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       ssh - Main API of the ssh application


       This is the interface module for the SSH application. The Secure Shell (SSH) Protocol is a
       protocol for secure remote login and  other  secure  network  services  over  an  insecure
       network.  See  ssh(7)  for  details  of  supported  RFCs, versions, algorithms and unicode

       With the SSH application it is possible to start clients  and to start daemons  (servers).

       Clients are started with  connect/2,  connect/3  or  connect/4.  They  open  an  encrypted
       connection  on  top  of TCP/IP. In that encrypted connection one or more channels could be
       opened with ssh_connection:session_channel/2,4.

       Each channel is an isolated  "pipe"  between  a  client-side  process  and  a  server-side
       process.  Those  process  pairs  could  handle for example file transfers (sftp) or remote
       command execution (shell, exec and/or cli). If a custom shell is implemented, the user  of
       the  client  could  execute  the  special  commands  remotely.  Note  that the user is not
       necessarily a human but probably a system interfacing the SSH app.

       A  server-side  subssystem  (channel)   server   is   requested   by   the   client   with

       A  server  (daemon)  is  started  with  daemon/1,  daemon/2  or daemon/3. Possible channel
       handlers (subsystems) are declared with the subsystem option when the daemon is started.

       To just run a shell on a remote machine, there are functions that bundles the needed three
       steps  needed  into  one:  shell/1,2,3.  Similarily,  to just open an sftp (file transfer)
       connection to a remote machine, the simplest way is to use ssh_sftp:start_channel/1,2,3.

       To write your own client channel handler, use the behaviour ssh_client_channel. For server
       channel handlers use ssh_server_channel behaviour (replaces ssh_daemon_channel).

       Both  clients  and daemons accepts options that controls the exact behaviour. Some options
       are common to both. The three sets are called Client Options, Daemon  Options  and  Common

       The descriptions of the options uses the Erlang Type Language with explaining text.

       The User's Guide has examples and a Getting Started section.


       A  number  of  objects must be present for the SSH application to work. Thoose objects are
       per default stored in files. The default names, paths and file formats are the same as for
       OpenSSH.  Keys could be generated with the ssh-keygen program from OpenSSH. See the User's

       The paths could easily be changed by options: user_dir and system_dir.

       A completly different storage could be interfaced by writing call-back modules  using  the
       behaviours  ssh_client_key_api  and/or  ssh_server_key_api. A callback module is installed
       with the option key_cb to the client and/or the daemon.

       The keys are by default stored in files:

         * Mandatory: one or more Host key(s) , both private and public. Default is to store them
           in the directory /etc/ssh in the files

           * ssh_host_dsa_key and

           * ssh_host_rsa_key and

           * ssh_host_ecdsa_key and

           The host keys directory could be changed with the option system_dir.

         * Optional:  one  or more User's public key  in case of publickey authorization. Default
           is to store them concatenated in the file  .ssh/authorized_keys  in  the  user's  home

           The user keys directory could be changed with the option user_dir.

       The  keys  and some other data are by default stored in files in the directory .ssh in the
       user's home directory.

       The directory could be changed with the option user_dir.

         * Optional: a list of Host public key(s)  for previously connected hosts. This  list  is
           handled  by the SSH application without any need of user assistance. The default is to
           store them in the file known_hosts.

           The host_accepting_client_options() are associated with this list of keys.

         * Optional: one or more User's private key(s)  in case of publickey  authorization.  The
           default files are

           * id_dsa and

           * id_rsa and

           * id_ecdsa and


   Client Options
       client_options() = [client_option()]

       client_option() =
           ssh_file:pubkey_passphrase_client_options() |
           host_accepting_client_options() |
           authentication_client_options() |
           diffie_hellman_group_exchange_client_option() |
           connect_timeout_client_option() |
           recv_ext_info_client_option() |
           opaque_client_options() |
           gen_tcp:connect_option() |

              Options  for  clients.  The  individual  options  are further explained below or by
              following the hyperlinks.

       host_accepting_client_options() =
           {silently_accept_hosts, accept_hosts()} |
           {user_interaction, boolean()} |
           {save_accepted_host, boolean()} |
           {quiet_mode, boolean()}

       accept_hosts() =
           boolean() |
           accept_callback() |
           {HashAlgoSpec :: fp_digest_alg(), accept_callback()}

       fp_digest_alg() = md5 | crypto:sha1() | crypto:sha2()

       accept_callback() =
           fun((PeerName :: string(), fingerprint()) -> boolean())

       fingerprint() = string() | [string()]

                  This option guides the connect function on how to act when the connected server
                  presents  a Host Key that the client has not seen before. The default is to ask
                  the user with a question on stdio of whether to accept or reject the  new  Host
                  Key.  See  the  option user_dir for specifying the path to the file known_hosts
                  where previously accepted Host Keys are recorded. See also  the  option  key_cb
                  for the general way to handle keys.

                  The option can be given in three different forms as seen above:

                  * The  value  is  a  boolean().  The value true will make the client accept any
                    unknown Host Key without any user interaction. The value false preserves  the
                    default behaviour of asking the user on stdio.

                  * An  accept_callback()  will  be called and the boolean return value true will
                    make the client accept the Host Key. A return value of false  will  make  the
                    client  to reject the Host Key and as a result the connection will be closed.
                    The arguments to the fun are:

                    * PeerName - a string with the name or address of the remote host.

                    * FingerPrint    -    the    fingerprint    of    the     Host     Key     as
                      public_key:ssh_hostkey_fingerprint/1 calculates it.

                  * A  tuple  {HashAlgoSpec,  accept_callback}.  The HashAlgoSpec specifies which
                    hash algorithm shall be used to calculate the fingerprint used in the call of
                    the  accept_callback(). The HashALgoSpec is either an atom or a list of atoms
                    as the first argument in public_key:ssh_hostkey_fingerprint/2.  If  it  is  a
                    list   of   hash   algorithm   names,   the   FingerPrint   argument  in  the
                    accept_callback() will be a list of fingerprints in the  same  order  as  the
                    corresponding name in the HashAlgoSpec list.

                  If  false, disables the client to connect to the server if any user interaction
                  is needed, such as accepting the server to be added to the known_hosts file, or
                  supplying a password.

                  Even if user interaction is allowed it can be suppressed by other options, such
                  as silently_accept_hosts and password. However, those options  are  not  always
                  desirable to use from a security point of view.

                  Defaults to true.

                  If true, the client saves an accepted host key to avoid the accept question the
                  next time the same host is connected. If the option key_cb is not present,  the
                  key is saved in the file "known_hosts". See option user_dir for the location of
                  that file.

                  If false, the key is not saved and the key will still be unknown  at  the  next
                  access of the same host.

                  Defaults to true

                  If true, the client does not print anything on authorization.

                  Defaults to false

       authentication_client_options() =
           {user, string()} | {password, string()}

                  Provides  the  username.  If  this  option  is  not  given,  ssh reads from the
                  environment (LOGNAME or USER on UNIX, USERNAME on Windows).

                  Provides a password for password authentication. If this option is  not  given,
                  the  user  is  asked  for  a password, if the password authentication method is

       diffie_hellman_group_exchange_client_option() =
            {Min :: integer() >= 1,
             I :: integer() >= 1,
             Max :: integer() >= 1}}

              Sets the three diffie-hellman-group-exchange parameters that guides  the  connected
              server  in  choosing  a  group.  See RFC 4419 for the details. The default value is
              {1024, 6144, 8192}.

       connect_timeout_client_option() = {connect_timeout, timeout()}

              Sets a timeout on the transport layer connect time. For  gen_tcp  the  time  is  in
              milli-seconds and the default value is infinity.

              See the parameter Timeout in connect/4 for a timeout of the negotiation phase.

       recv_ext_info_client_option() = {recv_ext_info, boolean()}

              Make the client tell the server that the client accepts extension negotiation, that
              is, include ext-info-c in the kexinit message sent. See RFC 8308  for  details  and
              ssh(7) for a list of currently implemented extensions.

              Default value is true which is compatible with other implementations not supporting

   Daemon Options (Server Options)
       daemon_options() = [daemon_option()]

       daemon_option() =
           subsystem_daemon_option() |
           shell_daemon_option() |
           exec_daemon_option() |
           ssh_cli_daemon_option() |
           authentication_daemon_options() |
           diffie_hellman_group_exchange_daemon_option() |
           negotiation_timeout_daemon_option() |
           hardening_daemon_options() |
           callbacks_daemon_options() |
           send_ext_info_daemon_option() |
           opaque_daemon_options() |
           gen_tcp:listen_option() |

              Options for daemons. The individual options  are  further  explained  below  or  by
              following the hyperlinks.

       subsystem_daemon_option() = {subsystems, subsystem_specs()}

       subsystem_specs() = [subsystem_spec()]

       subsystem_spec() = {Name :: string(), mod_args()}

              Defines a subsystem in the daemon.

              The  subsystem_name  is  the  name that a client requests to start with for example

              The channel_callback is the module that implements the ssh_server_channel (replaces
              ssh_daemon_channel)  behaviour  in the daemon. See the section Creating a Subsystem
              in the User's Guide for more information and an example.

              If the subsystems option is not present, the value of  ssh_sftpd:subsystem_spec([])
              is  used.  This enables the sftp subsystem by default. The option can be set to the
              empty list if you do not want the daemon to run any subsystems.

       shell_daemon_option() = {shell, shell_spec()}

       shell_spec() = mod_fun_args() | shell_fun() | disabled

       shell_fun() = 'shell_fun/1'() | 'shell_fun/2'()

       'shell_fun/1'() = fun((User :: string()) -> pid())

       'shell_fun/2'() =
           fun((User :: string(), PeerAddr :: inet:ip_address()) -> pid())

              Defines the read-eval-print loop used in a daemon when a shell is requested by  the
              client. The default is to use the Erlang shell: {shell, start, []}

              See  the  option  exec-option  for  a description of how the daemon executes shell-
              requests and exec-requests depending on the shell- and exec-options.

       exec_daemon_option() = {exec, exec_spec()}

       exec_spec() =
           {direct, exec_fun()} | disabled | deprecated_exec_opt()

       exec_fun() = 'exec_fun/1'() | 'exec_fun/2'() | 'exec_fun/3'()

       'exec_fun/1'() = fun((Cmd :: string()) -> exec_result())

       'exec_fun/2'() =
           fun((Cmd :: string(), User :: string()) -> exec_result())

       'exec_fun/3'() =
           fun((Cmd :: string(),
                User :: string(),
                ClientAddr :: ip_port()) ->

       exec_result() =
           {ok, Result :: term()} | {error, Reason :: term()}

              This option changes how the daemon executes exec-requests from clients. The term in
              the  return  value is formatted to a string if it is a non-string type. No trailing
              newline is added in the ok-case.

              See the User's Guide section on One-Time Execution for examples.

              Error texts are returned on channel-type 1 which usually is piped to stderr on  e.g
              Linux systems. Texts from a successful execution are returned on channel-type 0 and
              will in similar manner be piped to stdout. The exit-status code is  set  to  0  for
              success  and 255 for errors. The exact results presented on the client side depends
              on the client and the client's operating system.

              In case of the {direct, exec_fun()} variant or no exec-option  at  all,  all  reads
              from standard_input will be from the received data-events of type 0. Those are sent
              by the client. Similarily all writes to standard_output will be sent as data-events
              to  the client. An OS shell client like the command 'ssh' will usally use stdin and
              stdout for the user interface.

              The option cooperates with the daemon-option shell in the following way:

                1. If neither the exec-option nor the shell-option is present::
                  The default Erlang evaluator is used both for  exec  and  shell  requests.  The
                  result is returned to the client.

                2.  If  the  exec_spec's  value  is  disabled (the shell-option may or may not be
                  No exec-requests are executed but shell-requests are not affected, they  follow
                  the shell_spec's value.

                3. If the exec-option is present and the exec_spec value =/= disabled (the shell-
                option may or may not be present)::
                  The exec_spec fun() is called with the same number of parameters as  the  arity
                  of  the  fun,  and the result is returned to the client. Shell-requests are not
                  affected, they follow the shell_spec's value.

                4. If the exec-option is absent, and the shell-option is present with the default
                Erlang shell as the shell_spec's value::
                  The  default  Erlang  evaluator  is  used both for exec and shell requests. The
                  result is returned to the client.

                5. If the exec-option is absent, and the shell-option is  present  with  a  value
                that is neither the default Erlang shell nor the value disabled::
                  The  exec-request  is  not  evaluated  and  an error message is returned to the
                  client. Shell-requests are executed according to the value of the shell_spec.

                6. If the exec-option is absent, and the shell_spec's value is disabled::
                  Exec requests are executed by the default shell,  but  shell-requests  are  not

              If  a custom CLI is installed (see the option ssh_cli) the rules above are replaced
              by thoose implied by the custom CLI.

              The exec-option has existed for a long time but has not previously been documented.
              The  old  definition  and  behaviour  are  retained but obey the rules 1-6 above if
              conflicting. The old and undocumented style should not be used in new programs.

       deprecated_exec_opt() = function() | mod_fun_args()

              Old-style exec specification that are kept for compatibility,  but  should  not  be
              used in new programs

       ssh_cli_daemon_option() = {ssh_cli, mod_args() | no_cli}

              Provides your own CLI implementation in a daemon.

              It  is a channel callback module that implements a shell and command execution. The
              shell's read-eval-print loop can be customized, using the option shell. This  means
              less  work  than  implementing an own CLI channel. If ssh_cli is set to no_cli, the
              CLI channels like shell and exec are  disabled  and  only  subsystem  channels  are

       authentication_daemon_options() =
           ssh_file:system_dir_daemon_option() |
           {auth_method_kb_interactive_data, prompt_texts()} |
           {user_passwords, [{UserName :: string(), Pwd :: string()}]} |
           {password, string()} |
           {pwdfun, pwdfun_2() | pwdfun_4()}

       prompt_texts() = kb_int_tuple() | kb_int_fun_3()

       kb_int_tuple() =
           {Name :: string(),
            Instruction :: string(),
            Prompt :: string(),
            Echo :: boolean()}

       kb_int_fun_3() =
           fun((Peer :: ip_port(), User :: string(), Service :: string()) ->

       pwdfun_2() =
           fun((User :: string(), Password :: string()) -> boolean())

       pwdfun_4() =
           fun((User :: string(),
                Password :: string(),
                PeerAddress :: ip_port(),
                State :: any()) ->
                   boolean() |
                   disconnect |
                   {boolean(), NewState :: any()})

                  Sets  the  text strings that the daemon sends to the client for presentation to
                  the user when using keyboard-interactive authentication.

                  If the fun/3 is used, it is called when the actual  authentication  occurs  and
                  may therefore return dynamic data like time, remote ip etc.

                  The parameter Echo guides the client about need to hide the password.

                  The  default  value is: {auth_method_kb_interactive_data, {"SSH server", "Enter
                  password for \""++User++"\"", "password: ", false}>

                  Provides passwords for password authentication. The  passwords  are  used  when
                  someone  tries  to  connect  to  the  server and public key user-authentication
                  fails. The option provides a list of  valid  usernames  and  the  corresponding

                  Provides a global password that authenticates any user.

                Intended to facilitate testing.

                From a security perspective this option makes the server very vulnerable.

                pwdfun with pwdfun_4():
                  Provides  a  function  for  password validation. This could used for calling an
                  external system or handeling passwords stored as hash values.

                  This fun can also be used to make delays in authentication tries for example by
                  calling timer:sleep/1.

                  To  facilitate  for instance counting of failed tries, the State variable could
                  be used. This state is per connection only. The first time the pwdfun is called
                  for a connection, the State variable has the value undefined.

                  The fun should return:

                  * true if the user and password is valid

                  * false if the user or password is invalid

                  * disconnect  if  a  SSH_MSG_DISCONNECT  message should be sent immediately. It
                    will be followed by a close of the underlying tcp connection.

                  * {true, NewState:any()} if the user and password is valid

                  * {false, NewState:any()} if the user or password is invalid

                  A third usage is to block login attempts from a missbehaving  peer.  The  State
                  described above can be used for this. The return value disconnect is useful for

                pwdfun with pwdfun_2():
                  Provides a function for password validation. This function is called with  user
                  and password as strings, and returns:

                  * true if the user and password is valid

                  * false if the user or password is invalid

                  This variant is kept for compatibility.

       diffie_hellman_group_exchange_daemon_option() =
            [explicit_group()] |
            explicit_group_file() |
            ssh_moduli_file()} |
           {dh_gex_limits, {Min :: integer() >= 1, Max :: integer() >= 1}}

       explicit_group() =
           {Size :: integer() >= 1,
            G :: integer() >= 1,
            P :: integer() >= 1}

       explicit_group_file() = {file, string()}

       ssh_moduli_file() = {ssh_moduli_file, string()}

                  Defines  the  groups  the  server  may  choose among when diffie-hellman-group-
                  exchange is negotiated. See RFC 4419 for details. The three  variants  of  this
                  option are:

                    The  groups  are given explicitly in this list. There may be several elements
                    with the same Size. In such a case, the server will choose  one  randomly  in
                    the negotiated Size.

                    The      file      must      have      one      or      more     three-tuples
                    {Size=integer(),G=integer(),P=integer()} terminated by a  dot.  The  file  is
                    read when the daemon starts.

                    The  file must be in ssh-keygen moduli file format. The file is read when the
                    daemon starts.

                  The default list is fetched from the public_key application.

                  Limits what a client can ask for in diffie-hellman-group-exchange.  The  limits
                  will  be  {MaxUsed  =  min(MaxClient,Max),  MinUsed = max(MinClient,Min)} where
                  MaxClient and MinClient are the values proposed by a connecting client.

                  The default value is {0,infinity}.

                  If MaxUsed < MinUsed in a key exchange, it will fail with a disconnect.

                  See RFC 4419 for the function of the Max and Min values.

       negotiation_timeout_daemon_option() =
           {negotiation_timeout, timeout()}

              Maximum time in milliseconds for the authentication negotiation. Defaults to 120000
              ms  (2  minutes). If the client fails to log in within this time, the connection is

       hardening_daemon_options() =
           {max_sessions, integer() >= 1} |
           {max_channels, integer() >= 1} |
           {parallel_login, boolean()} |
           {minimal_remote_max_packet_size, integer() >= 1}

                  The maximum number of simultaneous sessions that are accepted at any  time  for
                  this  daemon. This includes sessions that are being authorized. Thus, if set to
                  N, and N clients have connected but not started the login  process,  connection
                  attempt N+1 is aborted. If N connections are authenticated and still logged in,
                  no more logins are accepted until one of the existing ones log out.

                  The counter is per listening port. Thus, if two daemons are started,  one  with
                  {max_sessions,N}  and the other with {max_sessions,M}, in total N+M connections
                  are accepted for the whole ssh application.

                  Notice that if parallel_login is false, only one client at a time can be in the
                  authentication phase.

                  By default, this option is not set. This means that the number is not limited.

                  The  maximum  number of channels with active remote subsystem that are accepted
                  for each connection to this daemon

                  By default, this option is not set. This means that the number is not limited.

                  If set to false (the default value), only one login is handled at  a  time.  If
                  set to true, an unlimited number of login attempts are allowed simultaneously.

                  If  the  max_sessions option is set to N and parallel_login is set to true, the
                  maximum number of simultaneous login attempts at any time is  limited  to  N-K,
                  where K is the number of authenticated connections present at this daemon.

                Do  not  enable parallel_logins without protecting the server by other means, for
                example, by the max_sessions option or a firewall configuration. If set to  true,
                there is no protection against DOS attacks.

                  The  least  maximum  packet  size  that  the daemon will accept in channel open
                  requests from the client. The default value is 0.

       callbacks_daemon_options() =
            fun((User :: string(),
                 PeerAddress :: inet:ip_address(),
                 Reason :: term()) ->
                    term())} |
            fun((User :: string(),
                 PeerAddress :: inet:ip_address(),
                 Method :: string()) ->

                  Provides a fun to implement your own logging when a user authenticates  to  the

                  Provides a fun to implement your own logging when a user fails to authenticate.

       send_ext_info_daemon_option() = {send_ext_info, boolean()}

              Make  the  server  (daemon)  tell  the  client  that  the  server accepts extension
              negotiation, that is, include ext-info-s in the kexinit message sent. See RFC  8308
              for details and ssh(7) for a list of currently implemented extensions.

              Default value is true which is compatible with other implementations not supporting

   Options common to clients and daemons
       common_options() = [common_option()]

       common_option() =
           ssh_file:user_dir_common_option() |
           profile_common_option() |
           max_idle_time_common_option() |
           key_cb_common_option() |
           disconnectfun_common_option() |
           unexpectedfun_common_option() |
           ssh_msg_debug_fun_common_option() |
           rekey_limit_common_option() |
           id_string_common_option() |
           pref_public_key_algs_common_option() |
           preferred_algorithms_common_option() |
           modify_algorithms_common_option() |
           auth_methods_common_option() |
           inet_common_option() |

              The options above can be used both in clients and in daemons  (servers).  They  are
              further explained below.

       profile_common_option() = {profile, atom()}

              Used  together with ip-address and port to uniquely identify a ssh daemon. This can
              be useful in a virtualized environment, where there can be  more  that  one  server
              that  has  the same ip-address and port. If this property is not explicitly set, it
              is assumed that the the ip-address and port uniquely identifies the SSH daemon.

       max_idle_time_common_option() = {idle_time, timeout()}

              Sets a time-out on a connection when no channels are open.  Defaults  to  infinity.
              The unit is milliseconds.

              The timeout is not active until channels are started, so it does not limit the time
              from the connection creation to the first channel opening.

       rekey_limit_common_option() =
            Bytes ::
                limit_bytes() |
                {Minutes :: limit_time(), Bytes :: limit_bytes()}}

       limit_bytes() = integer() >= 0 | infinity

       limit_time() = integer() >= 1 | infinity

              Sets the limit when rekeying is to be initiated. Both the max time and  max  amount
              of data could be configured:

                * {Minutes, Bytes} initiate rekeying when any of the limits are reached.

                * Bytes  initiate  rekeying  when  Bytes  number  of bytes are transferred, or at
                  latest after one hour.

              When a rekeying is done, both  the  timer  and  the  byte  counter  are  restarted.
              Defaults to one hour and one GByte.

              If Minutes is set to infinity, no rekeying will ever occur due to that max time has
              passed. Setting Bytes to infinity will inhibit rekeying after a certain  amount  of
              data  has  been transferred. If the option value is set to {infinity, infinity}, no
              rekeying will be initiated. Note that rekeying initiated by the peer will still  be

       key_cb_common_option() =
            Module :: atom() | {Module :: atom(), Opts :: [term()]}}

              Module implementing the behaviour ssh_client_key_api and/or ssh_server_key_api. Can
              be used to customize the handling of public keys. If callback options are  provided
              along  with the module name, they are made available to the callback module via the
              options passed to it under the key 'key_cb_private'.

              The Opts defaults to [] when only the Module is specified.

              The default value of this option  is  {ssh_file,  []}.  See  also  the  manpage  of

              A call to the call-back function F will be

                     Module:F(..., [{key_cb_private,Opts}|UserOptions])

              where  ...  are  arguments to F as in ssh_client_key_api and/or ssh_server_key_api.
              The UserOptions are the options given to ssh:connect, ssh:shell or ssh:daemon.

       pref_public_key_algs_common_option() =
           {pref_public_key_algs, [pubkey_alg()]}

              List of user (client) public key algorithms to try to use.

              The  default  value  is  the   public_key   entry   in   the   list   returned   by

              If there is no public key of a specified type available, the corresponding entry is
              ignored. Note that the available set is dependent on the underlying  cryptolib  and
              current user's public keys.

              See also the option user_dir for specifying the path to the user's keys.

       disconnectfun_common_option() =
           {disconnectfun, fun((Reason :: term()) -> void | any())}

              Provides a fun to implement your own logging when the peer disconnects.

       unexpectedfun_common_option() =
            fun((Message :: term(), {Host :: term(), Port :: term()}) ->
                    report | skip)}

              Provides  a  fun  to  implement your own logging or other action when an unexpected
              message arrives. If the fun returns report the usual info report is issued  but  if
              skip is returned no report is generated.

       ssh_msg_debug_fun_common_option() =
                 AlwaysDisplay :: boolean(),
                 Msg :: binary(),
                 LanguageTag :: binary()) ->

              Provide  a  fun to implement your own logging of the SSH message SSH_MSG_DEBUG. The
              last three parameters are from  the  message,  see  RFC  4253,  section  11.3.  The
              connection_ref()  is  the reference to the connection on which the message arrived.
              The return value from the fun is not checked.

              The default behaviour is ignore the message. To get a  printout  for  each  message
              with  AlwaysDisplay  =  true, use for example {ssh_msg_debug_fun, fun(_,true,M,_)->
              io:format("DEBUG: ~p~n", [M]) end}

       id_string_common_option() =
            string() |
            random |
            {random, Nmin :: integer() >= 1, Nmax :: integer() >= 1}}

              The string the daemon will present to a  connecting  peer  initially.  The  default
              value is "Erlang/VSN" where VSN is the ssh application version number.

              The  value  random  will  cause  a  random  string to be created at each connection
              attempt. This is to make it a bit more difficult for a malicious peer to  find  the
              ssh software brand and version.

              The  value  {random,  Nmin,  Nmax}  will  make  a  random string with at least Nmin
              characters and at most Nmax characters.

       preferred_algorithms_common_option() =
           {preferred_algorithms, algs_list()}

       algs_list() = [alg_entry()]

       alg_entry() =
           {kex, [kex_alg()]} |
           {public_key, [pubkey_alg()]} |
           {cipher, double_algs(cipher_alg())} |
           {mac, double_algs(mac_alg())} |
           {compression, double_algs(compression_alg())}

       kex_alg() =
           'diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1' |
           'diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256' |
           'diffie-hellman-group1-sha1' | 'diffie-hellman-group14-sha1' |
           'diffie-hellman-group14-sha256' |
           'diffie-hellman-group16-sha512' |
           'diffie-hellman-group18-sha512' | 'curve25519-sha256' |
           '' | 'curve448-sha512' |
           'ecdh-sha2-nistp256' | 'ecdh-sha2-nistp384' |

       pubkey_alg() =
           'ecdsa-sha2-nistp256' | 'ecdsa-sha2-nistp384' |
           'ecdsa-sha2-nistp521' | 'ssh-ed25519' | 'ssh-ed448' |
           'rsa-sha2-256' | 'rsa-sha2-512' | 'ssh-dss' | 'ssh-rsa'

       cipher_alg() =
           '3des-cbc' | 'AEAD_AES_128_GCM' | 'AEAD_AES_256_GCM' |
           'aes128-cbc' | 'aes128-ctr' | '' |
           'aes192-ctr' | 'aes192-cbc' | 'aes256-cbc' | 'aes256-ctr' |
           '' | ''

       mac_alg() =
           'AEAD_AES_128_GCM' | 'AEAD_AES_256_GCM' | 'hmac-sha1' |
           'hmac-sha1-96' | 'hmac-sha2-256' | 'hmac-sha2-512'

       compression_alg() = none | zlib | ''

       double_algs(AlgType) =
           [{client2server, [AlgType]} | {server2client, [AlgType]}] |

              List of algorithms to use in the algorithm negotiation. The default algs_list() can
              be obtained from default_algorithms/0.

              If an alg_entry() is missing in the algs_list(), the default value is used for that

              Here is an example of this option:


              The example specifies different algorithms in the two directions (client2server and
              server2client),   for  cipher  but  specifies  the  same  algorithms  for  mac  and
              compression in both directions. The kex (key exchange) is implicit  but  public_key
              is set explicitly.

              For background and more examples see the User's Guide.

              If  an  algorithm name occurs more than once in a list, the behaviour is undefined.
              The tags in the property lists are also assumed to occur at most one time.

              Changing the values can make a connection less secure. Do  not  change  unless  you
              know  exactly  what you are doing. If you do not understand the values then you are
              not supposed to change them.

       modify_algorithms_common_option() =
           {modify_algorithms, modify_algs_list()}

       modify_algs_list() =
           [{append, algs_list()} |
            {prepend, algs_list()} |
            {rm, algs_list()}]

              Modifies  the  list  of  algorithms  to  use  in  the  algorithm  negotiation.  The
              modifications  are  applied  after the option preferred_algorithms (if existing) is

              The algoritm for modifications works like this:

                * Input is the modify_algs_list() and a set of algorithms  A  obtained  from  the
                  preferred_algorithms     option    if    existing,    or    else    from    the

                * The head of the modify_algs_list() modifies A giving the result A'.

                  The possible modifications are:

                  * Append or prepend supported but not  enabled  algorithm(s)  to  the  list  of
                    algorithms.  If  the  wanted  algorithms  already are in A they will first be
                    removed and then appended or prepended,

                  * Remove (rm) one or more algorithms from A.

                * Repeat the modification step  with  the  tail  of  modify_algs_list()  and  the
                  resulting A'.

              If  an  unsupported  algorithm  is  in  the modify_algs_list(), it will be silently

              If there are more than one modify_algorithms options, the result is undefined.

              Here is an example of this option:

                     [{prepend, [{kex, ['diffie-hellman-group1-sha1']}],
                     {rm,      [{compression, [none]}]}

              The example specifies that:

                * the old key exchange algorithm 'diffie-hellman-group1-sha1' should be the  main
                  alternative. It will be the main alternative since it is prepened to the list

                * The  compression algorithm none (= no compression) is removed so compression is

              For background and more examples see the User's Guide.

       inet_common_option() = {inet, inet | inet6}

              IP version to use when the host address is specified as any.

       auth_methods_common_option() = {auth_methods, string()}

              Comma-separated string that determines which authentication methods that the client
              shall  support  and in which order they are tried. Defaults to "publickey,keyboard-

              Note that the client is free to use any order and to exclude methods.

       fd_common_option() = {fd, gen_tcp:socket()}

              Allows an  existing  file-descriptor  to  be  used  (passed  on  to  the  transport

   Other data types
       host() = string() | inet:ip_address() | loopback

       ip_port() = {inet:ip_address(), inet:port_number()}

       mod_args() = {Module :: atom(), Args :: list()}

       mod_fun_args() =
           {Module :: atom(), Function :: atom(), Args :: list()}

       open_socket() = gen_tcp:socket()

              The  socket  is supposed to be result of a gen_tcp:connect or a gen_tcp:accept. The
              socket must be in passive mode (that is, opened with the option {active,false}).


              Opaque data type representing a daemon.

              Returned by the functions daemon/1,2,3.


              Opaque data type representing a connection between a client and a server (daemon).

              Returned by the functions connect/2,3,4 and ssh_sftp:start_channel/2,3.


              Opaque data type representing a channel inside a connection.

              Returned by the functions ssh_connection:session_channel/2,4.

       connection_info_tuple() =
           {client_version, version()} |
           {server_version, version()} |
           {user, string()} |
           {peer, {inet:hostname(), ip_port()}} |
           {sockname, ip_port()} |
           {options, client_options()} |
           {algorithms, conn_info_algs()} |
           {channels, conn_info_channels()}

       version() = {protocol_version(), software_version()}

       protocol_version() =
           {Major :: integer() >= 1, Minor :: integer() >= 0}

       software_version() = string()

       conn_info_algs() =
           [{kex, kex_alg()} |
            {hkey, pubkey_alg()} |
            {encrypt, cipher_alg()} |
            {decrypt, cipher_alg()} |
            {send_mac, mac_alg()} |
            {recv_mac, mac_alg()} |
            {compress, compression_alg()} |
            {decompress, compression_alg()} |
            {send_ext_info, boolean()} |
            {recv_ext_info, boolean()}]

       conn_info_channels() = [proplists:proplist()]

              Return values from the connection_info/1 and connection_info/2 functions.

              In the option info tuple are only  the  options  included  that  differs  from  the
              default values.

       daemon_info_tuple() =
           {port, inet:port_number()} |
           {ip, inet:ip_address()} |
           {profile, atom()} |
           {options, daemon_options()}

              Return values from the daemon_info/1 and daemon_info/2 functions.

              In  the  option  info  tuple  are  only  the options included that differs from the
              default values.




              Opaque types that define experimental options that are not to be used in products.


       close(ConnectionRef) -> ok | {error, term()}


                 ConnectionRef = connection_ref()

              Closes an SSH connection.

       connect(Host, Port, Options) -> Result
       connect(Host, Port, Options, NegotiationTimeout) -> Result
       connect(TcpSocket, Options) -> Result
       connect(TcpSocket, Options, NegotiationTimeout) -> Result


                 Host = host()
                 Port = inet:port_number()
                 Options = client_options()
                 TcpSocket = open_socket()
                 NegotiationTimeout = timeout()
                 Result = {ok, connection_ref()} | {error, term()}

              Connects to an SSH server at the Host on Port.

              As an alternative, an already open TCP socket could be passed to  the  function  in
              TcpSocket.  The  SSH  initiation and negotiation will be initiated on that one with
              the SSH that should be at the other end.

              No channel is started. This is done by calling   ssh_connection:session_channel/[2,

              The  NegotiationTimeout  is  in  milli-seconds.  The default value is infinity. For
              connection timeout, use the option connect_timeout.

       connection_info(ConnectionRef) -> InfoTupleList

       connection_info(ConnectionRef, Key :: ItemList | Item) ->
                          InfoTupleList | InfoTuple


                 ConnectionRef = connection_ref()
                 ItemList = [Item]
                 Item =
                     client_version | server_version | user | peer | sockname |
                     options | algorithms | sockname
                 InfoTupleList = [InfoTuple]
                 InfoTuple = connection_info_tuple()

              Returns information about a connection intended for e.g debugging or logging.

              When the Key is a single Item, the result is a single InfoTuple

       daemon(Port | TcpSocket) -> Result
       daemon(Port | TcpSocket, Options) -> Result
       daemon(HostAddress, Port, Options) -> Result


                 Port = integer()
                 TcpSocket = open_socket()
                 Options = daemon_options()
                 HostAddress = host() | any
                 Result = {ok, daemon_ref()} | {error, atom()}

              Starts a server listening for SSH connections on the given port. If the Port is  0,
              a  random  free  port is selected. See daemon_info/1 about how to find the selected
              port number.

              As an alternative, an already open TCP socket could be passed to  the  function  in
              TcpSocket. The SSH initiation and negotiation will be initiated on that one when an
              SSH starts at the other end of the TCP socket.

              For a description of the options, see Daemon Options.

              Please note that by historical  reasons  both  the  HostAddress  argument  and  the
              gen_tcp  connect_option()  {ip,Address} set the listening address. This is a source
              of possible inconsistent settings.

              The rules for handling the two address passing options are:

                * if HostAddress is an IP-address, that IP-address is the listening  address.  An
                  'ip'-option will be discarded if present.

                * if  HostAddress  is the atom loopback, the listening address is loopback and an
                  loopback address will be choosen by the underlying layers. An 'ip'-option  will
                  be discarded if present.

                * if  HostAddress  is  the  atom any and no 'ip'-option is present, the listening
                  address is any and the socket will listen to all addresses

                * if HostAddress is any and an 'ip'-option is present, the listening  address  is
                  set to the value of the 'ip'-option

       daemon_info(DaemonRef) ->
                      {ok, InfoTupleList} | {error, bad_daemon_ref}

       daemon_info(DaemonRef, Key :: ItemList | Item) ->
                      InfoTupleList | InfoTuple | {error, bad_daemon_ref}


                 DaemonRef = daemon_ref()
                 ItemList = [Item]
                 Item = ip | port | profile | options
                 InfoTupleList = [InfoTuple]
                 InfoTuple = daemon_info_tuple()

              Returns information about a daemon intended for e.g debugging or logging.

              When the Key is a single Item, the result is a single InfoTuple

              Note   that   daemon_info/1  and  daemon_info/2  returns  different  types  due  to
              compatibility reasons.

       default_algorithms() -> algs_list()

              Returns a key-value list, where the keys are the different types of algorithms  and
              the values are the algorithms themselves.

              See the User's Guide for an example.

       shell(Host | TcpSocket) -> Result
       shell(Host | TcpSocket, Options) -> Result
       shell(Host, Port, Options) -> Result


                 Host = host()
                 TcpSocket = open_socket()
                 Port = inet:port_number()
                 Options = client_options()
                 Result = ok | {error, Reason::term()}

              Connects  to  an  SSH  server  at  Host  and  Port  (defaults  to 22) and starts an
              interactive shell on that remote host.

              As an alternative, an already open TCP socket could be passed to  the  function  in
              TcpSocket.  The  SSH  initiation  and negotiation will be initiated on that one and
              finaly a shell will be started on the host at the other end of the TCP socket.

              For a description of the options, see Client Options.

              The function waits for user input, and does not return until the  remote  shell  is
              ended (that is, exit from the shell).

       start() -> ok | {error, term()}

       start(Type) -> ok | {error, term()}


                 Type = permanent | transient | temporary

              Utility  function that starts the applications crypto, public_key, and ssh. Default
              type is temporary. For more information, see the application(3erl) manual  page  in

       stop() -> ok | {error, term()}

              Stops  the  ssh application. For more information, see the application(3erl) manual
              page in Kernel.

       stop_daemon(DaemonRef :: daemon_ref()) -> ok

       stop_daemon(Address :: inet:ip_address(),
                   Port :: inet:port_number()) ->

       stop_daemon(Address :: any | inet:ip_address(),
                   Port :: inet:port_number(),
                   Profile :: atom()) ->

              Stops the listener and all connections started by the listener.

       stop_listener(SysSup :: daemon_ref()) -> ok

       stop_listener(Address :: inet:ip_address(),
                     Port :: inet:port_number()) ->

       stop_listener(Address :: any | inet:ip_address(),
                     Port :: inet:port_number(),
                     Profile :: term()) ->

              Stops the listener,  but  leaves  existing  connections  started  by  the  listener