Provided by: udftools_2.1-1build1_amd64 bug


       mkudffs — create a UDF filesystem


       mkudffs [ options ] device [ blocks-count ]


       mkudffs  is  used  to  create a UDF filesystem on a device (usually a disk). device is the
       special file corresponding to the device (e.g. /dev/hdX) or file  image.  blocks-count  is
       the  number  of  blocks  on  the  device.  If  omitted,  mkudffs automagically figures the
       filesystem size. The order of options matters. Encoding option must be first  and  options
       to override default settings implied by the media type or UDF revision should be after the
       option they are overriding.


              Display the usage and list of options.

       -l,--label= label
              Specify the UDF label. UDF label is synonym for specifying both  --lvid  and  --vid
              options.  If  omitted,  mkudffs  label is LinuxUDF. (Option available since mkudffs

       -u,--uuid= uuid
              Specify the UDF uuid. It must be exactly 16 hexadecimal  lowercase  digits  and  is
              used  for  first  16  characters  of --fullvsid option. If omitted, mkudffs uuid is
              generated from local time and a random number. (Option available since mkudffs 1.1)

       -b,--blocksize= block-size
              Specify the size of blocks in bytes. Valid block size for a UDF filesystem is power
              of two in range from 512 to 32768 and must match a device logical (sector) size. If
              omitted, mkudffs block size is set  to  device  logical  block  (sector)  size.  If
              logical  block  (sector)  size  is unknown (e.g. when creating disk image) then for
              --media-type=hd is used block size 512 and for other media types 2048.

       -m,--media-type= media-type
              Specify the media type. Must be specified before --udfrev. Valid media types are:

                   hd (default)    HD (Hard Disk)

                   worm            WORM (Write Once Read Many)

                   mo              MO (Magneto Optical)

                   cd              CD-ROM (CD Read-Only Memory)

                   cdr             CD-R (CD Recordable)

                   cdrw            CD-RW (CD Read-Write)

                   dvd             DVD-ROM (DVD Read-Only Memory)

                   dvdr            DVD-R (DVD Recordable)

                   dvdrw           DVD-RW (DVD Read-Write)

                   dvdram          DVD-RAM (DVD Random Access Memory)

                   bdr             BD-R (Blu-ray Disc Recordable)

              (Short option variant -m and values cd, dvdr, bdr are available since mkudffs 2.0)

       -r,--udfrev= udf-revision
              Specify the UDF revision to use, either in hexadecimal BCD (e.g. 0x0201) or decimal
              (e.g.  2.01)  format.  Valid  revisions  are 1.01, 1.02, 1.50, 2.00, 2.01, 2.50 and
              2.60. If omitted, mkudffs UDF revision is 2.01, except for Blu-ray Discs  which  is
              2.50.  UDF  revisions  higher  then 2.01 are experimental. Option must be specified
              after --media-type. (Values in decimal format and UDF revisions  higher  then  2.01
              are supported since mkudffs 2.0, UDF revision 1.01 is supported since mkudffs 2.1)

              Not  really,  do  not  write to device. Just simulate and display what would happen
              with device. Useful for  determining  the  calculated  location  of  different  UDF
              blocks. (Option available since mkudffs 2.0)

              Create  a  new  image  file  specified by device with blocks-count and fail if file
              already exists. If omitted, mkudffs creates a new image file only in case  it  does
              not exist yet. (Option available since mkudffs 2.0)

       --lvid= logical-volume-identifier
              Specify   the  Logical  Volume  Identifier.  If  omitted,  mkudffs  Logical  Volume
              Identifier is LinuxUDF. Most UDF implementations uses this  identifier  as  a  disk

       --vid= volume-identifier
              Specify the Volume Identifier. If omitted, mkudffs Volume Identifier is LinuxUDF.

       --vsid= volume-set-identifier
              Specify the 17.–127. character of Volume Set Identifier. If omitted, mkudffs Volume
              Set Identifier is LinuxUDF.

       --fsid= file-set-identifier
              Specify the File Set  Identifier.  If  omitted,  mkudffs  File  Set  Identifier  is

       --fullvsid= full-volume-set-identifier
              Specify  the  full  Volume  Set  Identifier.  Overwrite  previous --uuid and --vsid
              options. (Option available since mkudffs 1.1)

       --uid= uid
              Specify the uid of the root (/) directory. If omitted, mkudffs uid  is  0.  Special
              value -1 means invalid or not specified uid. (Option available since mkudffs 1.1)

       --gid= gid
              Specify  the  gid  of the root (/) directory. If omitted, mkudffs gid is 0. Special
              value -1 means invalid or not specified gid. (Option available since mkudffs 1.1)

       --mode= mode
              Specify permissions in octal mode bits of  the  root  (/)  directory.  If  omitted,
              mkudffs mode is 0755. (Option available since mkudffs 2.0)

       --bootarea= fill
              Specify  how  to  fill UDF boot area which is the first 32kB of the disk and is not
              used by UDF itself. Option mbr make sense only when running mkudffs on whole  disk,
              not on just one partition. Valid options are:

                   preserve      preserve  existing  UDF  boot area, do not touch it (default for
                                 media type different from hd)

                   erase         erase existing UDF boot area, fill it by zeros (default  for  hd
                                 media type on partitions and on removable disks)

                   mbr           put  MBR  table  with  one  partition  which  starts at sector 0
                                 (includes MBR itself) and spans whole disk device,  needed  only
                                 for  non-removable  hard disks used on Microsoft Windows systems
                                 (default for hd media type on non-removable  hard  disk  without
                                 partitions), see section WHOLE DISK VS PARTITION

              (Option available since mkudffs 2.0)

       --strategy= strategy
              Specify  the  allocation  strategy  to  use.  Valid  strategies  are 4 and 4096. If
              omitted, mkudffs strategy is based on the --media-type.

       --spartable, --spartable= spartable-number
              Enable usage Sparing Table. Optionally specify also the number of  sparing  tables.
              Valid  numbers  are  1–4.  When the spartable number is omitted then two tables are
              written to the disc. If the option is omitted then usage of Sparing  Table  depends
              on  the  media type. (Option prior to mkudffs 2.0 was available only for cdrw media

       --sparspace= num-of-entires
              Specify the number of entries in Sparing Table. If omitted, the default  number  of
              entries  is  1024,  but  depends on the media type. (Option available since mkudffs

       --packetlen= length
              Packet length in a  number  of  blocks  used  for  alignment.  All  continuous  UDF
              structures  would  be aligned to packets. It specifies also the size of the Sparing
              Space and packet length in Sparing Table. It should  match  the  device  ECC/packet
              length. If omitted, default value for DVD discs is 16 blocks, for CD/BD discs it is
              32 blocks and otherwise 1 block. (Option prior to mkudffs 2.1  was  available  only
              for cdrw and dvdrw media types)

       --vat  Enable  usage  of  Virtual Allocation Table (VAT). If omitted, usage depends on the
              media type. (Option available since mkudffs 2.0)

              Close disc with Virtual Allocation Table. AVDP is written also to the  end  of  the
              disc. By default, the disc with Virtual Allocation Table is not closed.

       --space= space
              Specify  the Space Set. Unallocated Space Set is used for media which blocks may be
              allocated immediately. Freed Space Set is used for media which blocks needs  to  be
              specially  prepared/erased  before  allocation.  In  Space  Table is stored list of
              unallocated extents. In Space Bitmap is stored bitmap of  unallocated  blocks.  Not
              used for VAT.

                   freedbitmap     Freed Bitmap

                   freedtable      Freed Table

                   unallocbitmap   Unallocated Bitmap (default)

                   unalloctable    Unallocated Table

       --ad= ad
              Specify the Allocation Descriptors of the root (/) directory.

                   inicb           Allocation Descriptors in ICB (default)

                   short           Short Allocation Descriptors

                   long            Long Allocation Descriptors

              Don't  Use  Extended File Entries for the root (/) directory. Affects only UDF 2.00
              or higher. Must be specified after --udfrev.

              Treat identifier string options as strings encoded according to the current  locale
              settings  (default).  Must  be  specified  as the first argument. (Option available
              since mkudffs 2.0)

       --u8   Treat identifier string options as strings encoded in 8-bit OSTA Compressed Unicode
              format, equivalent to Latin1 (ISO-8859-1). Must be specified as first argument.

       --u16  Treat  identifier  string  options  as  strings  encoded  in 16-bit OSTA Compressed
              Unicode format, equivalent to UCS-2BE. Note that it is not possible to include zero
              byte  in  command line options, therefore any character which has at least one zero
              byte cannot be supplied (this applies to all Latin1 characters). Must be  specified
              as the first argument.

       --utf8 Treat  identifier  string options as strings encoded in UTF-8. Must be specified as
              the first argument.


       UDF filesystem is natively supported by large amount of operating systems.  See  following
       compatibility table:

       │     Operating system       │ Maximum UDF revision for │
       │  Name   │     Version      │    read    │    write    │
       │         │ 2.3.17 – 2.4.5   │    2.00    │    2.00     │
       │Linux    │ 2.4.6 – 2.6.25   │    2.01    │    2.01     │
       │         │ 2.6.26 (and new) │    2.50    │    2.01     │
       │         │ 98/Me            │    1.02    │    none     │
       │Windows  │ 2000             │    1.50    │    none     │
       │         │ XP               │    2.01    │    none     │
       │         │ Vista (and new)  │    2.60    │    2.50     │
       │Mac OS   │ 8.1 – 8.5        │    1.02    │    none     │
       │         │ 8.6 – 9.2        │    1.50    │    1.50     │
       │         │ 10.0 – 10.3      │    1.50    │    1.50     │
       │Mac OS X │ 10.4             │    2.01    │    2.01     │
       │         │ 10.5 (and new)   │    2.60    │    2.50     │
       │FreeBSD  │ 5 (and new)      │    1.50    │    none     │
       │NetBSD   │ 4.0              │    2.60    │    none     │
       │         │ 5.0 (and new)    │    2.60    │    2.60     │
       │         │ 3.8 – 3.9        │    1.02    │             │
       │OpenBSD  │ 4.0 – 4.6        │    1.50    │    none     │
       │         │ 4.7 (and new)    │    2.60    │             │
       │Solaris  │ 7 (and new)      │    1.50    │    1.50     │
       │AIX      │ 5.2 (and new)    │    2.01    │    2.01     │
       Note  that  Windows 98 and Windows Me can read UDF filesystem only from CD and DVD optical
       discs, not from hard disks.

       In most cases, operating systems are unable to mount UDF  filesystem  if  UDF  block  size
       differs  from logical sector size of the device. Typically hard disks have sector size 512
       bytes and optical media 2048 bytes. Therefore UDF block size must match the logical sector
       size of the device.

       Linux  kernel  prior  to  version  2.6.30  used  hardcoded  UDF  block  size of 2048 bytes
       independently of logical sector size, therefore it was not able to automatically mount UDF
       filesystem  if  block size differed from 2048. Since 2.6.30 and prior to 4.11 Linux kernel
       used a logical sector size of the device as UDF block size,  plus  it  tried  fallback  to
       2048. Since 4.11 it uses logical sector size and fallbacks to any valid block size between
       logical  sector  size  and  4096.  Therefore  since  version  2.6.30  Linux   kernel   can
       automatically  mount  UDF  filesystems  correctly if UDF block size matches device logical
       sector size and since version 4.11 can automatically also mount devices which sector  size
       does  not  match  UDF  block  size. In any case and also for Linux kernel prior to version
       2.6.30, different UDF block size (which is not autodetected) can be manually specified via
       bs=blocksize mount parameter.

       UDF  filesystem  is supposed to be formatted on the whole media and not to the partitioned
       hard disk. Mac OS X systems enforce this  rule  and  reject  to  automatically  mount  UDF
       filesystem unless it is formatted on the whole unpartitioned hard disk. Possible partition
       table (e.g. MBR or GPT) on disk with valid UDF filesystem is ignored. On the  other  hand,
       Microsoft Windows systems are unable to detect non-removable hard disks without MBR or GPT
       partition table. Removable disks do not have this restriction. A consequence is that  non-
       removable  hard  disks  formatted  to UDF by Windows Vista+ are not recognized by Mac OS X
       systems and vice-versa. Note that manual mount of UDF partition on partitioned  hard  disk
       on   Mac   OS  X  system  is  possible  and  working  (e.g.  by  running  commands:  mkdir
       /Volumes/DriveName && mount_udf /dev/disk1s1 /Volumes/DriveName). But there  is  no  known
       way to mount an unpartitioned non-removable disk on Windows system.

       Thanks  to reserved and unused UDF boot area (first 32kB of UDF filesystem) it is possible
       to deal with this problem, by putting  MBR  on  such  non-removable  hard  disk  just  for
       compatibility  reasons  with  Windows.  Such  MBR  table would contain one partition which
       starts at sector 0 (includes MBR itself) and spans whole disk device. So  the  whole  disk
       device  and  also  the  first  partition  on  disk  points  to same sectors. Therefore UDF
       filesystem can be mounted either from whole disk device (needed for Mac OS X  systems)  or
       from first partition (needed for Microsoft Windows systems).

       Linux  kernel  ignores  MBR table if contains partition which starts at sector 0. Normally
       Linux kernel can detect and mount UDF filesystem either on a partition or  on  whole  disk
       device. It does not have any restrictions.

       mkudffs  option --bootarea=mbr put such MBR table for compatibility with Microsoft Windows
       systems into disk when formatting.

       In most cases Logical Volume Identifier is used as UDF label. But Linux libblkid prior  to
       version  2.26  used Volume Identifier. Therefore mkudffs --label for compatibility reasons
       set both Logical Volume Identifier and Volume Identifier.

       Linux libblkid prior to version 2.30 incorrectly processed  non-ASCII  identifier  strings
       encoded  in  8-bit OSTA Compressed Unicode format. Therefore mkudffs since version 2.0 for
       compatibility reasons tries to encode  a  non-ASCII  identifier  strings  in  16-bit  OSTA
       Compressed Unicode format and then fallbacks to 8-bit format.

       For more information about UDF Label and UUID see udflabel(8) section UDF LABEL AND UUID.


       mkudffs returns 0 if successful, non-zero if there are problems.


       mkudffs  cannot  create  UDF  2.50  Metadata  partition, therefore it does not support UDF
       revisions higher than 2.01 for non Write Once media yet. So there is no support  for  Blu-
       ray  discs which needs UDF 2.50 (except for Blu-ray Disc Recordable which does not require
       Metadata partition).


       mkudffs prior to version 1.1 was unable to process non-ASCII  characters  from  identifier
       strings in --utf8 mode, --vsid option was completely broken and --blocksize must have been
       manually specified for hard disks as  default  value  was  hardcoded  for  optical  disks.
       mkudffs prior to version 2.0 generated broken and unreadable cdr disc images.


       Ben Fennema
       Pali Rohár <>


       mkudffs    is    part    of    the    udftools    package    and    is    available   from


       pktsetup(8), udflabel(8), cdrwtool(1), udfinfo(1), wrudf(1)