Provided by: libsystemd-dev_245.4-4ubuntu3_amd64 bug


       sd_bus_add_object_vtable, sd_bus_add_fallback_vtable, SD_BUS_VTABLE_START,
       SD_BUS_WRITABLE_PROPERTY, SD_BUS_PROPERTY, SD_BUS_PARAM - Declare properties and methods
       for a D-Bus path


       #include <systemd/sd-bus-vtable.h>

       typedef int (*sd_bus_message_handler_t)(sd_bus_message *m, void *userdata,
                                               sd_bus_error *ret_error);

       typedef int (*sd_bus_property_get_t)(sd_bus *bus, const char *path, const char *interface,
                                            const char *property, sd_bus_message *reply,
                                            void *userdata, sd_bus_error *ret_error);

       typedef int (*sd_bus_property_set_t)(sd_bus *bus, const char *path, const char *interface,
                                            const char *property, sd_bus_message *value,
                                            void *userdata, sd_bus_error *ret_error);

       typedef int (*sd_bus_object_find_t)(const char *path, const char *interface,
                                           void *userdata, void **ret_found,
                                           sd_bus_error *ret_error);

       int sd_bus_add_object_vtable(sd_bus *bus, sd_bus_slot **slot, const char *path,
                                    const char *interface, const sd_bus_vtable *vtable,
                                    void *userdata);

       int sd_bus_add_fallback_vtable(sd_bus *bus, sd_bus_slot **slot, const char *prefix,
                                      const char *interface, const sd_bus_vtable *vtable,
                                      sd_bus_object_find_t find, void *userdata);



       SD_BUS_METHOD_WITH_NAMES_OFFSET( member, signature, in_names, result, out_names, handler,
       offset, flags)

       SD_BUS_METHOD_WITH_NAMES( member, signature, in_names, result, out_names, handler, flags)

       SD_BUS_METHOD_WITH_OFFSET( member, signature, result, handler, offset, flags)

       SD_BUS_METHOD( member, signature, result, handler, flags)

       SD_BUS_SIGNAL_WITH_NAMES( member, signature, names, flags)

       SD_BUS_SIGNAL( member, signature, flags)

       SD_BUS_WRITABLE_PROPERTY( member, signature, get, set, offset, flags)

       SD_BUS_PROPERTY( member, signature, get, offset, flags)



       sd_bus_add_object_vtable() is used to declare attributes for the path object path path
       connected to the bus connection bus under the interface interface. The table vtable may
       contain property declarations using SD_BUS_PROPERTY() or SD_BUS_WRITABLE_PROPERTY(),
       method declarations using SD_BUS_METHOD(), SD_BUS_METHOD_WITH_NAMES(),
       SD_BUS_METHOD_WITH_OFFSET(), or SD_BUS_METHOD_WITH_NAMES_OFFSET(), and signal declarations
       using SD_BUS_SIGNAL_WITH_NAMES() or SD_BUS_SIGNAL(), see below. The userdata parameter
       contains a pointer that will be passed to various callback functions. It may be specified
       as NULL if no value is necessary.

       sd_bus_add_fallback_vtable() is similar to sd_bus_add_object_vtable(), but is used to
       register "fallback" attributes. When looking for an attribute declaration, bus object
       paths registered with sd_bus_add_object_vtable() are checked first. If no match is found,
       the fallback vtables are checked for each prefix of the bus object path, i.e. with the
       last slash-separated components successively removed. This allows the vtable to be used
       for an arbitrary number of dynamically created objects.

       Parameter find is a function which is used to locate the target object based on the bus
       object path path. It must return 1 and set the ret_found output parameter if the object is
       found, return 0 if the object was not found, and return a negative errno-style error code
       or initialize the error structure ret_error on error. The pointer passed in ret_found will
       be used as the userdata parameter for the callback functions (offset by the offset offsets
       as specified in the vtable entries).

       For both functions, a match slot is created internally. If the output parameter slot is
       NULL, a "floating" slot object is created, see sd_bus_slot_set_floating(3). Otherwise, a
       pointer to the slot object is returned. In that case, the reference to the slot object
       should be dropped when the vtable is not needed anymore, see sd_bus_slot_unref(3).

   The sd_bus_vtable array
       The array consists of the structures of type sd_bus_vtable, but it should never be filled
       in manually, but through one of the following macros:

           Those must always be the first and last element.

           Declare a D-Bus method with the name member, parameter signature signature, result
           signature result. Parameters in_names and out_names specify the argument names of the
           input and output arguments in the function signature. The handler function handler
           must be of type sd_bus_message_handler_t. It will be called to handle the incoming
           messages that call this method. It receives a pointer that is the userdata parameter
           passed to the registration function offset by offset bytes. This may be used to pass
           pointers to different fields in the same data structure to different methods in the
           same vtable.  in_names and out_names should be created using the SD_BUS_PARAM() macro,
           see below. Parameter flags is a combination of flags, see below.

           variants which specify zero offset (userdata parameter is passed with no change),
           leave the names unset (i.e. no parameter names), or both.

           Declare a D-Bus signal with the name member, parameter signature signature, and
           argument names names.  names should be created using the SD_BUS_PARAM() macro, see
           below. Parameter flags is a combination of flags, see below.

           Equivalent to SD_BUS_SIGNAL_WITH_NAMES() with the names parameter unset (i.e. no
           parameter names).

           Declare a D-Bus property with the name member and value signature signature.
           Parameters get and set are the getter and setter methods. They are called with a
           pointer that is the userdata parameter passed to the registration function offset by
           offset bytes. This may be used pass pointers to different fields in the same data
           structure to different setters and getters in the same vtable. Parameter flags is a
           combination of flags, see below.

           The setter and getter methods may be omitted (specified as NULL), if the property has
           one of the basic types or "as" in case of read-only properties. In those cases, the
           userdata and offset parameters must together point to valid variable of the
           corresponding type. A default setter and getters will be provided, which simply copy
           the argument between this variable and the message.

           SD_BUS_PROPERTY() is used to define a read-only property.

           Parameter names should be wrapped in this macro, see the example below.

       The flags parameter is used to specify a combination of D-Bus annotations[1].

           Mark this vtable entry as deprecated using the org.freedesktop.DBus.Deprecated
           annotation in introspection data. If specified for SD_BUS_VTABLE_START(), the
           annotation is applied to the enclosing interface.

           Make this vtable entry hidden. It will not be shown in introspection data. If
           specified for SD_BUS_VTABLE_START(), all entries in the array are hidden.

           Mark this vtable entry as unprivileged. If not specified, the
           org.freedesktop.systemd1.Privileged annotation with value "true" will be shown in
           introspection data.

           Mark his vtable entry as a method that will not return a reply using the
           org.freedesktop.DBus.Method.NoReply annotation in introspection data.

           Those three flags correspond to different values of the
           org.freedesktop.DBus.Property.EmitsChangedSignal annotation, which specifies whether
           the org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.PropertiesChanged signal is emitted whenever the
           property changes.  SD_BUS_VTABLE_PROPERTY_CONST corresponds to const and means that
           the property never changes during the lifetime of the object it belongs to, so no
           signal needs to be emitted.  SD_BUS_VTABLE_PROPERTY_EMITS_CHANGE corresponds to true
           and means that the signal is emitted.  SD_BUS_VTABLE_PROPERTY_EMITS_INVALIDATION
           corresponds to invalidates and means that the signal is emitted, but the value is not
           included in the signal.

           Mark this vtable property entry as requiring explicit request to for the value to be
           shown (generally because the value is large or slow to calculate). This entry cannot
           be combined with SD_BUS_VTABLE_PROPERTY_EMITS_CHANGE, and will not be shown in
           property listings by default (e.g.  busctl introspect). This corresponds to the
           org.freedesktop.systemd1.Explicit annotation in introspection data.


       Example 1. Create a simple listener on the bus

           #include <errno.h>
           #include <stdbool.h>
           #include <stddef.h>
           #include <stdlib.h>
           #include <stdio.h>
           #include <systemd/sd-bus.h>

           #define _cleanup_(f) __attribute__((cleanup(f)))

           typedef struct object {
             char *name;
             uint32_t number;
           } object;

           static int method(sd_bus_message *m, void *userdata, sd_bus_error *error) {
             printf("Got called with userdata=%p\n", userdata);
             return 1;

           static const sd_bus_vtable vtable[] = {
                       "Method1", "s", "s", method, 0),
                       "so", SD_BUS_PARAM(string) SD_BUS_PARAM(path),
                       "s", SD_BUS_PARAM(returnstring),
                       method, offsetof(object, number),
                       "AutomaticStringProperty", "s", NULL, NULL,
                       offsetof(object, name),
                       "AutomaticIntegerProperty", "u", NULL, NULL,
                       offsetof(object, number),

           #define check(x) ({                             \
             int r = x;                                    \
             errno = r < 0 ? -r : 0;                       \
             printf(#x ": %m\n");                          \
             if (r < 0)                                    \
               return EXIT_FAILURE;                        \

           int main(int argc, char **argv) {
             _cleanup_(sd_bus_flush_close_unrefp) sd_bus *bus = NULL;


             object object = { .number = 666 };
             check(( = strdup("name")) != NULL);

             check(sd_bus_add_object_vtable(bus, NULL, "/object",

             for (;;) {
               check(sd_bus_wait(bus, UINT64_MAX));
               check(sd_bus_process(bus, NULL));


             return 0;

       This creates a simple client on the bus (the user bus, when run as normal user). We may
       use the D-Bus org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable.Introspect call to acquire the XML
       description of the interface:

           <!DOCTYPE node PUBLIC "-//freedesktop//DTD D-BUS Object Introspection 1.0//EN"
            <interface name="org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer">
             <method name="Ping"/>
             <method name="GetMachineId">
              <arg type="s" name="machine_uuid" direction="out"/>
            <interface name="org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable">
             <method name="Introspect">
              <arg name="data" type="s" direction="out"/>
            <interface name="org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties">
             <method name="Get">
              <arg name="interface" direction="in" type="s"/>
              <arg name="property" direction="in" type="s"/>
              <arg name="value" direction="out" type="v"/>
             <method name="GetAll">
              <arg name="interface" direction="in" type="s"/>
              <arg name="properties" direction="out" type="a{sv}"/>
             <method name="Set">
              <arg name="interface" direction="in" type="s"/>
              <arg name="property" direction="in" type="s"/>
              <arg name="value" direction="in" type="v"/>
             <signal name="PropertiesChanged">
              <arg type="s" name="interface"/>
              <arg type="a{sv}" name="changed_properties"/>
              <arg type="as" name="invalidated_properties"/>
            <interface name="org.freedesktop.systemd.VtableExample">
             <method name="Method1">
              <arg type="s" direction="in"/>
              <arg type="s" direction="out"/>
             <method name="Method2">
              <arg type="s" name="string" direction="in"/>
              <arg type="o" name="path" direction="in"/>
              <arg type="s" name="returnstring" direction="out"/>
              <annotation name="org.freedesktop.DBus.Deprecated" value="true"/>
             <property name="AutomaticStringProperty" type="s" access="readwrite">
             <property name="AutomaticIntegerProperty" type="u" access="readwrite">
              <annotation name="org.freedesktop.DBus.Property.EmitsChangedSignal" value="invalidates"/>


       On success, sd_bus_add_object_vtable and sd_bus_add_fallback_vtable calls return 0 or a
       positive integer. On failure, they return a negative errno-style error code.

       Returned errors may indicate the following problems:

           One of the required parameters is NULL or invalid. A reserved D-Bus interface was
           passed as the interface parameter.

           The bus cannot be resolved.

           The bus was created in a different process.

           Memory allocation failed.

           sd_bus_add_object_vtable and sd_bus_add_fallback_vtable have been both called for the
           same bus object path, which is not allowed.

           This vtable has already been registered for this interface and path.


       These APIs are implemented as a shared library, which can be compiled and linked to with
       the libsystemd pkg-config(1) file.


       sd-bus(3), busctl(1)


        1. D-Bus annotations