Provided by: ufw_0.36-6_all bug

NAME

       ufw-framework - using the ufw framework

DESCRIPTION

       ufw  provides  both  a  command  line  interface  and a framework for managing a netfilter
       firewall. While the ufw command provides an easy to use interface for managing a firewall,
       the ufw framework provides the administrator methods to customize default behavior and add
       rules not supported by the command line tool. In this way, ufw can take full advantage  of
       Linux netfilter's power and flexibility.

OVERVIEW

       The  framework  provides  boot time initialization, rules files for adding custom rules, a
       method for loading netfilter modules, configuration of kernel parameters and configuration
       of IPv6. The framework consists of the following files:

       /lib/ufw/ufw-init
              initialization script

       /etc/ufw/before.init
              initialization customization script run before ufw is initialized

       /etc/ufw/after.init
              initialization customization script run after ufw is initialized

       /etc/ufw/before[6].rules
              rules file containing rules evaluated before UI added rules

       /etc/ufw/user[6].rules
              rules file containing UI added rules (managed with the ufw command)

       /etc/ufw/after[6].rules
              rules file containing rules evaluated after UI added rules

       /etc/default/ufw
              high level configuration

       /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf
              kernel network tunables

       /etc/ufw/ufw.conf
              additional high level configuration

BOOT INITIALIZATION

       ufw  is  started  on  boot  with  /lib/ufw/ufw-init.  This script is a standard SysV style
       initscript used by the ufw command and should not be modified.  The  /etc/before.init  and
       /etc/after.init  scripts may be used to perform any additional firewall configuration that
       is not yet supported in ufw itself and if they exist and  are  executable,  ufw-init  will
       execute  these scripts. ufw-init will exit with error if either of these scripts exit with
       error. ufw-init supports the following arguments:

       start: loads the firewall

       stop:  unloads the firewall

       restart:
              reloads the firewall

       force-reload:
              same as restart

       status:
              basic status of the firewall

       force-stop:
              same as stop, except does not check if the firewall is already loaded

       flush-all:
              flushes the built-in chains, deletes all non-built-in chains and resets the  policy
              to ACCEPT

       ufw-init  will call before.init and after.init with start, stop, status and flush-all, but
       typically, if used, these scripts need only implement start and stop.

       ufw uses many user-defined  chains  in  addition  to  the  built-in  iptables  chains.  If
       MANAGE_BUILTINS  in  /etc/default/ufw  is  set  to  'yes', on stop and reload the built-in
       chains are flushed. If it is set to 'no', on stop and reload the ufw secondary chains  are
       removed  and  the ufw primary chains are flushed. In addition to flushing the ufw specific
       chains, it keeps the  primary  chains  in  the  same  order  with  respect  to  any  other
       user-defined  chains  that  may  have been added. This allows for ufw to interoperate with
       other software that may manage their own firewall rules.

       To ensure your firewall is loading on boot, you must integrate this script into  the  boot
       process.  Consult your distribution's documentation for the proper way to modify your boot
       process if ufw is not already integrated.

RULES FILES

       ufw  is  in  part  a  front-end  for   iptables-restore,   with   its   rules   saved   in
       /etc/ufw/before.rules,  /etc/ufw/after.rules  and  /etc/ufw/user.rules. Administrators can
       customize before.rules and after.rules as  desired  using  the  standard  iptables-restore
       syntax.  Rules  are  evaluated  as  follows:  before.rules  first,  user.rules  next,  and
       after.rules last. IPv6 rules are evaluated in the same way, with  the  rules  files  named
       before6.rules,  user6.rules and after6.rules. Please note that ufw status only shows rules
       added with ufw and not the rules found in the /etc/ufw rules files.

       Important: ufw only uses the *filter table by default. You may add any other  tables  such
       as  *nat,  *raw and *mangle as desired. For each table a corresponding COMMIT statement is
       required.

       After modifying any of these files, you must reload ufw for the rules to take effect.  See
       the EXAMPLES section for common uses of these rules files.

MODULES

       Netfilter  has  many different connection tracking modules. These modules are aware of the
       underlying protocol and allow the administrator to simplify his or her rule sets. You  can
       adjust  which netfilter modules to load by adjusting IPT_MODULES in /etc/default/ufw. Some
       popular modules to load are:

         nf_conntrack_ftp
         nf_nat_ftp
         nf_conntrack_irc
         nf_nat_irc
         nf_conntrack_netbios_ns
         nf_conntrack_pptp
         nf_conntrack_tftp
         nf_nat_tftp
         nf_conntrack_sane

       Unconditional loading of connection tracking modules (nf_conntrack_*) in  this  manner  is
       deprecated.  ufw  continues to support the functionality but new configuration should only
       contain the specific modules required for the site.  For more information, see  CONNECTION
       HELPERS.

KERNEL PARAMETERS

       ufw   will   read  in  /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf  on  boot  when  enabled.   Please  note  that
       /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf   overrides   values   in    the    system    systcl.conf    (usually
       /etc/sysctl.conf). Administrators can change the file used by modifying /etc/default/ufw.

IPV6

       IPv6  is  enabled  by default. When disabled, all incoming, outgoing and forwarded packets
       are dropped, with the exception of traffic on the  loopback  interface.   To  adjust  this
       behavior, set IPV6 to 'yes' in /etc/default/ufw. See the ufw manual page for details.

EXAMPLES

       As  mentioned, ufw loads its rules files into the kernel by using the iptables-restore and
       ip6tables-restore commands. Users wanting to add rules to the  ufw  rules  files  manually
       must be familiar with these as well as the iptables and ip6tables commands. Below are some
       common examples of using the ufw rules files.  All examples  assume  IPv4  only  and  that
       DEFAULT_FORWARD_POLICY in /etc/default/ufw is set to DROP.

   IP Masquerading
       To  allow  IP  masquerading for computers from the 10.0.0.0/8 network on eth1 to share the
       single IP address on eth0:

       Edit /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf to have:
               net.ipv4.ip_forward=1

       Add to the end of /etc/ufw/before.rules, after the *filter section:
               *nat
               :POSTROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
               -A POSTROUTING -s 10.0.0.0/8 -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
               COMMIT

       If your firewall is using IPv6 tunnels or 6to4 and is also doing NAT, then you should  not
       usually  masquerade  protocol  '41'  (ipv6)  packets.  For  example, instead of the above,
       /etc/ufw/before.rules can be adjusted to have:
               *nat
               :POSTROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
               -A POSTROUTING -s 10.0.0.0/8 ! --protocol 41 -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
               COMMIT

       Add the ufw route to allow the traffic:
               ufw route allow in on eth1 out on eth0 from 10.0.0.0/8

   Port Redirections
       To forward tcp port 80 on eth0 to go to the webserver at 10.0.0.2:

       Edit /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf to have:
               net.ipv4.ip_forward=1

       Add to the end of /etc/ufw/before.rules, after the *filter section:
               *nat
               :PREROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
               -A PREROUTING -p tcp -i eth0 --dport 80 -j DNAT \
                 --to-destination 10.0.0.2:80
               COMMIT

       Add the ufw route rule to allow the traffic:
               ufw route allow in on eth0 to 10.0.0.2 port 80 proto tcp

   Egress filtering
       To block RFC1918 addresses going out of eth0:

       Add the ufw route rules to reject the traffic:
               ufw route reject out on eth0 to 10.0.0.0/8
               ufw route reject out on eth0 to 172.16.0.0/12
               ufw route reject out on eth0 to 192.168.0.0/16

   Full example
       This example combines the other examples  and  demonstrates  a  simple  routing  firewall.
       Warning:  this  setup  is  only  an  example  to  demonstrate the functionality of the ufw
       framework in a concise and simple manner and should not  be  used  in  production  without
       understanding  what each part does and does not do. Your firewall will undoubtedly want to
       be less open.

       This router/firewall has two interfaces: eth0 (Internet facing) and eth1  (internal  LAN).
       Internal clients have addresses on the 10.0.0.0/8 network and should be able to connect to
       anywhere on the Internet. Connections to port 80 from the Internet should be forwarded  to
       10.0.0.2.  Access  to ssh port 22 from the administrative workstation (10.0.0.100) to this
       machine should be allowed. Also make sure no internal traffic goes to the Internet.

       Edit /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf to have:
                net.ipv4.ip_forward=1

       Add to the end of /etc/ufw/before.rules, after the *filter section:
               *nat
               :PREROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
               :POSTROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
               -A PREROUTING -p tcp -i eth0 --dport 80 -j DNAT \
                 --to-destination 10.0.0.2:80
               -A POSTROUTING -s 10.0.0.0/8 -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
               COMMIT

       Add the necessary ufw rules:
               ufw route reject out on eth0 to 10.0.0.0/8
               ufw route reject out on eth0 to 172.16.0.0/12
               ufw route reject out on eth0 to 192.168.0.0/16
               ufw route allow in on eth1 out on eth0 from 10.0.0.0/8
               ufw route allow in on eth0 to 10.0.0.2 port 80 proto tcp
               ufw allow in on eth1 from 10.0.0.100 to any port 22 proto tcp

CONNECTION HELPERS

       Various protocols require the use  of  netfilter  connection  tracking  helpers  to  group
       related packets into RELATED flows to make rulesets clearer and more precise. For example,
       with a couple of kernel modules and a couple of rules, a  ruleset  could  simply  allow  a
       connection  to  FTP  port 21, then the kernel would examine the traffic and mark the other
       FTP data packets as RELATED to the initial connection.

       When the helpers were first introduced, one could only configure the modules  as  part  of
       module  load  (eg,  if your FTP server listened on a different port than 21, you'd have to
       load the nf_conntrack_ftp module specifying the correct port). Over time it was understood
       that  unconditionally  using  connection helpers could lead to abuse, in part because some
       protocols allow user specified data that would allow traversing the firewall in  undesired
       ways.  As of kernel 4.7, automatic conntrack helper assignment (ie, handling packets for a
       given port and all IP addresses) is disabled (the old behavior can be restored by  setting
       net/netfilter/nf_conntrack_helper=1 in /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf). Firewalls should now instead
       use the CT target to associate traffic with a particular helper and then set RELATED rules
       to use the helper. This allows sites to tailor the use of helpers and help avoid abuse.

       In general, to use helpers securely, the following needs to happen:

       1.     net/netfilter/nf_conntrack_helper should be set to 0 (default)

       2.     create a rule for the start of a connection (eg for FTP, port 21)

       3.     create a helper rule to associate the helper with this connection

       4.     create a helper rule to associate a RELATED flow with this connection

       5.     if needed, add the corresponding nf_conntrack_* module to IPT_MODULES

       6.     optionally add the corresponding nf_nat_* module to IPT_MODULES

       In  general  it  is  desirable to make connection helper rules as specific as possible and
       ensure anti-spoofing is correctly setup for your site to avoid  security  issues  in  your
       ruleset.      For      more     information,     see     ANTI-SPOOFING,     above,     and
       <https://home.regit.org/netfilter-en/secure-use-of-helpers/>.

       Currently helper rules must be managed in via the RULES FILES. A  future  version  of  ufw
       will introduce syntax for working with helper rules.

NOTES

       When  using  ufw  with  libvirt  and  bridging,  packets  may be blocked. The libvirt team
       recommends that the following sysctl's be set to disable netfilter on the bridge:

         net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 0
         net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 0
         net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-arptables = 0

       Note that the bridge module must be loaded in to the kernel before these values  are  set.
       One  way  to  ensure  this  works  properly  with ufw is to add 'bridge' to IPT_MODULES in
       /etc/default/ufw, and then add the above rules to /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf.

       Alternatively to disabling netfilter on the bridge, you can configure  iptables  to  allow
       all traffic to be forwarded across the bridge. Eg, add to /etc/ufw/before.rules within the
       *filter section:

         -I FORWARD -m physdev --physdev-is-bridged -j ACCEPT

SEE ALSO

       ufw(8), iptables(8), ip6tables(8), iptables-restore(8),  ip6tables-restore(8),  sysctl(8),
       sysctl.conf(5)

AUTHOR

       ufw is Copyright 2008-2014, Canonical Ltd.

       ufw and this manual page was originally written by Jamie Strandboge <jamie@canonical.com>