireless LANs with a focus on ad-hoc (IBSS) mode in larger mesh networks. It can be useful to get a quick overview of what's going on on all wireless LAN channels and to identify problems. · Shows signal values per station. · Calculates channel utilization ("usage") by adding up the amount of time the packets actually occupy the medium. · "Spectrum Analyzer" shows signal levels and usage per channel. · Text-based "graphical" packet history, with signal, packet type and physical rate · Shows all stations per ESSID and the live TSF per node as it is counting. · Detects IBSS "splits" (same ESSID but different BSSID - this is a common driver problem). · Statistics of packets/bytes per physical rate and per packet type. · Has some support for mesh protocols (OLSR and batman). · Can filter specific packet types, source MAC addresses or BSSIDs. · Client/server support for monitoring on remote nodes. · Can be controlled via a named pipe. See MONITOR MODE below for more information about the network interface setup.
-v Show version. -h Show summary of options. -q Quiet mode. Don't show user interface. This is only useful in conjunction when running in server mode (-C) or writing to a file (-o). -D Show lot's of debugging output, including a full package dump. Only available when compiled with DEBUG=1. -a Always add virtual monitor interface. Don't try to set existing interface to monitor mode. -c configfile Use configfile instead of the default "/etc/horst.conf". -C channel Set inital channel (number not frequency). -i intf Operate on the given network interface instead of the default "wlan0". -t sec Timeout (remove) nodes after not receiving packets from them for this time in seconds (default: 60 sec). -V view Display 'view'. Valid view names are "history", "hist", "essid", "statistics", "stats", "spectrum", "spec". -d ms Display update interval. The default value of 100ms can be increased to reduce CPU load caused by redrawing the screen. -b bytes Receive buffer size. The receive buffer size can be set to tune memory consumption and reduce lost packets under load. -M filename MAC address to host name mapping file. The file can either be a dhcp.leases file from dnsmasq or contain mappings in the form "MAC<space>name" (e.g.: "00:01:02:03:04:05 test") line by line (default filename: /tmp/dhcp.leases). -s Show a poor mans "spectrum analyzer". The same can be achieved by running horst as normal and pressing the button 's' (Spec); then 'c' (Chan) and 'a' (Automatically change channel). -u Upper channel limit for the automatic channel change. -N Allow client connections. Server mode. Only one client connection is supported at the moment (default: off). -n IP Connect to a horst instance running in server-mode at the specified IP address. -p port Use the specified port (default: 4444) for client/server connections. -o filename Write a information about each received packet into file. Note that you can send to STDOUT by using -o /dev/stdout. See OUTPUT FILE FORMAT below. -X Accept control commands on a named pipe (default /tmp/horst). -X name Accept control commands on a named pipe with given name or set pipe name used with -x. -x command Send control command to another horst process who was started with -X and then exit. Multiple commands can be concatenated with ';'. Currently implemented commands are: pause Pause horst processing resume Resume horst processing reset Reset all history, statistics and views channel=X Set channel channel number channel_scan=X Automatically change channels (1 or 0) channel_dwell=X Set channel dwell time when automatically changing channel (ms) channel_upper=X Set max channel when automatically changing channel outfile=X Write to outfile named X. If the file is already open, it is cleared and re- openend. If filename is not specified ("outfile=") any existing file is closed and no file is written. -e MAC Filter all MAC addresses except these, to show only packets originating from the specified MAC addresses. This option can be specified multiple times. -f pkt_type Filter all packets except these. This option can be specified multiple times. For valid packet names see NAMES AND ABBREVIATIONS below. -m (AP|STA|ADH|PRB|WDS|UNKNOWN) Only show/include packets and nodes of this mode. Note that the mode is infered by the information of packets we received and it may take some time until a node is properly classified. This option can be specified multiple times. -B BSSID Only show/include packets which belong to the given BSSID.
TEXT USER INTERFACE
The ncurses-based text interface tries to display a lot of information, so it may look confusing at first. Below we describe the different screens and options. Main screen The initial (main) screen is split into three parts. The upper area shows a list of aggregated "node" information, the most useful information about each sender which was discovered, one per line: / "Spinner" to show activity Pk Percentage of this node's packets in relation to all received packets Re% Percentage of retried frames of all frames this node sent Cha Channel number Sig Signal value (RSSI) in dBm RAT Physical data rate TRANSMITTER MAC address of sender MODE Operating Mode (AP, AHD, PRB, STA, WDS), see "NAMES AND ABBREVIATIONS" ENCR Encryption (WPA1, WPA2, WEP) ESSID ESSID INFO Additional info like "BATMAN", IP address... The lower area shows a scrolling list of packets as they come in: Cha Channel number Sig Signal value (RSSI) in dBm RAT Physical data rate TRANSMITTER MAC address of sender BSSID BSSID TYPE Packet type, see "NAMES AND ABBREVIATIONS" INFO Additional info like ESSID, TFS, IP address... The lower right box shows bar graphs for: Signal of last received packet in green bps Bits per second of all received packets Usage Percentage of channel use The lower edge is the menu and status bar, it shows which keys to press for other screens. The status shows ">" when horst is running or "=" when it is paused, then "F" when any kind of filter is active, the Channel, the monitor interface in use and the time. Pause ('p' or <space>) Can be used to pause/resume horst. When horst is paused it will loose packets received in the mean time. Reset ('r') Clears all history and aggregated statistical data. History ('h') The history screen scrolls from right to left and shows a bar for each packet indicating the signal level. In the line below that, the packet type is indicated by one character (See NAMES AND ABBREVIATIONS below) and the rough physical data rate is indicated below that in blue. ESSID ('e') The ESSID screen groups information by ESSID and shows the mode (AP, IBSS), the MAC address of the sender, the BSSID, the TSF, the beacon interval, the channel, the signal, a "W" when encrytoion is used and the IP address if known. Statistics ('a') The statistics screen groups packets by physical rate and by packet type and shows other kinds of aggregated and statistical information based on packets. Spectrum Analyzer ('s') The "poor mans spectrum analyzer" screen is only really useful when horst is started with the -s option or the "Automatically change channel" option is selected in the "Chan" settings, or the config option channel_scan is set. It shows the available channels horizontally and vertical bars for each channel: Signal in green Physical rate in blue Channel usage in orange/brown By pressing the 'n' key, the display can be changed to show only the average signal level on each channel and the last 4 digits of the MAC address of the individual nodes at the level (height) they were received. This can give a quick graphical overview of the distance of nodes. Filters ('f') This configuration dialog can be used to define the active filters. Channel Settings ('c') This configuration dialog can be used to change the channel changing behaviour of horst or to change to a different channel manually. Sort ('o') Only active in the main screen, can be used to sort the node list in the upper area by Signal, Time, BSSID or Channel.
NAMES AND ABBREVIATIONS
802.11 standard frames Management frames ──┬────────┬──────────────────────── a │ ASOCRQ │ Association request A │ ASOCRP │ Associaion response a │ REASRQ │ Reassociation request A │ REASRP │ Reassociation response p │ PROBRQ │ Probe request P │ PROBRP │ Probe response T │ TIMING │ Timing Advertisement B │ BEACON │ Beacon t │ ATIM │ ATIM D │ DISASC │ Disassociation u │ AUTH │ Authentication U │ DEAUTH │ Deauthentication C │ ACTION │ Action c │ ACTNOA │ Action No Ack Control frames ──┬────────┬─────────────────── w │ CTWRAP │ Control Wrapper b │ BACKRQ │ Block Ack Request B │ BACK │ Block Ack s │ PSPOLL │ PS-Poll R │ RTS │ RTS C │ CTS │ CTS K │ ACK │ ACK f │ CFEND │ CF-End f │ CFENDK │ CF-End + CF-Ack Data frames ──┬────────┬──────────────────────────────── D │ DATA │ Data F │ DCFACK │ Data + CF-Ack F │ DCFPLL │ Data + CF-Poll F │ DCFKPL │ Data + CF-Ack + CF-Poll n │ NULL │ Null (no data) f │ CFACK │ CF-Ack (no data) f │ CFPOLL │ CF-Poll (no data) f │ CFCKPL │ CF-Ack + CF-Poll (no data) Q │ QDATA │ QoS Data F │ QDCFCK │ QoS Data + CF-Ack F │ QDCFPL │ QoS Data + CF-Poll F │ QDCFKP │ QoS Data + CF-Ack + CF-Poll N │ QDNULL │ QoS Null (no data) f │ QCFPLL │ QoS CF-Poll (no data) f │ QCFKPL │ QoS CF-Ack + CF-Poll (no data) * │ BADFCS │ Bad frame checksum Packet types Similar to 802.11 frames above but higher level and as a bit field (types can overlap, e.g. DATA + IP) and including more information, like IP, ARP, BATMAN, OLSR... Packet types ───────┬──────────┬──────────────────────────────────────────── CTRL │ 0x000001 │ WLAN Control frame MGMT │ 0x000002 │ WLAN Management frame DATA │ 0x000004 │ WLAN Data frame BADFCS │ 0x000008 │ WLAN frame checksum (FCS) bad BEACON │ 0x000010 │ WLAN beacon frame PROBE │ 0x000020 │ WLAN probe request or response ASSOC │ 0x000040 │ WLAN associaction request/response frame AUTH │ 0x000080 │ WLAN authentication frame RTSCTS │ 0x000100 │ WLAN RTS or CTS ACK │ 0x000200 │ WLAN ACK or BlockACK NULL │ 0x000400 │ WLAN NULL Data frame QDATA │ 0x000800 │ WLAN QoS Data frame (WME/WMM) ARP │ 0x001000 │ ARP packet IP │ 0x002000 │ IP packet ICMP │ 0x004000 │ IP ICMP packet UDP │ 0x008000 │ IP UDP TCP │ 0x010000 │ IP TCP OLSR │ 0x020000 │ OLSR protocol BATMAN │ 0x040000 │ BATMAND Layer3 or BATMAN-ADV Layer 2 frame MESHZ │ 0x080000 │ MeshCruzer protocol Operating modes Bit field of operating mode type which is infered from received packets. Modes may overlap, i.e. it is common to see STA and PRB at the same time. Operating modes ────────┬──────┬───────────────────────────── AP │ 0x01 │ Access Point (AP) ADH │ 0x02 │ Ad-hoc node STA │ 0x04 │ Station (AP client) PRB │ 0x08 │ Sent PROBE requests WDS │ 0x10 │ WDS or 4 Address frames UNKNOWN │ 0x20 │ Unknown e.g. RTS/CTS or ACK
To capture and analyze 802.11 traffic, the interface needs to be in monitor mode. You can either setup the interface manually beforehand or let horst setup it automatically at startup. Usually, root privileges are required to modify an interface setup. horst should work with any wireleass LAN card and driver which supports monitor mode, with either "prism2" or "radiotap" headers. This includes most modern mac80211-based drivers. If the interface is not in monitor mode at startup, horst first tries to put the interface in monitor mode. If it fails (for example when the interface is already in use), a new virtual monitor interface (horst0) is added and used instead. The virtual monitor interface is removed when horst exits. Note that changing the channel via a virtual monitor interface is not allowed by the wireless driver, so options -C and -s do not work when virtual monitor interface is used. Examples of how to setup an interface manually: Using iw: iw wlan0 interface add mon0 type monitor or sudo iw wlan1 set type monitor sudo iw wlan1 set channel 6 Using iwconfig: iwconfig wlan0 mode monitor iwconfig wlan0 channel 1 ifconfig wlan0 up Using madwifi: wlanconfig wlan0 create wlandev wifi0 wlanmode monitor Using hostap: iwconfig wlan0 mode monitor iwpriv wlan0 monitor_type 1
Signal values and ranges may differ between wireless drivers and versions.
OUTPUT FILE FORMAT
The format of the output file (-o flag) is a comma separated list of the following fields in the following order, one packet each line. timestamp Local time, including microseconds (e.g. 2015-05-16 15:05:44.338806 +0300) packet_type 802.11 MAC packet type name as defined in the section "NAMES AND ABBREVIATIONS". wlan_src Source MAC address wlan_dst Destination MAC address wlan_bssid BSSID pkt_types Higher level packet name as defined in section "NAMES AND ABBREVIATIONS". phy_signal Signal strength in dBm wlan_len Packet length (MAC) phy_rate Physical data rate phy_freq Received while tuned to this frequency. wlan_tsf TFS timer value wlan_essid ESSID, network name wlan_mode Operating modes as defined in "NAMES AND ABBREVIATIONS". wlan_channel Channel number wlan_wep Encryption in use wlan_wpa WPA1 Encryption in use wlan_rsn RSN (WPA2) Encryption in use ip_src IP source address (if available) ip_dst IP destionation address (if available)
horst.conf(5), tcpdump(1), wireshark(1), kismet(1), README, http://br1.einfach.org/tech/horst
horst was written by Bruno Randolf <firstname.lastname@example.org>. This manual page was written by Antoine Beaupré <email@example.com>, for the Debian project (and may be used by others). July 22, 2015 HORST(8)