Provided by: ntfs-3g_2017.3.23AR.3-3ubuntu1_amd64 bug

NAME

       ntfsrecover - Recover updates committed by Windows on an NTFS volume

SYNOPSIS

       ntfsrecover [options] device

DESCRIPTION

       ntfsrecover  applies to the metadata the updates which were requested on Windows but could
       not be completed because they were interrupted by some event such as a  power  failure,  a
       hardware crash, a software crash or the device being unplugged.  Doing so, the file system
       is restored to a consistent state, however updates to user data may still be lost.

       Updating the file system generally requires updating several records which should  all  be
       made for the file system to be kept consistent. For instance, creating a new file requires
       reserving an inode number (set a bit in a bit map), creating a file record (store the file
       name  and  file attributes), and registering the file in a directory (locate the file from
       some path). When an unfortunate event occurs, and one of these updates could be  done  but
       not all of them, the file system is left inconsistent.

       A  group  of  updates  which  have  all  to  be  done  to preserve consistency is called a
       transaction, and the end of updates within a transaction is called the commitment  of  the
       transaction.

       To  protect from unfortunate events, Windows first logs in a special file all the metadata
       update requests without applying any, until the commitment is known. If the  event  occurs
       before  the  commitment, no update has been made and the file system is consistent. If the
       event occurs after the update, the log file can be analyzed  later  and  the  transactions
       which  were  committed  can  be  executed  again, thus restoring the integrity of the file
       system.

       ntfsrecover similarly examines the log file  and  applies  the  updates  within  committed
       transactions which could not be done by Windows.

       Currently,  ntfs-3g  does  not  log  updates,  so  ntfsrecover  cannot  be used to restore
       consistency after an unfortunate event occurred while  the  file  system  was  updated  by
       Linux.

OPTIONS

       Below is a summary of all the options that ntfsrecover accepts. The normal usage is to use
       no option at all, as most of these options are oriented towards developers needs.

       Nearly all options have two equivalent names.  The short name is preceded  by  -  and  the
       long  name is preceded by --.  Any single letter options, that don't take an argument, can
       be combined into a single command, e.g.  -bv is equivalent to -b -v.  Long  named  options
       can be abbreviated to any unique prefix of their name.

       -b, --backward
              Examine  the  actions  described in the logfile backward from the latest one to the
              earliest one without applying any update.  This  may  encompass  records  generated
              during  several  sessions, and when Windows is restarted, it often does not restart
              writing where it ended the previous session,  so  this  leads  to  errors  and  bad
              sequencing when examining the full log file.

       -c, --clusters CLUSTER-RANGE
              Restrict  the  output  generated  when  using  options  -b  -f -u -p to the actions
              operating on a cluster within the given cluster range.  CLUSTER-RANGE is defined by
              the  first  and last cluster numbers separated by a hyphen, for instance 100-109 or
              0x3e8-0x3ff. A single number means restricting to a single cluster. The first  four
              log blocks have a special role and they are always shown.

       -f, --forward NUM
              Examine the actions described in the logfile forward from the first one to the last
              one without applying any update. As the log file is reused  circularly,  the  first
              one  is  generally  not  the earliest. Moreover when Windows is restarted, it often
              does not restart writing where it ended the previous sessions, and  this  leads  to
              errors when examining a log file generated during several sessions.

       -h, --help
              Show some help information.

       -k, --kill-fast-restart
              When Windows has been interrupted with fast restart mode activated, part of pending
              changes are kept in the Windows cache and only the same Windows version can recover
              them.  This  option  can  be used to apply the changes recorded in the log file and
              drop the ones in the Windows cache.  This is dangerous and may cause loss of data.

       -n, --no-action
              Do not apply any modification, useful when using the options -p, -s or -u.

       -p, --play COUNT
              Undo COUNT transaction sets and redo a single one,  a  transaction  set  being  all
              transactions between two consecutive checkpoints. This is useful for replaying some
              transaction in the past. As a few actions are not  undoable,  this  is  not  always
              possible.

       -r, --range BLOCK-RANGE
              Examine  the  actions  described in the logfile forward restricted to the requested
              log file block range without applying any update. The first four log blocks have  a
              special role and they are always examined.

       -s, --sync
              Sync  the  file system by applying the committed actions which have not been synced
              previously. This is the default option, used when none of the options -n,  -f,  -r,
              -p and -u are present.

              The  option  -s can be repeated to request applying the committed actions mentioned
              in the obsolete restart page. This is useful for testing the situations  where  the
              latest restart page cannot be read though it can actually be read.

       -t, --transactions COUNT
              Display  the  transaction  parameters  when  examining the log file with one of the
              options --forward, --backward or --range.

       -u, --undo COUNT
              Undo COUNT transaction sets, thus resetting the file system to some  checkpoint  in
              the  past,  a  transaction  set  being  all  transactions  between  two consecutive
              checkpoints. As a few actions are not undoable, this is not always possible.

       -v, --verbose
              Display more debug/warning/error messages. This option may be used twice to display
              even more information.

       -V, --version
              Show the version number, copyright and license of ntfsrecover.

EXAMPLES

       Sync an NTFS volume on /dev/sda1.

              ntfsrecover -s /dev/sda1

       Display all actions which updated a cluster in range 100 to 119 :

              ntfsrecover --verbose --backward --clusters=100-119 /dev/sda1

BUGS

       If you find a bug please send an email describing the problem to the development team:
       ntfs-3g-devel@lists.sf.net

AUTHORS

       ntfsrecover was written by Jean-Pierre Andre

AVAILABILITY

       ntfsrecover is part of the ntfs-3g package and is available from:
       http://www.tuxera.com/community/

SEE ALSO

       ntfs-3g(8), ntfsfix(8), ntfsprogs(8)