Provided by: zypper_1.14.11-1build1_amd64 bug

NAME

       zypper - Command-line interface to ZYpp system management library (libzypp)

SYNOPSIS

       zypper [--global-opts] command [--command-opts] [command-arguments]

       zypper subcommand [--command-opts] [command-arguments]

       zypper help command

DESCRIPTION

       zypper is a command-line interface to ZYpp system management library (libzypp). It can be
       used to install, update, remove software, manage repositories, perform various queries,
       and more.

CONCEPTS

       Most of the following concepts are common for all applications based on the libzypp
       package management library, but there are some zypper specifics.

   System Packages
       The set of installed packages on a system is sometimes denoted as repository @System or
       System Packages. In contrast to available repositories providing packages which can be
       installed, @System provides packages which can only be deleted. Installed packages which
       are not also provided by at least one of the available repositories are often denoted as
       being unwanted, orphaned or dropped.

   Repositories
       Libzypp works with repository metadata, this is information about packages and their
       relations extracted from RPM packages and other data like patch information, pattern
       definitions, etc. These data are stored together with the RPM files in folders called
       repositories. Repositories can be placed on various media like an HTTP or FTP server, DVD,
       or a folder on a local disc.

       There is a special set of commands in zypper intended to manipulate repositories. Also
       many commands and options take a repository as an argument. See section COMMANDS,
       subsection Repository Management for more details.

   GPG checks
       Disabling GPG checks is not recommended. Signing data enables the recipient to verify that
       no modifications occurred after the data were signed. Accepting data with no, wrong or
       unknown signature can lead to a corrupted system and in extreme cases even to a system
       compromise.

       Zypp verifies the authenticity of repository metadata by checking their GPG signature. If
       the repository metadata are signed with a trusted key and successfully verified, packages
       from this repository are accepted for installation if they match the checksum provided in
       the metadata. Using unsigned repositories needs to be confirmed.

       If the repository metadata are not signed, the GPG signature of each downloaded rpm
       package is checked before accepting it for installation. Packages from unsigned
       repositories need a valid GPG signature. Using unsigned packages needs to be confirmed.

       The above is the default behavior defined by settings in /etc/zypp/zypp.conf.

       The addrepo and modifyrepo commands provide further options to tune the behavior per
       repository. It is for example possible to relax the need to confirm installing unsigned
       packages for a specific repository. But if you do so, you should be very certain that an
       attacker can hardly modify the package data within the repository or on the way to your
       machine. See section COMMANDS for details about the command options.

   Resource Identifiers (URI)
       To specify locations of repositories or other resources (RPM files, .repo files) you can
       use any type of URI supported by libzypp. In addition Zypper accepts a special URI
       identifying openSUSE Build Service (OBS) repositories in the addrepo command. These URIs
       have the form of obs://’project'/[platform].

       See section COMMANDS, subsection Repository Management for a complete list and examples of
       supported URI formats.

   Refresh
       Refreshing a repository means downloading metadata of packages from the medium (if
       needed), storing it in local cache (typically under /var/cache/zypp/raw/’alias' directory)
       and preparsing the metadata into .solv files (building the solv cache), typically under
       /var/cache/zypp/solv/’alias'.

       The metadata get refreshed either automatically or on user request. An automatic refresh
       takes place right before reading metadata from the database if the auto-refresh is enabled
       for the repository and the metadata is reported to be out of date. If the auto-refresh is
       disabled, the repository will only be refreshed on user request. You can request a refresh
       by calling zypper refresh (see the documentation of the refresh command for details).

       The repository metadata are checked for changes before actually doing the refresh. A
       change is detected by downloading one or two metadata index files (small files) and
       comparing the checksums of the cached ones and the remote ones. If the files differ, the
       repository is out of date and will be refreshed.

       To delay the up-to-date check (and thus the automatic refresh) for a certain number of
       minutes, edit the value of the repo.refresh.delay attribute of ZYpp config file
       (/etc/zypp/zypp.conf). This means, zypper will not even try to download and check the
       index files, and you will be able to use zypper for operations like search or info without
       internet access or root privileges.

   Services
       Services are one level above repositories and serve to manage repositories or to do some
       special tasks. Libzypp currently supports Repository Index Service (RIS) and Plugin
       Service.

       Repository Index Service (RIS) is a special type of repository which contains a list of
       other repositories. This list can be generated dynamically by the server according to some
       URI parameters or user name, or can be static. Once such service is added to your system,
       zypper takes care of adding, modifying, or removing these repositories on your system to
       reflect the current list. See section Service Management and
       https://en.opensuse.org/openSUSE:Standards_Repository_Index_Service for more details.

   Package Types
       Zypper works with several types of resource objects, called resolvables. A resolvable
       might be a package, patch, pattern, product; basically any kind of object with
       dependencies to other objects.

       package
           An ordinary RPM package.

       patch
           A released patch conflicts with the affected/vulnerable versions of a collection of
           packages. As long as any of these affected/vulnerable versions are installed, the
           conflict triggers and the patch is classified as needed, optional or as unwanted if
           the patch is locked. + Selecting the patch, the conflict is resolved by updating all
           installed and affected/vulnerable packages to a version providing the fix. When
           updating the packages zypper always aims for the latest available version. Resolved
           patches are classified as either applied or not needed, depending on whether they
           refer to actually installed packages. + Depending on the kind of defect, patches are
           classified by category and severity. Commonly used values for category are security,
           recommended, optional, feature, document or yast. Commonly used values for severity
           are critical, important, moderate, low or unspecified. + Note that the patch command
           does not apply optional patches (category optional or feature) by default. If you
           actually want to consider all optional patches as being needed, say patch
           --with-optional. Specific patches can be applied using the install command (e.g.
           zypper install patch:openSUSE-2014-7).

       pattern
           A group of packages required or recommended to install some functionality.

       product
           A group of packages which are necessary to install a product.

       srcpackage
           Source code package (.src.rpm). This type works in search and install commands.

       application
           Legacy: Since libzypp-17.7.0 this type is no longer available.

       Throughout this manual we will often refer to resolvables simply as packages and to
       resolvable types as package type or kind. These type names can be used as arguments of
       --type option in several commands like install, info, or search. Commands should also
       allow one to specify resolvables as KIND:’NAME' (e.g. patch:openSUSE-2014-7).

   Package Dependencies
       Software packages depend on each other in various ways. Packages usually require or
       recommend other packages, but they can also conflict with other packages. Packages may
       support specific hardware or language settings. Zypper uses a dependency solver to find
       out which packages need to be installed to satisfy the user’s request. See
       https://en.opensuse.org/Libzypp/Dependencies for more information.

   Automatically installed packages
       Packages added by the dependency solver in order to resolve a user’s request are
       remembered as having been 'automatically installed'. They may later be removed, if no more
       user installed packages depend on them (e.g. by zypper remove --clean-deps).

       In the S+tatus+ column the search command distinguishes between user installed packages
       (i+) and automatically installed packages (i).

   Package File Conflicts
       File conflicts happen when two packages attempt to install files with the same name but
       different contents. This may happen if you are installing a newer version of a package
       without erasing the older version, of if two unrelated packages each install a file with
       the same name.

       As checking for file conflicts requires access to the full filelist of each package being
       installed, zypper will check for file conflict only if all packages are downloaded in
       advance (see --download-in-advance).

       As the reason for file conflicts usually is a poor package design or lack of coordination
       between the people building the packages, they are not easy to resolve. By using the
       --replacefiles option you can force zypper to replace the conflicting files. Nevertheless
       this may damage the package whose file gets replaced.

COMMANDS

       zypper provides a number of commands. Each command accepts the options listed in the
       GLOBAL OPTIONS section. These options must be specified before the command name. In
       addition, many commands have specific options, which are listed in this section. These
       command-specific options must be specified after the name of the command and before any of
       the command arguments.

       Zypper also provides limited support for writing extensions/subcommands in any language.
       See section SUBCOMMANDS for details.

   General Commands
       help [command]
           Shows help texts. If invoked without any argument (just zypper or zypper help), zypper
           displays global help text which lists all available global options and commands. + If
           invoked with a command name argument, zypper displays help for the specified command,
           if such command exists. Long as well as short variants of the command names can be
           used. + For your convenience, zypper help can also be invoked in any of the following
           ways:

           $ zypper -h|--help [command]

           $ zypper [command] -h|--help

           shell (sh)
               Starts a shell for entering multiple commands in one session. Exit the shell using
               exit, quit, or Ctrl-D. + The shell support is not complete so expect bugs there.
               However, there’s no urgent need to use the shell since libzypp became so fast
               thanks to the SAT solver and its tools (openSUSE 11.0), but still, you’re welcome
               to experiment with it.

   Package Management Commands
       info (if) [options] name...
           Displays detailed information about the specified packages. + For each specified
           package, zypper finds the best available version in defined repositories and shows
           information for this package.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number or URI. This
               option can be used multiple times.

           -t, --type type
               Type of package (default: package). See section Package Types for list of
               available package types.

           --provides
               Show symbols the package provides.

           --requires
               Show symbols the package requires.

           --conflicts
               Show symbols the package conflicts with.

           --obsoletes
               Show symbols the package obsoletes.

           --recommends
               Show symbols the package recommends.

           --suggests
               Show symbols the package suggests.

           --supplements
               Show symbols the package supplements.

           Examples:

               $ zypper info workrave
                   Show information about package workrave

               $ zypper info -t patch libzypp
                   Show information about patch libzypp

               $ zypper info -t pattern lamp_server
                   Show information about pattern lamp_server

       install (in) [options] name|capability|rpm_file_uri...
           Install or update packages.

           The packages can be selected by their name or by a capability they provide.
               + A capability is formed by "NAME[.’ARCH'][ OP EDITION]", where ARCH is an
               architecture code, OP is one of <, <=, =, >=, or > and EDITION is
               "VERSION[-’RELEASE']". For example: zypper=0.8.8-2 + The NAME component of a
               capability is not only a package name but any symbol provided by packages:
               /bin/vi, libcurl.so.3, perl(Time::ParseDate). Just remember to quote to protect
               the special characters from the shell, for example: zypper\>0.8.10 or
               'zypper>0.8.10'. + If EDITION is not specified, the newest installable version
               will be installed. This also means that if the package is already installed and
               newer versions are available, it will get upgraded to the newest installable
               version. + If ARCH is not specified, or the last dot of the capability name string
               is not followed by known architecture, the solver will treat the whole string as a
               capability name. If the ARCH is known, the solver will select a package matching
               that architecture and complain if such package cannot be found.

           Zypper is also able to install plain RPM files while trying to satisfy their
           dependencies using packages from defined repositories. You can install a plain RPM
           file by specifying its location in the install command arguments either as a local
           path or an URI. E.g.:
               + $ zypper install ~/rpms/foo.rpm http://some.site/bar.rpm. + Zypper will report
               packages that it cannot find. Further, in interactive mode, zypper proceeds with
               installation of the rest of requested packages, and it will abort immediately in
               non-interactive mode. In both cases zypper returns ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_CAP_NOT_FOUND
               after finishing the operation. + Zypper will collect the files in a temporary
               plaindir repository and mark the respective packages for installation. If
               --download-only is used, the downloaded packages will be available in
               /var/cache/zypper/RPMS until you actually install them or call zypper clean to
               clear the package caches.

           In the install command, you can also specify packages you wish to remove by prepending
           their names by a - or ! character. For example:
               + $ zypper install \!Firefox + In contrast to zypper remove Firefox which removes
               Firefox and its dependent packages, the install command will try to keep dependent
               packages installed by looking for Firefox alternatives. + Note that if you choose
               to use - with the first package you specify, you need to write -- before it to
               prevent its interpretation as a command option: + $ zypper install
               --  -boring-game great-game great-game-manual

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number or URI. This
               option can be used multiple times. + Using --repo is discouraged as it currently
               hides unmentioned repositories from the resolver, leading to inexpertly decisions.
               In the future --repo will become an alias for --from.

           -t, --type type
               Type of package to install (default: package). See section Package Types for list
               of available package types. Use zypper se -t type [name] to look for available
               items of this type and zypper info -t type name to display more detailed
               information about the item. + If patch is specified, zypper will install and/or
               remove packages to satisfy specified patch. This is a way to ensure that specific
               bug fix is installed. Use zypper list-patches to look for applicable patches. + If
               product or pattern are specified, zypper ensures that all required (and optionally
               recommended) packages are installed.

           -n, --name
               Select packages by their name, don’t try to select by capabilities.

           -f, --force
               Install even if the item is already installed (reinstall), downgraded or changes
               vendor or architecture.

           --oldpackage
               Allows one to replace a newer item with an older one. Handy if you are doing a
               rollback. Unlike --force it will not enforce a reinstall, if the item is already
               installed with the requested version.

           --from alias|name|#|URI
               Select packages from specified repository. If strings specified as arguments to
               the install command match packages in repositories specified in this option, they
               will be marked for installation. This option currently implies --name, but allows
               using wildcards for specifying packages.

           -C, --capability
               Select packages by capabilities.

           -l, --auto-agree-with-licenses
               Automatically say yes to third party license confirmation prompt. By using this
               option, you choose to agree with licenses of all third-party software this command
               will install. This option is particularly useful for administrators installing the
               same set of packages on multiple machines (by an automated process) and have the
               licenses confirmed before.

           --auto-agree-with-product-licenses
               Automatically accept product licenses only. This is used by tools like
               SUSEconnect, which ask for confirmation before the product gets registered. So
               there’s no need to confirm the product license again at install time.

           --replacefiles
               Install the packages even if they replace files from other, already installed,
               packages. Default is to treat file conflicts as an error. --download-as-needed
               disables the file conflict check because access to all packages file lists is
               needed in advance in order to perform the check.

           -D, --dry-run
               Test the installation, do not actually install any package. This option will add
               the --test option to the rpm commands run by the install command.

           --details
               Show the detailed installation summary.

           -y, --no-confirm
               Don’t require user interaction. Alias for the --non-interactive global option.

           --allow-unsigned-rpm
               Silently install unsigned rpm packages given as commandline parameters.

           Solver related options:

           --debug-solver
               Create solver test case for debugging. Use this option, if you think the
               dependencies were not solved all right and attach the resulting
               /var/log/zypper.solverTestCase directory to your bug report. To use this option,
               simply add it to the problematic install or remove command.

           --force-resolution
               Force the solver to find a solution by allowing to remove packages with
               unfulfilled requirements. This is the default when removing packages (zypper
               remove). This option overrides --no-force-resolution in case both are specified on
               the command line.

           -R, --no-force-resolution
               Do not force the solver to find a solution. Instead, report dependency problems
               and prompt the user to resolve them manually. This is the default except when
               removing packages (zypper remove).

           --recommends
               Install also recommended packages in addition to the required ones. The default
               behavior is determined by [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           --no-recommends
               Do not install recommended packages, but only required ones. The default behavior
               is determined by [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           Download-and-install mode options:

           -d, --download-only
               Only download the packages for later installation.

           --download-in-advance
               First download all packages, then start installing.

           --download-in-heaps
               Download a minimal set of packages that can be installed without leaving the
               system in broken state, and install them. Then download and install another heap
               until all are installed. This helps to keep the system in consistent state without
               the need to download all packages in advance, which combines the advantages of
               --download-in-advance and --download-as-needed. This is the default mode. + NOTE:
               While the resolver is not capable of building heaps, this behaves the same as
               --download-in-advance.

           --download-as-needed
               Download one package, install it immediately, and continue with the rest until all
               are installed.

           --download mode
               Use the specified download-and-install mode. Available modes are: only,
               in-advance, in-heaps, as-needed. See corresponding --download-’mode' options for
               their description.

           Expert Options:
               Don’t use them unless you know you need them.

           --[no-]allow-downgrade
               Whether to allow downgrading installed resolvables.

           --[no-]allow-name-change
               Whether to allow changing the names of installed resolvables. Setting this to no
               will not replace packages which have been renamed.

           --[no-]allow-arch-change
               Whether to allow changing the architecture of installed resolvables.

           --[no-]allow-vendor-change
               Whether to allow changing the vendor of installed resolvables. Setting this to no
               might be useful if you do not want packages from foreign repos being changed to
               the distributions version (or vice versa).

           Examples:

               $ zypper install -t pattern lamp_server
                   Install lamp_server pattern.

               $ zypper install --no-recommends gv
                   Install GhostScript viewer, but ignore recommended packages.

               $ zypper install virtualbox-ose-2.0.6

               $ zypper install virtualbox-ose=2.0.6

               $ zypper install virtualbox-ose = 2.0.6
                   Install version 2.0.6 of virtualbox-ose package.

       source-install (si) name...
           Install specified source packages and their build dependencies. If the name of a
           binary package is given, the corresponding source package is looked up and installed
           instead. + This command will try to find the newest available versions of the source
           packages and uses rpm -i to install them, optionally together with all the packages
           that are required to build the source package. The default location where rpm installs
           source packages to is /usr/src/packages/{SPECS,SOURCES}, but the values can be changed
           in your local rpm configuration. In case of doubt try executing rpm --eval
           "%{_specdir} and %{_sourcedir}". + Note that the source packages must be available in
           repositories you are using. You can check whether a repository contains any source
           packages using the following command:

               $ zypper search -t srcpackage -r alias|name|#|URI

           -d, --build-deps-only
               Install only build dependencies of specified packages.

           -D, --no-build-deps
               Don’t install build dependencies.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This
               option can be used multiple times.

           --download-only
               Only download the packages, do not install.

           Examples:

               $ zypper si -d dbus-1
                   Install build dependencies of dbus-1 source package.

       verify (ve) [options]
           Check whether dependencies of installed packages are satisfied. + In case that any
           dependency problems are found, zypper suggests packages to install or remove to fix
           them.

           -D, --dry-run
               Test the repair, do not actually do anything to the system.

           --details
               Show the detailed installation summary.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This
               option can be used multiple times.

           -y, --no-confirm
               Don’t require user interaction. Alias for the --non-interactive global option.

           Solver related options:

           --debug-solver
               Create solver test case for debugging. Use this option, if you think the
               dependencies were not solved all right and attach the resulting
               /var/log/zypper.solverTestCase directory to your bug report. To use this option,
               simply add it to the problematic install or remove command.

           --force-resolution
               Force the solver to find a solution by allowing to remove packages with
               unfulfilled requirements. This is the default when removing packages (zypper
               remove). This option overrides --no-force-resolution in case both are specified on
               the command line.

           -R, --no-force-resolution
               Do not force the solver to find a solution. Instead, report dependency problems
               and prompt the user to resolve them manually. This is the default except when
               removing packages (zypper remove).

           --recommends
               Install also recommended packages in addition to the required ones. The default
               behavior is determined by [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           --no-recommends
               Do not install recommended packages, but only required ones. The default behavior
               is determined by [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           Expert Options:
               Don’t use them unless you know you need them.

           --[no-]allow-downgrade
               Whether to allow downgrading installed resolvables.

           --[no-]allow-name-change
               Whether to allow changing the names of installed resolvables. Setting this to no
               will not replace packages which have been renamed.

           --[no-]allow-arch-change
               Whether to allow changing the architecture of installed resolvables.

           --[no-]allow-vendor-change
               Whether to allow changing the vendor of installed resolvables. Setting this to no
               might be useful if you do not want packages from foreign repos being changed to
               the distributions version (or vice versa).

           This command also accepts the Download-and-install mode options described in the
           install command.

       install-new-recommends (inr) [options]
           Install newly added packages recommended by already installed ones. This can typically
           be used to install language packages recently added to repositories or drivers for
           newly added hardware.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This
               option can be used multiple times.

           -D, --dry-run
               Test the installation, do not actually install anything.

           --details
               Show the detailed installation summary.

           Solver related options:

           --debug-solver
               Create solver test case for debugging. Use this option, if you think the
               dependencies were not solved all right and attach the resulting
               /var/log/zypper.solverTestCase directory to your bug report. To use this option,
               simply add it to the problematic install or remove command.

           --force-resolution
               Force the solver to find a solution by allowing to remove packages with
               unfulfilled requirements. This is the default when removing packages (zypper
               remove). This option overrides --no-force-resolution in case both are specified on
               the command line.

           -R, --no-force-resolution
               Do not force the solver to find a solution. Instead, report dependency problems
               and prompt the user to resolve them manually. This is the default except when
               removing packages (zypper remove).

           Expert Options:
               Don’t use them unless you know you need them.

           --[no-]allow-downgrade
               Whether to allow downgrading installed resolvables.

           --[no-]allow-name-change
               Whether to allow changing the names of installed resolvables. Setting this to no
               will not replace packages which have been renamed.

           --[no-]allow-arch-change
               Whether to allow changing the architecture of installed resolvables.

           --[no-]allow-vendor-change
               Whether to allow changing the vendor of installed resolvables. Setting this to no
               might be useful if you do not want packages from foreign repos being changed to
               the distributions version (or vice versa).

           This command also accepts the Download-and-install mode options described in the
           install command.

       remove (rm) [options] name...

       remove (rm) [options] --capability capability...
           Remove (uninstall) packages. + The remove command will uninstall the selected and
           their dependent packages. It will not try to install alternatives in order to keep
           dependent packages installed. If you want this, use zypper install !name. + The
           packages can be selected by their name or by a capability they provide. For details on
           package selection see the install command description.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This
               option can be used multiple times.

           -t, --type type
               Type of package (default: package). See section Package Types for list of
               available package types. + Since patches are not installed in sense of copying
               files or recording a database entry, they cannot be uninstalled, even though
               zypper shows them as installed. The installed status is determined solely based on
               the installed status of its required dependencies. If these dependencies are
               satisfied, the patch is rendered installed.

           -n, --name
               Select packages by their name (default).

           -C, --capability
               Select packages by capabilities.

           -D, --dry-run
               Test the removal of packages, do not actually remove anything. This option will
               add the --test option to the rpm commands run by the remove command.

           --details
               Show the detailed installation summary.

           -y, --no-confirm
               Don’t require user interaction. Alias for the --non-interactive global option.

           Solver related options:

           --debug-solver
               Create solver test case for debugging. Use this option, if you think the
               dependencies were not solved all right and attach the resulting
               /var/log/zypper.solverTestCase directory to your bug report. To use this option,
               simply add it to the problematic install or remove command.

           --force-resolution
               Force the solver to find a solution by allowing to remove packages with
               unfulfilled requirements. This is the default when removing packages (zypper
               remove). This option overrides --no-force-resolution in case both are specified on
               the command line.

           -R, --no-force-resolution
               Do not force the solver to find a solution. Instead, report dependency problems
               and prompt the user to resolve them manually. This is the default except when
               removing packages (zypper remove).

           -u, --clean-deps
               Automatically remove dependencies which become unneeded after removal of requested
               packages.

           -U, --no-clean-deps
               No automatic removal of unneeded dependencies.

   Update Management Commands
       list-updates (lu) [options]
           List available updates. + This command will list only installable updates, i.e.
           updates which have no dependency problems, or which do not change package vendor. This
           list is what the update command will propose to install. To list all packages for
           which newer version are available, use --all option.

           -t, --type type
               Type of package (default: package). See section Package Types for list of
               available package types. + If patch is specified, zypper acts as if the
               list-patches command was executed.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This
               option can be used multiple times.

           -a, --all
               List all packages for which newer versions are available, regardless whether they
               are installable or not.

           --best-effort
               See the update command for description.

       update (up) [options] [packagename]...
           Update installed packages with newer versions, where possible. + This command will not
           update packages which would require change of package vendor unless the vendor is
           specified in /etc/zypp/vendors.d, or which would require manual resolution of problems
           with dependencies. Such non-installable updates will then be listed in separate
           section of the summary as "The following package updates will NOT be installed:". + To
           update individual packages, specify one or more package names. You can use the * and ?
           wildcard characters in the package names to specify multiple packages matching the
           pattern.

           -t, --type type
               Type of package (default: package). See section Package Types for list of
               available package types. + If patch is specified, zypper acts as if the patches
               command was executed.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This
               option can be used multiple times.

           --skip-interactive
               This will skip interactive patches, that is, those that need reboot, contain a
               message, or update a package whose license needs to be confirmed.

           --with-interactive
               Avoid skipping of interactive patches when in non-interactive mode.

           -l, --auto-agree-with-licenses
               Automatically say yes to third party license confirmation prompt. By using this
               option, you choose to agree with licenses of all third-party software this command
               will install. This option is particularly useful for administrators installing the
               same set of packages on multiple machines (by an automated process) and have the
               licenses confirmed before.

           --auto-agree-with-product-licenses
               Automatically accept product licenses only. This is used by tools like
               SUSEconnect, which ask for confirmation before the product gets registered. So
               there’s no need to confirm the product license again at install time.

           --replacefiles
               Install the packages even if they replace files from other, already installed,
               packages. Default is to treat file conflicts as an error. --download-as-needed
               disables the fileconflict check because access to all packages filelists is needed
               in advance in order to perform the check.

           -D, --dry-run
               Test the update, do not actually install or update any package. This option will
               add the --test option to the rpm commands run by the update command.

           --details
               Show the detailed installation summary.

           --best-effort
               Do a best effort approach to update. This method does not explicitly select
               packages with best version and architecture, but instead requests installation of
               a package with higher version than the installed one and leaves the rest on the
               dependency solver. This method is always used for packages, and is optional for
               products and patterns. It is not applicable to patches.

           -y, --no-confirm
               Don’t require user interaction. Alias for the --non-interactive global option.

           Solver related options:

           --debug-solver
               Create solver test case for debugging. Use this option, if you think the
               dependencies were not solved all right and attach the resulting
               /var/log/zypper.solverTestCase directory to your bug report. To use this option,
               simply add it to the problematic install or remove command.

           --force-resolution
               Force the solver to find a solution by allowing to remove packages with
               unfulfilled requirements. This is the default when removing packages (zypper
               remove). This option overrides --no-force-resolution in case both are specified on
               the command line.

           -R, --no-force-resolution
               Do not force the solver to find a solution. Instead, report dependency problems
               and prompt the user to resolve them manually. This is the default except when
               removing packages (zypper remove).

           --recommends
               Install also recommended packages in addition to the required ones. The default
               behavior is determined by [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           --no-recommends
               Do not install recommended packages, but only required ones. The default behavior
               is determined by [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           Expert Options:
               Don’t use them unless you know you need them.

           --[no-]allow-downgrade
               Whether to allow downgrading installed resolvables.

           --[no-]allow-name-change
               Whether to allow changing the names of installed resolvables. Setting this to no
               will not replace packages which have been renamed.

           --[no-]allow-arch-change
               Whether to allow changing the architecture of installed resolvables.

           --[no-]allow-vendor-change
               Whether to allow changing the vendor of installed resolvables. Setting this to no
               might be useful if you do not want packages from foreign repos being changed to
               the distributions version (or vice versa).

           This command also accepts the Download-and-install mode options described in the
           install command description.

       list-patches (lp) [options]
           List all applicable patches. + This command is similar to zypper list-updates -t
           patch. + Note that optional arguments of some of the following options must be
           specified using = instead of a space.

           -b, --bugzilla[='#[,...']]
               List applicable patches for all Bugzilla issues, or issues whose number matches
               the given string.

           --cve[='#[,...']]
               List applicable patches for all CVE issues, or issues whose number matches the
               given string.

           --date YYYY-MM-DD[,...]
               List only patches issued up to, but not including, the specified date.

           -g, --category category[,...]
               List only patches with this category. See section Package Types for a list of
               commonly used category values.

           --severity severity[,...]
               List only patches with this severity. See section Package Types for a list of
               commonly used severity values.

           --issues[=’string'[,...]]
               Look for issues whose number, summary, or description matches the specified
               string. Issues found by number are displayed separately from those found by
               descriptions. In the latter case, use zypper patch-info patchname to get
               information about issues the patch fixes.

           -a, *--all
               By default, only patches that are applicable on your system are listed. This
               option causes all available released patches to be listed. This option can be
               combined with all the rest of the list-updates command options.

           --with[out]-optional
               Whether applicable optional patches should be treated as needed or be excluded.
               The default is to exclude optional patches.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This
               option can be used multiple times.

       patch-check (pchk)
           Check for patches. Displays a count of applicable patches and how many of them have
           the security category. + See also the EXIT CODES section for details on exit status of
           0, 100, and 101 returned by this command.

           --updatestack-only
               Check only for patches which affect the package management itself.

           --with[out]-optional
               Whether applicable optional patches should be treated as needed or be excluded.
               The default is to exclude optional patches.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Check for patches only in the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or
               URI. This option can be used multiple times.

       patch [options]
           Install all available needed patches. + If there are patches that affect the package
           management itself, those will be installed first and you will be asked to run the
           patch command again. + This command is similar to zypper update -t patch.

           --updatestack-only
               Install only patches which affect the package management itself and exit.

           --with-update
               Additionally try to update all packages not covered by patches. This is basically
               the same as running zypper update afterwards. + The option is ignored, if the
               patch command must update the update stack first, thus it can not be combined with
               the --updatestack-only option.

           --with[out]-optional
               Whether applicable optional patches should be treated as needed or be excluded.
               The default is to exclude optional patches.

           -b, --bugzilla #[,...]
               Install patch fixing a Bugzilla issue specified by number. Use list-patches
               --bugzilla command to get a list of applicable patches for specific issues.

           --cve #[,...]
               Install patch fixing a MITRE’s CVE issue specified by number. Use list-patches
               --cve command to get a list of applicable patches for specific issues.

           --date YYYY-MM-DD[,...]
               Install only patches issued up to, but not including, the specified date.

           -g, --category category[,...]
               Install only patches with this category. Use list-patches --category command to
               get a list of available patches with a specific category. See section Package
               Types for a list of commonly used category values.

           --severity severity[,...]
               Install only patches with this severity. Use list-patches --severity command to
               get a list of available patches with a specific severity. See section Package
               Types for a list of commonly used severity values.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This
               option can be used multiple times.

           --skip-interactive
               This will skip interactive patches, that is, those that need reboot, contain a
               message, or update a package whose license needs to be confirmed.

           --with-interactive
               Avoid skipping of interactive patches when in non-interactive mode.

           -l, --auto-agree-with-licenses
               Automatically say yes to third party license confirmation prompt. By using this
               option, you choose to agree with licenses of all third-party software this command
               will install. This option is particularly useful for administrators installing the
               same set of packages on multiple machines (by an automated process) and have the
               licenses confirmed before.

           --auto-agree-with-product-licenses
               Automatically accept product licenses only. This is used by tools like
               SUSEconnect, which ask for confirmation before the product gets registered. So
               there’s no need to confirm the product license again at install time.

           --replacefiles
               Install the packages even if they replace files from other, already installed,
               packages. Default is to treat file conflicts as an error. --download-as-needed
               disables the fileconflict check because access to all packages filelists is needed
               in advance in order to perform the check.

           -D, --dry-run
               Test the update, do not actually update.

           --details
               Show the detailed installation summary.

           -y, --no-confirm
               Don’t require user interaction. Alias for the --non-interactive global option.

           Solver related options:

           --debug-solver
               Create solver test case for debugging. Use this option, if you think the
               dependencies were not solved all right and attach the resulting
               /var/log/zypper.solverTestCase directory to your bug report. To use this option,
               simply add it to the problematic install or remove command.

           --force-resolution
               Force the solver to find a solution by allowing to remove packages with
               unfulfilled requirements. This is the default when removing packages (zypper
               remove). This option overrides --no-force-resolution in case both are specified on
               the command line.

           -R, --no-force-resolution
               Do not force the solver to find a solution. Instead, report dependency problems
               and prompt the user to resolve them manually. This is the default except when
               removing packages (zypper remove).

           --recommends
               Install also recommended packages in addition to the required ones. The default
               behavior is determined by [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           --no-recommends
               Do not install recommended packages, but only required ones. The default behavior
               is determined by [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           Expert Options:
               Don’t use them unless you know you need them.

           --[no-]allow-downgrade
               Whether to allow downgrading installed resolvables.

           --[no-]allow-name-change
               Whether to allow changing the names of installed resolvables. Setting this to no
               will not replace packages which have been renamed.

           --[no-]allow-arch-change
               Whether to allow changing the architecture of installed resolvables.

           --[no-]allow-vendor-change
               Whether to allow changing the vendor of installed resolvables. Setting this to no
               might be useful if you do not want packages from foreign repos being changed to
               the distributions version (or vice versa).

           This command also accepts the Download-and-install mode options described in the
           install command description.

       dist-upgrade (dup) [options]
           Perform a distribution upgrade. This command applies the state of (specified)
           repositories onto the system; upgrades (or even downgrades) installed packages to
           versions found in repositories, removes packages that are no longer in the
           repositories and pose a dependency problem for the upgrade, handles package splits and
           renames, etc. + If no repositories are specified via the --from option, zypper will do
           a global upgrade with all defined repositories. This global form of dup will also
           consider unchanged installed packages and re-evaluate their dependencies. This can be
           a problem if the system contains conflicting repositories, like repositories for two
           different distribution releases. This often happens if one forgets to remove an older
           release repository after adding a new one, say openSUSE 13.1 and openSUSE 13.2. + For
           all repositories which have the distribution version within their URL (like
           https://download.opensuse.org/distribution/13.1/repo/oss) using the $releasever
           variable instead may be helpful (
           https://download.opensuse.org/distribution/$releasever/repo/oss). The variable is per
           default substituted by the current distributions version (13.1) This value can be
           overwritten using the --releasever global option. Calling zypper --releasever
           13.2'...' will cause these repos to use the new location (
           https://download.opensuse.org/distribution/13.2/repo/oss) without need to add/remove
           anything. Once the dup is performed, $releasever will default to the new distribution
           version. See section Repository Management for more info about variable substitution.
           + Note: distribution upgrades in openSUSE are currently only supported between
           consecutive releases. To upgrade multiple releases, upgrade each consecutive release
           one at a time. For more details see http://en.opensuse.org/SDB:System_upgrade and the
           openSUSE release notes at http://doc.opensuse.org/release-notes/.

           --from alias|name|#|URI
               The option can be used multiple times and restricts the upgrade to the specified
               repositories only. Nevertheless all enabled repositories are visible to the
               resolver and will be considered to satisfy dependency problems.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. +
               Using --repo is discouraged as it currently hides unmentioned repositories from
               the resolver, leading to inexpertly decisions. This is because packages originally
               installed from the hidden repos will now be treated as orphaned or dropped. They
               can be silently removed if involved in a dependency conflict. In the future --repo
               will become an alias for --from.

           -l, --auto-agree-with-licenses
               Automatically say yes to third party license confirmation prompt. By using this
               option, you choose to agree with licenses of all third-party software this command
               will install. This option is particularly useful for administrators installing the
               same set of packages on multiple machines (by an automated process) and have the
               licenses confirmed before.

           --auto-agree-with-product-licenses
               Automatically accept product licenses only. This is used by tools like
               SUSEconnect, which ask for confirmation before the product gets registered. So
               there’s no need to confirm the product license again at install time.

           --replacefiles
               Install the packages even if they replace files from other, already installed,
               packages. Default is to treat file conflicts as an error. --download-as-needed
               disables the fileconflict check because access to all packages filelists is needed
               in advance in order to perform the check.

           -D, --dry-run
               Test the upgrade, do not actually install or update any package. This option will
               add the --test option to the rpm commands run by the dist-upgrade command.

           -y, --no-confirm
               Don’t require user interaction. Alias for the --non-interactive global option.

           --details
               Show the detailed installation summary.

           Solver related options:

           --debug-solver
               Create solver test case for debugging. Use this option, if you think the
               dependencies were not solved all right and attach the resulting
               /var/log/zypper.solverTestCase directory to your bug report. To use this option,
               simply add it to the problematic install or remove command.

           --force-resolution
               Force the solver to find a solution by allowing to remove packages with
               unfulfilled requirements. This is the default when removing packages (zypper
               remove). This option overrides --no-force-resolution in case both are specified on
               the command line.

           -R, --no-force-resolution
               Do not force the solver to find a solution. Instead, report dependency problems
               and prompt the user to resolve them manually. This is the default except when
               removing packages (zypper remove).

           --recommends
               Install also recommended packages in addition to the required ones. The default
               behavior is determined by [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           --no-recommends
               Do not install recommended packages, but only required ones. The default behavior
               is determined by [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           Expert Options:
               Don’t use them unless you know you need them.

           --[no-]allow-downgrade
               Whether to allow downgrading installed resolvables
               [zypp.conf:solver.dupAllowDowngrade].

           --[no-]allow-name-change
               Whether to allow changing the names of installed resolvables
               [zypp.conf:solver.dupAllowNameChange]. Setting this to no will not replace
               packages which have been renamed.

           --[no-]allow-arch-change
               Whether to allow changing the architecture of installed resolvables
               [zypp.conf:solver.dupAllowArchChange].

           --[no-]allow-vendor-change
               Whether to allow changing the vendor of installed resolvables
               [zypp.conf:solver.dupAllowVendorChange]. Setting this to no might be useful if you
               do not want packages from foreign repos being dup’ed to the distributions version
               (or vice versa).

           This command also accepts the Download-and-install mode options described in the
           install command description.

           Examples:

               $ zypper dup --from factory --from packman
                   Upgrade the system to the latest versions provided by the factory and packman
                   repositories.

   Query Commands
       search (se) [options] [querystring|capability]...
           Search for packages matching any of the given search strings. * and ? wildcard
           characters can be used within search strings. If the search string is enclosed in /
           (e.g. /^k.*e$/) it’s interpreted as a regular expression. See the install command for
           details about how to specify a capability. + Results of the search are printed in a
           table with columns S+tatus+, Name, Summary and Type of package. + In the detailed view
           (se -s) all available instances of matching packages are shown; each version in each
           repository on a separate line, with columns S+tatus+, Name, Type, Version,
           Arch+itecture+ and Repository. For installed packages Repository shows either a
           repository that provides exactly the installed version of the package, or, if the
           exact version is not provided by any known repo, (System Packages) (or @System). Those
           installed packages not provided by any repo are often denoted as being unwanted,
           orphaned or dropped. + The S+tatus+ column can contain the following values:

           i+
               installed by user request

           i
               installed automatically (by the resolver, see section Automatically installed
               packages)

           v
               a different version is installed

           empty
               neither of the above cases

           .l
               is shown in the 2nd column if the item is locked (see section Package Locks
               Management)

           The v status is only shown if the version or the repository matters (see --details or
           --repo), and the installed instance differs from the one listed in version or
           repository. + This command accepts the following options:

           --match-substrings
               Matches for search strings may be partial words (default).

           --match-words
               Matches for search strings may only be whole words.

           -x, --match-exact
               Searches for an exact name of the package.

           --provides
               Search for packages which provide the search strings.

           --requires
               Search for packages which require the search strings.

           --recommends
               Search for packages which recommend the search strings.

           --suggests
               Search for packages which suggest the search strings.

           --conflicts
               Search for packages conflicting with the search strings.

           --obsoletes
               Search for packages which obsolete the search strings.

           --supplements
               Search for packages which supplement the search strings.

           -n, --name
               Useful together with dependency options, otherwise searching in package name is
               default.

           -f, --file-list
               Search in the file list of packages. Note that the full file list is available for
               installed packages only. For remote packages only an abstract of their file list
               is available within the metadata (files containing /etc/, /bin/, or /sbin/).

           -d, --search-descriptions
               Search also in summaries and descriptions.

           -C, --case-sensitive
               Perform case-sensitive search.

           -i, --installed-only
               Show only installed packages.

           -u, --not-installed-only
               Show only packages which are not installed. + The old option name
               --uninstalled-only is still acceptable, but should be considered deprecated.

           -t, --type type
               Search only for packages of specified type. See section Package Types for a list
               of available package types. Multiple --type options are allowed. + See also the
               type-specific query commands like packages, patterns, etc.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This
               option can be used multiple times.

           --sort-by-name
               Sort packages by name (default).

           --sort-by-repo
               Sort packages by repository, not by name.

           -s, --details
               Show all available versions of matching packages, each version in each repository
               on a separate line.

           -v, --verbose
               Like --details with additional information where the search has matched (useful
               when searching for dependencies, e.g. --provides).

           Examples:

               $ zypper se 'yast*'
                   Search for YaST packages (quote the string to prevent the shell from expanding
                   the wildcard).

               $ zypper se -s --match-exact kernel-default
                   Show all available versions of package kernel-default

               $ zypper se -dC --match-words RSI
                   Look for RSI acronym (case-sensitively), also in summaries and descriptions.

       packages (pa) [options] [repository]...
           List all available packages or all packages from specified repositories. Similar to
           zypper search -s -t package.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Just another means to specify repositories.

           -i, --installed-only
               Show only installed packages.

           -u, --not-installed-only
               Show only packages which are not installed. + The old option name
               --uninstalled-only is still acceptable, but should be considered deprecated.

           --orphaned
               Show packages which are orphaned (without repository).

           --suggested
               Show packages which are suggested.

           --recommended
               Show packages which are recommended.

           --unneeded
               Show packages which are unneeded.

       patches (pch) [options] [repository]...
           List all available patches from specified repositories, including those not needed.
           Short for zypper lp -a.

           -r, --repo alias|name'|#|URI
               Just another means to specify repositories.

       patterns (pt) [options] [repository]...
           List all available patterns or all patterns from specified repositories. Similar to
           zypper search -s -t pattern.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Just another means to specify repositories.

           -i, --installed-only
               Show only installed patterns.

           -u, --not-installed-only
               Show only patterns which are not installed. + The old option name
               --uninstalled-only is still acceptable, but should be considered deprecated.

       products (pd) [options] [repository]...
           List all available products or all products from specified repositories. Similar to
           zypper search -s -t product, but shows also the type of the product (base, add-on).

           -r, --repo 'alias|name|#|URI
               Just another means to specify repositories.

           -i, --installed-only
               Show only installed products.

           -u, --not-installed-only
               Show only products which are not installed. + The old option name
               --uninstalled-only is still acceptable, but should be considered deprecated.

           --xmlfwd tag
               XML output only: Literally forward the XML tag, if it is found in an installed
               products .prod-file (in /etc/products.d). + Using this option, for each installed
               product an <xmlfwd> node will be created inside the <product> output node of the
               product. + Tag defines the name (or /-separated path) of a xml-tag inside an
               installed products .prod-file. If the tag is present inside the products
               .prod-file, the tag and it’s content is literally forwarded into the products
               <xmlfwd> output node. + The option may be specified multiple times.

           Examples:

               $ zypper -x pd --xmlfwd name --xmlfwd register/target

       what-provides (wp) capability
           List all packages providing the specified capability. See also the install command for
           info about specifying capabilities.

           The command line is automatically transformed into the appropriate search command,
           e.g.:

               $ zypper what-provides 'zypper>1.6'

               $ zypper se --provides --match-exact 'zypper>1.6'

   Repository Management
       Zypper is able to work with YaST, RPM-MD (yum) software repositories, and plain
       directories containing .rpm files.

       Repositories are primarily identified using their URI or alias. Alias serves as a
       shorthand for the long URI or name of the repository. The name of the repository should
       briefly describe the repository and is shown to the user in tables and messages. The name
       is not required, and if not known, the alias is shown instead. The alias is required and
       uniquely identifies the repository on the system.

       The alias, name, URI, or the number from zypper repos list can be used to specify a
       repository as an argument of various zypper commands and options like refresh, --repo, or
       --from.

       Apart from the above, repositories have several other properties which can be set using
       the commands described in this section below, or by manually editing the repository
       definition files (.repo files, see section FILES).

   Variable substitution:
       You can use the following variables within a .repo or .service files name and URI values:

       $arch
           Use this variable to refer to the system’s CPU architecture.

       $basearch
           Use this variable to refer to the base architecture of the system. For example, iX86
           machines have a base architecture of i386, while AMD64 and Intel64 have x86_64.

       $releasever, $releasever_major, $releasever_minor
           Use this variable to refer to the version of your openSUSE or SUSE Linux. The value is
           obtained from the /product/version XML-node in /etc/products.d/baseproduct. + This is
           useful for related repositories like packman
           (http://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/linux/packman/suse/$releasever), which shall always fit the
           installed distribution, even after a distribution upgrade. To help performing a
           distribution upgrade, the value of $releasever can be overwritten using the
           --releasever global option. This way you can easily switch all repositories using
           $releasever to the new version (provided the server layouts did not change and new
           repos are already available). + In addition $releasever_major will be set to the
           leading portion up to (but not including) the 1st dot; $releasever_minor to the
           trailing portion after the 1st dot. If there’s no dot in $releasever,
           $releasever_major is the same as $releasever and $releasever_minor is empty.

       Custom Variables
           A custom repository variable is defined by creating a file in /etc/zypp/vars.d. The
           variable name equals the file name. The files first line (up to but not including the
           newline character) defines the variables value. Valid variable(file) names consist of
           alphanumeric chars and underscore only.

       Remember to protect the $ when using these variables on a shell command line:
           zypper ar -f http://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/linux/packman/suse/\$releasever packman

       If a variable is followed by an alphanumeric character or underscore it needs to be
       enclosed in {}:
           zypper ar -f http://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/linux/packman/suse/\${’releasever'}_packman

       Bash style definition of default ${’variable':-’word'} and alternate ${’variable':+’word'}
       values:
           SLE-${’releasever_major'}${’releasever_minor':+-SP-$releasever_minor}

       To check where you already use $releasever call:
           zypper --releasever @--HERE--@ lr -u

       NOTE:
           Variable substitution within an URIs authority is limited to host and port. Bash style
           definition of default and alternate values is not supported. No variables can be used
           in an URIs scheme, user and password.

   Supported URI formats:
       scheme: @]host[:’port']] /’path' [?’query'] [#’fragment']
           Special characters occurring in URI components (like a @ in a password) must be
           %-encoded (%40).

       CD or DVD drive
           Optionally with devices list for probing.

           cd:///

           dvd:/subdir'?devices=/dev/sr0,/dev/sr1'

           FTP/HTTP/HTTPS directory tree
               The ftp URL scheme supports absolute and relative paths to the default ftp server
               directory (RFC1738, Section 3.2.2). To use an absolute path, you have to prepend
               the path with an additional slash, what results in a /%2f combination (second /
               encoded to %2f) at the begin of the URL path. This is important, especially in
               user authenticated ftp, where the users home is usually the default directory of
               the server (except when the server chroots into the users home directory). +
               Explicit proxy settings may be passed via optional parameters proxy, proxyport,
               proxyuser and proxypass. + HTTP authentication methods to use can be defined as
               comma separated list via optional parameter auth. Valid methods are e.g. basic,
               digest, ntlm, negotiate. Note, that this list depends on the list of methods
               supported by the curl library. + SSL verification behavior can be changed using
               the ssl_verify option (this should be used with care). Valid values are yes (the
               secure default), host, peer or no. Host just checks that the "Common Name" field
               or a "Subject Alternate Name" field in the servers certificate matches the host
               name in the URL. Peer just verifies whether the certificate provided by the server
               is authentic against the chain of digital signatures found in ssl_capath. No
               performs no checks at all. Yes is the secure default, performing host and peer
               check. + For SSL client certificate authentication use the options ssl_clientcert
               to define the path to the ssl client certificate and ssl_clientkey to define the
               path to the SSL client key. Use ssl_capath to change the directory holding the CA
               certificates (default is /etc/ssl/certs).

           ftp://user:pass@server/path/to/media/dir

           ftp://user:pass@server/%2fhome/user/path/to/media/dir

           http://user:pass@server/path

           https://user:pass@server/path'?proxy=foo&proxyuser=me&proxypass=pw'

           https://server/path'?ssl_clientcert=/entitlement/1234.pem&ssl_clientkey=/entitlement/1234-key.pem'

           Disk volume (partition)
               Mandatory device parameter specifying the name of the block device to mount. The
               name of the optional filesystem defaults to "auto".

           hd:/subdir?device=/dev/sda1'&filesystem=reiserfs'

           Local directory tree

           dir:/directory/name

           Media in an ISO image (loopback mounted)
               + Mandatory iso parameter specifying the name of the iso file. Optional url
               parameter specifying the URL to the directory containing the iso file. Optional
               mnt parameter specifying the preferred attach point for the source media url.
               Optional filesystem name of the filesystem used in the iso file. Defaults to
               "auto".

           iso:/?iso=CD1.iso'&url=nfs://server/path/to/media'

           iso:/?iso=CD1.iso'&url=hd:/?device=/dev/hda'

           iso:/subdir?iso=DVD1.iso'&url=nfs://nfs-server/directory&mnt=/nfs/attach/point&filesystem=udf'

           NFS exported directory tree
               To use NFSv4 either use schema tnfsv4:// or pass an optional parameter type=nfs4.
               Additional mountoptions can be passed as comma separated list. Defaults to "ro".

           nfs://nfs-server/exported/path

           nfs://nfs-server/exported/path'?mountoptions=ro&type=nfs4'

           nfs4://nfs-server/exported/path'?mountoptions=ro'

           CIFS/SMB directory tree
               There is no difference between cifs and smb scheme (any more). In both cases the
               cifs filesystem is used. Additional mountoptions can be passed as comma separated
               list. Defaults to "ro,guest". Specify "noguest" to turn off "guest". This is
               necessary if Samba is configured to reject guest connections. + Optional workgroup
               or domain parameter set the name of the workgroup. As alternative to passing
               username:password in the URI authority the parameters user and pass can be used.

           smb://servername/share/path/on/the/share

           cifs://usern:passw@servername/share/path/on/the/share'?mountoptions=ro,noguest'

           cifs://usern:passw@servername/share/path/on/the/share'?workgroup=mygroup'

           cifs://servername/share/path/on/the/share'?user=usern&pass=passw'

           OpenSUSE Build Build Service (OBS) repositories
               Zypper also accepts special URIs identifying openSUSE Build Service (OBS)
               repositories in the addrepo command. These URIs have the form of
               obs://’project'/[platform], where project is the name of the OBS project and
               platform is the target platform (OS) for which the repository is intended. + If
               platform is omitted, openSUSE_$releasever is used unless a value for obs.platform
               is defined in zypper.conf. If you are following openSUSE_Factory or
               openSUSE_Tumbleweed you may need to set these as your default platform. But we can
               only guess, how the directory containing the repository that fits your
               distribution is named on the server. In case of doubt you need to look up the
               right URL in a browser.

           obs://zypp:Head/

           obs://zypp:Head/openSUSE_Factory

           obs://zypp:Head/openSUSE_Factory_Staging_Gcc49_standard

                {nop}
               ~~~~~~

           addrepo (ar) [options] URI alias

           addrepo (ar) [options] FILE.repo
               Add a new repository specified by URI and assign specified alias to it or specify
               URI to a .repo file. + Newly added repositories have auto-refresh disabled by
               default (except for repositories imported from a .repo, having the auto-refresh
               enabled). To enable auto-refresh use addrepo -f, or the --refresh option of the
               modifyrepo command. + Also, this command does not automatically refresh the newly
               added repositories. The repositories will get refreshed when used for the first
               time, or you can use the refresh command after finishing your modifications with
               *repo commands.

               -r, --repo file.repo
                   Read URI and alias from specified .repo file

               -c, --check
                   Probe given URI.

               -C, --no-check
                   Don’t probe URI, probe later during refresh.

               -n, --name name
                   Specify descriptive name for the repository.

               -e, --enable
                   Enable the repository (the default).

               -d, --disable
                   Add the repository as disabled. Repositories are added as enabled by default.

               -f, --refresh
                   Enable autorefresh of the repository. The autorefresh is disabled by default
                   when adding new repositories.

               -F, --no-refresh
                   Disable auto-refresh for the repository.

               -p, --priority positive-integer
                   Set the priority of the repository. Priority of 1 is the highest, the higher
                   the number the lower the priority. -p 0 will set the priority back to the
                   default (99). Packages from repositories with higher priority will be
                   preferred even in case there is a higher installable version available in the
                   repository with a lower priority.

               -k, --keep-packages
                   Enable RPM files caching for the repository.

               -K, --no-keep-packages
                   Disable RPM files caching.

               -g, --gpgcheck
                   Enable GPG check for this repository. The behavior as described in section GPG
                   checks.

               --gpgcheck-strict
                   Enable strict GPG check for this repository. Even packages from signed
                   repositories need a valid GPG signature and using unsigned packages must be
                   confirmed.

               --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned
                   Short hand for --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned-repo
                   --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned-package

               --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned-repo
                   Enable GPG check but allow the repository metadata to be unsigned.

               --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned-package
                   Enable GPG check but allow installing unsigned packages from this repository.

               -G, --no-gpgcheck
                   Disable GPG check for this repository. + Disabling GPG checks is not
                   recommended. Signing data enables the recipient to verify that no
                   modifications occurred after the data were signed. Accepting data with no,
                   wrong or unknown signature can lead to a corrupted system and in extreme cases
                   even to a system compromise.

               --default-gpgcheck
                   Use the global GPG check settings defined in /etc/zypp/zypp.conf. This is the
                   default. + Unless you have modified your zypp.conf settings, this is the same
                   as --gpgcheck, the behavior as described in section GPG checks.

               Examples:

                   $ zypper ar -c -n 'Packman 11.1 repo' http://packman.iu-bremen.de/suse/11.1
                   packman
                       Add a HTTP repository, probe it, name it Packman 11.1 repo, and use
                       packman as alias.

                   $ zypper ar
                   https://download.opensuse.org/repositories/zypp:/svn/openSUSE_Factory/zypp:svn.repo

                   $ zypper ar myreposbackup.repo
                       Add repositories from a .repo file.

           removerepo (rr) [options] alias|name|#|URI...
               Delete repositories specified by aliases, names, numbers, URIs or one of the
               aggregate options.

               --loose-auth
                   Ignore user authentication data in the URI

               --loose-query
                   Ignore query string in the URI

               -a, --all
                   Apply changes to all repositories.

               -l, --local
                   Apply changes to all local repositories.

               -t, --remote
                   Apply changes to all remote repositories (http/https/ftp).

               -m, --medium-type type
                   Apply changes to repositories of specified type. The type corresponds to the
                   repository URI scheme identifier like http, dvd, etc. You can find complete
                   list of valid types at http://en.opensuse.org/openSUSE:Libzypp_URIs.

           repos (lr) [options] [repo]...
               List all defined repositories or show detailed information about those specified
               as arguments + The following data can be printed for each repository found on the
               system: # (repository number), Alias (unique identifier), Name, Enabled (whether
               the repository is enabled), GPG Check (whether GPG check for repository metadata
               (r) and/or downloaded rpm packages (p) is enabled), Refresh (whether auto-refresh
               is enabled for the repository), Priority, Type (repository meta-data type: rpm-md,
               yast2, plaindir). Which of the data is shown is determined by command line options
               listed below and the main.repoListColumns setting from zypper.conf. By default, #,
               Alias, Name, Enabled, GPG Check and Refresh is shown. + Repository number is a
               unique identifier of the repository in current set of repositories. If you add,
               remove or change a repository, the numbers may change. Keep that in mind when
               using the numbers with the repository handling commands. On the other hand, using
               the alias instead of the number is always safe. + To show detailed information
               about specific repositories, specify them as arguments, either by alias, name,
               number from simple zypper lr, or by URI; e.g. fB zypper lr factory, or zypper lr
               2.

               -e, --export FILE.repo|-
                   This option causes zypper to write repository definition of all defined
                   repositories into a single file in repo file format. If - is specified instead
                   of a file name, the repositories will be written to the standard output.

               -a, --alias
                   Add alias column to the output.

               -n, --name
                   Add name column to the output.

               -u, --uri
                   Add base URI column to the output.

               -p, --priority
                   Add repository priority column to the output.

               -r, --refresh
                   Add the autorefresh column to the output.

               -d, --details
                   Show more information like URI, priority, type, etc.

               -E, --show-enabled-only
                   Show enabled repositories only.

               -U, --sort-by-uri
                   Add base URI column and sort the list it.

               -P, --sort-by-priority
                   Add repository priority column and sort the list by it.

               -A, --sort-by-alias
                   Sort the list by alias.

               -N, --sort-by-name
                   Sort the list by name.

               Examples:

                   $ zypper repos -e myreposbackup.repo
                       Backup your repository setup:

                   $ zypper lr -pu
                       List repositories with their URIs and priorities:

           renamerepo (nr) alias|name|#|URI new-alias
               Assign new alias to the repository specified by alias, name, number, or URI.

               Examples:

                   $ zypper nr 8 myrepo
                       Rename repository number 8 to myrepo (useful if the repo has some dreadful
                       alias which is not usable on the command line).

           modifyrepo (mr) options alias|name|#|URI...

           modifyrepo (mr) options --all|--remote|--local|--medium-type
               Modify properties of repositories specified by alias, name, number, or URI or one
               of the aggregate options.

               -n, --name name
                   Set a descriptive name for the repository.

               -e, --enable
                   Enable the repository.

               -d, --disable
                   Disable the repository.

               -f, --refresh (legacy: -r)
                   Enable auto-refresh for the repository.

               -F, --no-refresh (legacy: -R)
                   Disable auto-refresh for the repository.

               -p, --priority positive-integer
                   Set the priority of the repository. Priority of 1 is the highest, the higher
                   the number the lower the priority. -p 0 will set the priority back to the
                   default (99). Packages from repositories with higher priority will be
                   preferred even in case there is a higher installable version available in the
                   repository with a lower priority.

               -k, --keep-packages
                   Enable RPM files caching.

               -K, --no-keep-packages
                   Disable RPM files caching.

               -g, --gpgcheck
                   Enable GPG check for this repository. The behavior as described in section GPG
                   checks.

               --gpgcheck-strict
                   Enable strict GPG check for this repository. Even packages from signed
                   repositories need a valid GPG signature and using unsigned packages must be
                   confirmed.

               --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned
                   Short hand for --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned-repo
                   --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned-package

               --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned-repo
                   Enable GPG check but allow the repository metadata to be unsigned.

               --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned-package
                   Enable GPG check but allow installing unsigned packages from this repository.

               -G, --no-gpgcheck
                   Disable GPG check for this repository. + Disabling GPG checks is not
                   recommended. Signing data enables the recipient to verify that no
                   modifications occurred after the data were signed. Accepting data with no,
                   wrong or unknown signature can lead to a corrupted system and in extreme cases
                   even to a system compromise.

               --default-gpgcheck
                   Use the global GPG check settings defined in /etc/zypp/zypp.conf. This is the
                   default. + Unless you have modified your zypp.conf settings, this is the same
                   as --gpgcheck, the behavior as described in section GPG checks.

               -a, --all
                   Apply changes to all repositories.

               -l, --local
                   Apply changes to all local repositories.

               -t, --remote
                   Apply changes to all remote repositories (http/https/ftp).

               -m, --medium-type type
                   Apply changes to repositories of specified type. The type corresponds to the
                   repository URI scheme identifier like http, dvd, etc. You can find complete
                   list of valid types at http://en.opensuse.org/openSUSE:Libzypp_URIs.

               Examples:

                   $ zypper mr -kt
                       Enable keeping of packages for all remote repositories.

                   $ zypper mr -er updates
                       Enable repository updates and switch on autorefresh for the repo.

                   $ zypper mr -da
                       Disable all repositories.

           refresh (ref) [alias|name|#|URI]...
               Refresh repositories specified by their alias, name, number, or URI. If no
               repositories are specified, all enabled repositories will be refreshed.

               -f, --force
                   Force a complete refresh of specified repositories. This option will cause
                   both the download of raw metadata and parsing of the metadata to be forced
                   even if everything indicates a refresh is not needed.

               -b, --force-build
                   Force only reparsing of cached metadata and rebuilding of the database. Raw
                   metadata download will not be forced.

               -d, --force-download
                   Force only download of current copy of repository metadata. Parsing and
                   rebuild of the database will not be forced.

               -B, --build-only
                   Only parse the metadata and build the database, don’t download raw metadata
                   into the cache. This will enable you to repair damaged database from cached
                   data without accessing network at all.

               -D, --download-only
                   Only download the raw metadata, don’t parse it or build the database.

               -s, --services
                   Refresh also services before refreshing repositories.

           clean (cc) [options] [alias|name|#|URI]...
               Clean the local caches for all known or specified repositories. By default, only
               caches of downloaded packages are cleaned.

               -m, --metadata
                   Clean repository metadata cache instead of package cache.

               -M, --raw-metadata
                   Clean repository raw metadata cache instead of package cache.

               -a, --all
                   Clean both repository metadata and package caches.

   Service Management
       The services, addservice, removeservice, modifyservice, and refresh-services commands
       serve for manipulating services. A service is specified by its URI and needs to have a
       unique alias defined (among both services and repositories).

       Standalone repositories (not belonging to any service) are treated like services, too. The
       ls command will list them, ms command will modify them, etc. Repository specific options,
       like --keep-packages are not available here, though. You can use repository handling
       commands to manipulate them.

       addservice (as) [options] URI alias
           Adds a service specified by URI to the system. The alias must be unique and serves to
           identify the service. + Newly added services are not refreshed automatically. Use the
           refresh-services command to refresh them. Zypper does not access the service URI when
           adding the service, so the type of the services is unknown until it is refreshed. +

       -n, --name name
           Specify descriptive name for the service.

       -e, --enable
           Enable the service (this is the default).

       -d, --disable
           Add the service as disabled.

       -f, --refresh
           Enable auto-refresh of the service.

       -F, --no-refresh
           Disable auto-refresh of the service.

       removeservice (rs) [options] alias|name|#|URI...
           Remove specified service from the system. Removing a service will also remove of all
           of its repositories.

           --loose-auth
               Ignore user authentication data in the URI.

           --loose-query
               Ignore query string in the URI.

       modifyservice (ms) options alias|name|#|URI

       modifyservice (ms) options --all|--remote|--local|--medium-type
           Modify properties of specified services.

           Common Options
               These options are common to all types of services and repositories.

           -n, --name name
               Set a descriptive name for the service.

           -e, --enable
               Enable a disabled service.

           -d, --disable
               Disable the service (but don’t remove it).

           -f, --refresh  (legacy: -r)
               Enable auto-refresh of the service.

           -F, --no-refresh  (legacy: -R)
               Disable auto-refresh of the service.

           -a, --all
               Apply changes to all services.

           -l, --local
               Apply changes to all local services.

           -t, --remote
               Apply changes to all remote services.

           -m, --medium-type type
               Apply changes to services of specified type.

           RIS Service Specific Options
               These options are ignored by services other than Repository Index Services.

           -i, --ar-to-enable alias
               Schedule an RIS service repository to be enabled at next service refresh.

           -I, --ar-to-disable alias
               Schedule an RIS service repository to be disabled at next service refresh.

           -j, --rr-to-enable alias
               Remove a RIS service repository to enable.

           -J, --rr-to-disable "alias'
               Remove a RIS service repository to disable.

           -k, --cl-to-enable
               Clear the list of RIS repositories to enable.

           -K, --cl-to-disable
               Clear the list of RIS repositories to disable.

       services (ls) [options]
           List services defined on the system.

           -u, --uri
               Show also base URI of repositories.

           -p, --priority
               Show also repository priority.

           -d, --details
               Show more information like URI, priority, type.

           -r, --with-repos
               Show also repositories belonging to the services.

           -P, --sort-by-priority
               Sort the list by repository priority.

           -E, --show-enabled-only
               Show enabled services only. If used together with --with-repos a disabled services
               owning (manually) enabled repositories are shown as well.

           -U, --sort-by-uri
               Sort the list by URI.

           -N, --sort-by-name
               Sort the list by name.

       refresh-services (refs) [options] alias|name|#|URI...
           Refreshing a service means executing the service’s special task. + RIS services add,
           remove, or modify repositories on your system based on current content of the
           repository index. A differing enabled/disabled state caused by manually calling
           modify-repo on a service repository however will not be reverted unless the
           --restore-status option is used, or the repository index explicitly requests the
           change. + Services only manage defined repositories, they do not refresh them. To
           refresh also repositories, use --with-repos option or the refresh command.

           -f, --force
               Force a complete refresh of specified services. This option will cause both the
               download of raw metadata and parsing of the metadata to be forced even if
               everything indicates a refresh is not needed.

           -r, --with-repos
               Refresh also the service repositories.

           -R, --restore-status
               Also restore service repositories enabled/disabled state to the repository index
               default. Useful after you manually changed some service repositories enabled
               state.

   Package Locks Management
       Package locks serve the purpose of preventing changes to the set of installed packages on
       the system. The locks are stored in form of a query in /etc/zypp/locks file (see also
       locks(5)). Packages matching this query are then forbidden to change their installed
       status; an installed package can’t be removed, not installed package can’t be installed.
       When requesting to install or remove such locked package, you will get a dependency
       problem dialog.

       locks (ll)
           List currently active package locks.

           -m, --matches
               Show the number of resolvables matched by each lock. This option requires loading
               the repositories.

           -s, --solvables
               List the resolvables matched by each lock. This option requires loading the
               repositories.

       addlock (al) [options] package-name...
           Add a package lock. Specify packages to lock by exact name or by a glob pattern using
           * and ? wildcard characters.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Restrict the lock to the specified repository.

           -t, --type type
               Lock only packages of specified type (default: package). See section Package Types
               for list of available package types.

       removelock (rl) [options] lock-number|package-name...
           Remove specified package lock. Specify the lock to remove by its number obtained with
           zypper locks or by the package name.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Restrict the lock to the specified repository.

           -t, --type type
               Restrict the lock to packages of specified type (default: package). See section
               Package Types for list of available package types.

       cleanlocks (cl)
           Remove unused locks. + This command looks for locks that do not currently (with regard
           to repositories used) lock any package and for each such lock it asks user whether to
           remove it.

   Other Commands
       versioncmp (vcmp) version1 version2
           Compare the versions supplied as arguments and tell whether version1 is older or newer
           than version2 or the two version strings match. + The default output is in
           human-friendly form. If --terse global option is used, the result is an integer
           number, negative/positive if version1 is older/newer than version2, zero if they
           match.

           -m, --match
               Takes missing release number as any release.

               For example:

                   $ zypper vcmp -m 0.15.3 0.15.3-2
                       0.15.3 matches 0.15.3-2

                   $ zypper vcmp 0.15.3 0.15.3-2
                       0.15.3 is older than 0.15.3-2

       targetos (tos)
           Shows the ID string of the target operating system. The string has a form of
           distroname-architecture. The string is determined by libzypp, the distroname is read
           from (current-rootdir)/etc/products.d/baseproduct and the architecture is determined
           from uname and CPU flags.

       licenses
           Prints a report about licenses and 'EULA’s of installed packages to standard output. +
           First, a list of all packages and their licenses and/or EULAs is shown. This is
           followed by a summary, including the total number of installed packages, the number of
           installed packages with EULAs that required a confirmation from the user. Since the
           EULAs are not stored on the system and can only be read from repository metadata, the
           summary includes also the number of installed packages that have their counterpart in
           repositories. The report ends with a list of all licenses uses by the installed
           packages. + This command can be useful for companies redistributing a custom
           distribution (like appliances) to figure out what licenses they are bound by.

       download
           Download rpms specified on the commandline to a local directory. + Per default
           packages are downloaded to the libzypp package cache (/var/cache/zypp/packages; for
           non-root users $XDG_CACHE_HOME/zypp/packages), but this can be changed by using the
           global --pkg-cache-dir option. + Parsable XML-output produced by zypper --xmlout will
           include a <download-result> node for each package zypper tried to download. Upon
           success the location of the downloaded package is found in the path attribute of the
           <localfile> subnode (xpath: download-result/localpath@path): +

                   <download-result>
                     <solvable>
                       <kind>package</kind>
                       <name>zypper</name>
                       <edition epoch="0" version="1.9.17" release="26.1"/>
                       <arch>x86_64</arch>
                       <repository name="repo-oss-update (13.1)" alias="openSUSE:repo-oss-update"/>
                     </solvable>
                     <localfile path="/var/cache/zypp/pac.../zypper-1.9.17-26.1.x86_64.rpm"/>
                   </download-result>

       --all-matches
                Download all versions matching the commandline arguments. Otherwise only the best
           version of each matching package is downloaded.

       --dry-run
           Don’t download any package, just report what would be done.

       source-download
           Download source rpms for all installed packages to a local directory.

           -d, --directory dir
               Download all source rpms to this directory. Default is
               /var/cache/zypper/source-download.

           --delete
               Delete extraneous source rpms in the local directory. This is the default.

           --no-delete
               Do not delete extraneous source rpms.

           --status
               Don’t download any source rpms, but show which source rpms are missing or
               extraneous.

       ps
           After each upgrade or removal of packages, there may be running processes on the
           system which continue to use meanwhile deleted files. zypper ps lists all processes
           using deleted files, together with the corresponding files, and a service name hint,
           in case it’s a known service. This gives a hint which services may need to be
           restarted after an update. Usually programs which continue to use deleted shared
           libraries. The list contains the following information:

           PID
               ID of the process

           PPID
               ID of the parent process

           UID
               ID of the user running the process

           Login
               Login name of the user running the process

           Command
               Command used to execute the process

           Service
               Service name, if command is associated with a system service

           Files
               The list of the deleted files

               -s, --short
                   Create a short table not showing the deleted files. Given twice, show only
                   processes which are associated with a system service. Given three times, list
                   the associated system service names only.

               --print format
                   For each associated system service print format on the standard output,
                   followed by a newline. Any %s directive in format is replaced by the system
                   service name.

               -d, --debugFile filename
                   Output a file with all proc entries that make it into the final set of used
                   open files. This can be submitted as additional information in a bug report.

               Examples:

           $ zypper ps -ss
               Show only processes associated with a system service.

           $ zypper ps -sss
               Short for zypper ps --print "%s"; list services which might need a restart.

           $ zypper ps --print "systemctl status %s"
               Let zypper print the commands to retrieve status information for services which
               might need a restart.

   Subommands
       subcommand
           Lists available subcommands in /usr/lib/zypper/commands and from elsewhere on your
           $PATH. See section SUBCOMMANDS for details.

GLOBAL OPTIONS

       -h, --help
           Help. If a command is specified together with --help option, command specific help is
           displayed.

       -V, --version
           Print zypper version number and exit.

       -c, --config file
           Use the specified zypper config file instead of the default zypper.conf. Other command
           line options specified together with --config and having their counterpart in the
           zypper config file are still preferred. + The order of preference with --config is as
           follows:

            1. Command line options

            2. --config file

            3. [/etc/zypp/zypp.conf] (system-wide defaults for all libzypp based applications)

                NOTE: Use and location of the system-wide /etc/zypp/zypp.conf can not be changed
           this way. It’s mentioned here just because some zypper command line options allow one
           to overwrite system-wide defaults defined in zypp.conf.

           + See also FILES section for more information.

       -v, --verbose
           Increase verbosity. For debugging output specify this option twice.

       -q, --quiet
           Suppress normal output. Brief (esp. result notification) messages and error messages
           will still be printed, though. If used together with conflicting --verbose option, the
           --verbose option takes preference.

       --[no-]color
           Whether to use colors in output if tty supports it. For details see the [color]
           section in zypper.conf.

       -A, --no-abbrev
           Do not abbreviate text in tables. By default zypper will try to abbreviate texts in
           some columns so that the table fits the width of the screen. If you need to see the
           whole text, use this option.

       -t, --terse
           Terse output for machine consumption. Implies --no-abbrev and --no-color.

       -s, --table-style
           Specifies table style to use. Table style is identified by an integer number.

       -n, --non-interactive
           Switches to non-interactive mode. In this mode zypper doesn’t ask user to type answers
           to various prompts, but uses default answers automatically. Those default answers also
           depend on other options like --no-gpg-checks or --ignore-unknown.

       --non-interactive-include-reboot-patches
           In non-interactive mode do not skip patches which have the rebootSuggested-flag set.
           Otherwise these patches are considered to be interactive, like patches including a
           licenses or some message to confirm. NOTE: This option does not turn on
           non-interactive mode.

       -x, --xmlout
           Switches to XML output. This option is useful for scripts or graphical frontends using
           zypper.

       -i, --ignore-unknown
           Ignore unknown packages. This option is useful for scripts, because when installing in
           --non-interactive mode zypper expects each command line argument to match at least one
           known package. Unknown names or globbing expressions with no match are treated as an
           error unless this option is used.

       -D, --reposd-dir dir
           Use the specified directory to look for the repository definition (.repo) files. The
           default value is /etc/zypp/repos.d.

       -C, --cache-dir dir
           Use an alternative root directory for all caches. The default value is
           /var/cache/zypp.

       --raw-cache-dir dir
           Use the specified directory for storing raw copies of repository metadata files. The
           default value is /var/cache/zypp/raw.

       --solv-cache-dir dir
           Use the specified directory to store the repository metadata cache database files
           (solv files). The default value is /var/cache/zypp/solv.

       --pkg-cache-dir dir
           Use the specified directory for storing downloaded rpm packages. (see addrepo
           --keep-packages) The default value is /var/cache/zypp/packages.

       --userdata string
           User data is expected to be a simple string without special chars or embedded newlines
           and may serve as transaction id. It will be written to all install history log entries
           created throughout this specific zypper call. It will also be passed on to zypp
           plugins executed during commit. This will enable e.g. a btrfs plugin to tag created
           snapshots with this string. For zypper itself this string has no special meaning.

       Repository Options:

       --no-gpg-checks
           Ignore GPG check failures and continue. If a GPG issue occurs when using this option
           zypper prints and logs a warning and automatically continues without interrupting the
           operation. Use this option with caution, as you can easily overlook security problems
           by using it. (see section GPG checks) +

       --gpg-auto-import-keys
           If new repository signing key is found, do not ask what to do; trust and import it
           automatically. This option causes that the new key is imported also in non-interactive
           mode, where it would otherwise got rejected.

       -p, --plus-repo URI
           Use an additional repository for this operation. The repository aliased tmp# and named
           by the specified URI will be added for this operation and removed at the end. You can
           specify this option multiple times.

       --plus-content tag
           Additionally use disabled repositories denoted by tag for this operation. If tag
           matches a repositories alias, name or URL, or is a keyword defined in the repositories
           metadata, the repository will be temporarily enabled for this operation. The
           repository will then be refreshed and used according to the commands rules. You can
           specify this option multiple times. + If a disabled repositories metadata are not
           available in the local cache, they will be downloaded to scan for matching keywords.
           Otherwise the keyword scan will use the metadata available in the local cache. Only if
           used together with the refresh command, a keyword scan will refresh all disabled
           repositories. +

           To refresh all disabled repositories metadata:
               zypper --plus-content '' ref

           To include a disabled repository repo-debug in a search:
               zypper --plus-content repo-debug search ...

           To search only in a disabled repository repo-debug:
               zypper --plus-content repo-debug search -r repo-debug ...

           To enable all repos providing the debug keyword:
               zypper in --plus-content debug  some -debuginfo or -debugsource package

       --disable-repositories
           Do not read metadata from repositories. This option will prevent loading of packages
           from repositories, thus making zypper work only with the installed packages (if
           --disable-system-resolvables was not specified).

       --no-refresh
           Do not auto-refresh repositories (ignore the auto-refresh setting). Useful to save
           time when doing operations like search, if there is not a need to have a completely up
           to date metadata.

       --no-cd
           Ignore CD/DVD repositories. When this option is specified, zypper acts as if the
           CD/DVD repositories were not defined at all.

       --no-remote
           Ignore remote repositories like http, ftp, smb and similar. This makes using zypper
           easier when being offline. When this option is specified, zypper acts as if the remote
           repositories were not defined at all.

       --releasever version
           Set the value of the $releasever variable in all .repo files (default: current
           distribution version). This can be used to switch to new distribution repositories
           when performing a distribution upgrade. See section Repository Management and the
           dist-upgrade (dup) command for details. +

           To check where you already use $releasever call:
               zypper --releasever @--HERE--@ lr -u

       Target Options:

       -R, --root dir
           Operates on a different root directory. This option influences the location of the
           repos.d directory and the metadata cache directory and also causes rpm to be run with
           the --root option to do the actual installation or removal of packages. See also the
           FILES section.

       --installroot dir
           Behaves like --root but shares the repositories with the host system.

       --disable-system-resolvables
           This option serves mainly for testing purposes. It will cause zypper to act as if
           there were no packages installed in the system. Use with caution as you can damage
           your system using this option.

SUBCOMMANDS

       Zypper subcommands are inspired by git(1). Subcommands are standalone executables that
       live in the zypper_execdir (/usr/lib/zypper/commands). For subcommands zypper provides a
       wrapper that knows where the subcommands live, and runs them by passing command options
       and arguments to them. If a subcommand is not found in the zypper_execdir, the wrapper
       will look in the rest of your $PATH for it. Thus, it’s possible to write local zypper
       extensions that don’t live in system space.

       This is how to add your own subcommand zypper mytask:

       ·   The executable must be named zypper-’mytask'.

       ·   The executable must be located your $PATH.

       ·   A manpage for zypper-’mytask' should be provided and explaining the commands options
           and return values. It will be shown when calling zypper help mytask.

       ·   Zypper built-in commands take precedence over subcommands with the same name.

       ·   It’s fine to call zypper or use libzypp from within your subcommand.

       You can use the built-in zypper subcommand command to get a list of all subcommands in
       zypper_execdir and from elsewhere on your $PATH.

       Using zypper global-options together with subcommands, as well as executing subcommands in
       zypper shell is currently not supported.

FILES

       /etc/zypp/zypper.conf, $HOME/.zypper.conf
           Global (system-wide) and user’s configuration file for zypper. These files are read
           when zypper starts up and --config option is not used. + User’s settings are preferred
           over global settings. Similarly, command line options override the settings in either
           of these files. To sum it up, the order of preference is as follows (from highest to
           lowest):

            1. Command line options

            2. $HOME/.zypper.conf

            3. /etc/zypp/zypper.conf

            4. [/etc/zypp/zypp.conf] (system-wide defaults for all libzypp based applications)

                See the comments in /etc/zypp/zypper.conf for a list and description of available
           options.

                NOTE: The system-wide /etc/zypp/zypp.conf is mentioned here just because some
           zypper command line options allow one to overwrite system-wide defaults defined there.
           zypp.conf and zypper.conf have different content and serve different purpose.

       /etc/zypp/zypp.conf
           ZYpp configuration file affecting all libzypp based applications. See the comments in
           the file for description of configurable properties. Many locations of files and
           directories listed in this section are configurable via zypp.conf. The location for
           this file itself can be redefined only by setting $ZYPP_CONF in the environment.

       /etc/zypp/locks
           File with package lock definitions, see locks(5) manual page for details. The package
           lock commands (addlock, removelock, etc.) can be used to manipulate this file. + This
           file is used by all ZYpp-based applications.

       /etc/zypp/repos.d
           Directory containing repository definition (*.repo) files. You can use the Repository
           Management commands to manipulate these files, or you can edit them yourself. In
           either case, after doing the modifications, executing *zypper refresh* is strongly
           recommended. + You can use the --reposd-dir global option to use an alternative
           directory for this purpose or the --root option to make this directory relative to the
           specified root directory. + This directory is used by all ZYpp-based applications.

       /etc/zypp/services.d
           Directory containing service definition (*.service) files. You can use the Service
           Management Commands to manipulate these files, or you can edit them yourself. Running
           *zypper refs* is recommended after modifications have been done. + This directory is
           used by all ZYpp-based applications.

       /usr/lib/zypper/commands
           System directory containing zypper extensions (see section SUBCOMMANDS)

       /var/cache/zypp/raw
           Directory for storing raw metadata contained in repositories. Use the --raw-cache-dir
           global option to use an alternative directory for this purpose or the --root option to
           make this directory relative to the specified root directory. + This directory is used
           by all ZYpp-based applications.

       /var/cache/zypp/solv
           Directory containing preparsed metadata in form of solv files. + This directory is
           used by all ZYpp-based applications.

       /var/cache/zypp/packages
           If keeppackages property is set for a repository (see the modifyrepo command), all the
           RPM file downloaded during installation will be kept here. See also the clean command
           for cleaning these cache directories. + This directory is used by all ZYpp-based
           applications.

       /var/log/zypp/history
           Installation history log.

       ~/.zypper_history
           Command history for the zypper shell (see the shell command).

EXIT CODES

       There are several exit codes defined for zypper built-in commands for use e.g. within
       scripts. These codes are defined in header file src/zypper-main.h found in zypper source
       package. Codes below 100 denote an error, codes above 100 provide a specific information,
       0 represents a normal successful run. Following is a list of these codes with
       descriptions:

       0 - ZYPPER_EXIT_OK
           Successful run of zypper with no special info.

       1 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ERR_BUG
           Unexpected situation occurred, probably caused by a bug.

       2 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ERR_SYNTAX
           zypper was invoked with an invalid command or option, or a bad syntax.

       3 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ERR_INVALID_ARGS
           Some of provided arguments were invalid. E.g. an invalid URI was provided to the
           addrepo command.

       4 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ERR_ZYPP
           A problem is reported by ZYPP library.

       5 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ERR_PRIVILEGES
           User invoking zypper has insufficient privileges for specified operation.

       6 - ZYPPER_EXIT_NO_REPOS
           No repositories are defined.

       7 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ZYPP_LOCKED
           The ZYPP library is locked, e.g. packagekit is running.

       8 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ERR_COMMIT
           An error occurred during installation or removal of packages. You may run zypper
           verify to repair any dependency problems.

       100 - ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_UPDATE_NEEDED
           Returned by the patch-check command if there are patches available for installation.

       101 - ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_SEC_UPDATE_NEEDED
           Returned by the patch-check command if there are security patches available for
           installation.

       102 - ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_REBOOT_NEEDED
           Returned after a successful installation of a patch which requires reboot of computer.

       103 - ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_RESTART_NEEDED
           Returned after a successful installation of a patch which requires restart of the
           package manager itself. This means that one of patches to be installed affects the
           package manager itself and the command used (e.g. zypper update) needs to be executed
           once again to install any remaining patches.

       104 - ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_CAP_NOT_FOUND
           Returned by the install and the remove command in case any of the arguments does not
           match any of the available (or installed) package names or other capabilities.

       105 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ON_SIGNAL
           Returned upon exiting after receiving a SIGINT or SIGTERM.

       106 - ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_REPOS_SKIPPED
           Some repository had to be disabled temporarily because it failed to refresh. You
           should check your repository configuration (e.g. zypper ref -f).

       107 - ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_RPM_SCRIPT_FAILED
           Installation basically succeeded, but some of the packages %post install scripts
           returned an error. These packages were successfully unpacked to disk and are
           registered in the rpm database, but due to the failed install script they may not work
           as expected. The failed scripts output might reveal what actually went wrong. Any
           scripts output is also logged to /var/log/zypp/history.

       Zypper subcommands (see section SUBCOMMANDS) may return different codes which should be
       described in the commands man page. Call zypper help subcommand to see the subcommands man
       page if one is provided.

HOMEPAGE

       https://github.com/openSUSE/zypper

AUTHORS

       The zypper project was started by Martin Vidner, Jan Kupec, Michael Andres, Duncan
       Mac-Vicar Prett, Josef Reidinger and Stanislav Visnovsky. Many people have later
       contributed to it.

SEE ALSO

       locks(5), zypper-log(8), YaST2(8)