Provided by: geographiclib-tools_1.50.1-1build1_amd64 bug


       GeoConvert -- convert geographic coordinates


       GeoConvert [ -g | -d | -: | -u | -m | -c ] [ -z zone | -s | -t | -S | -T ] [ -n ] [ -w ] [
       -p prec ] [ -l | -a ] [ --comment-delimiter commentdelim ] [ --version | -h | --help ] [
       --input-file infile | --input-string instring ] [ --line-separator linesep ] [
       --output-file outfile ]


       GeoConvert reads from standard input interpreting each line as a geographic coordinate and
       prints the coordinate in the format specified by the options on standard output.  The
       input is interpreted in one of three different ways depending on how many space or comma
       delimited tokens there are on the line.  The options -g, -d, -u, and -m govern the format
       of output.  In all cases, the WGS84 model of the earth is used (a = 6378137 m, f =

           2 tokens (output options -g, -d, or -:) given as latitude longitude using decimal
           degrees or degrees, minutes, and seconds.  Latitude is given first (unless the -w
           option is given).  See "GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATES" for a description of the format.  For
           example, the following are all equivalent

               33.3 44.4
               E44.4 N33.3
               33d18'N 44d24'E
               44d24 33d18N
               33:18 +44:24

           3 tokens (output option -u) given as zone+hemisphere easting northing or easting
           northing zone+hemisphere, where hemisphere is either n (or north) or s (or south).
           The zone is absent for a UPS specification.  For example,

               38n 444140.54 3684706.36
               444140.54 3684706.36 38n
               s 2173854.98 2985980.58
               2173854.98 2985980.58 s

           1 token (output option -m) is used to specify the center of an MGRS grid square.  For



       -g  output latitude and longitude using decimal degrees.  Default output mode.

       -d  output latitude and longitude using degrees, minutes, and seconds (DMS).

       -:  like -d, except use : as a separator instead of the d, ', and " delimiters.

       -u  output UTM or UPS.

       -m  output MGRS.

       -c  output meridian convergence and scale for the corresponding UTM or UPS projection.
           The meridian convergence is the bearing of grid north given as degrees clockwise from
           true north.

       -z zone
           set the zone to zone for output.  Use either 0 < zone <= 60 for a UTM zone or zone = 0
           for UPS.  Alternatively use a zone+hemisphere designation, e.g., 38n.  See "ZONE".

       -s  use the standard UPS and UTM zones.

       -t  similar to -s but forces UPS regions to the closest UTM zone.

       -S or -T
           behave the same as -s and -t, respectively, until the first legal conversion is
           performed.  For subsequent points, the zone and hemisphere of that conversion are
           used.  This enables a sequence of points to be converted into UTM or UPS using a
           consistent coordinate system.

       -n  on input, MGRS coordinates refer to the south-west corner of the MGRS square instead
           of the center; see "MGRS".

       -w  toggle the longitude first flag (it starts off); if the flag is on, then on input and
           output, longitude precedes latitude (except that, on input, this can be overridden by
           a hemisphere designator, N, S, E, W).

       -p prec
           set the output precision to prec (default 0); prec is the precision relative to 1 m.
           See "PRECISION".

       -l  on output, UTM/UPS uses the long forms north and south to designate the hemisphere
           instead of n or s.

       -a  on output, UTM/UPS uses the abbreviations n and s to designate the hemisphere instead
           of north or south; this is the default representation.

       --comment-delimiter commentdelim
           set the comment delimiter to commentdelim (e.g., "#" or "//").  If set, the input
           lines will be scanned for this delimiter and, if found, the delimiter and the rest of
           the line will be removed prior to processing and subsequently appended to the output
           line (separated by a space).

           print version and exit.

       -h  print usage and exit.

           print full documentation and exit.

       --input-file infile
           read input from the file infile instead of from standard input; a file name of "-"
           stands for standard input.

       --input-string instring
           read input from the string instring instead of from standard input.  All occurrences
           of the line separator character (default is a semicolon) in instring are converted to
           newlines before the reading begins.

       --line-separator linesep
           set the line separator character to linesep.  By default this is a semicolon.

       --output-file outfile
           write output to the file outfile instead of to standard output; a file name of "-"
           stands for standard output.


       prec gives precision of the output with prec = 0 giving 1 m precision, prec = 3 giving 1
       mm precision, etc.  prec is the number of digits after the decimal point for UTM/UPS.  For
       MGRS, The number of digits per coordinate is 5 + prec; prec = -6 results in just the grid
       zone.  For decimal degrees, the number of digits after the decimal point is 5 + prec.  For
       DMS (degree, minute, seconds) output, the number of digits after the decimal point in the
       seconds components is 1 + prec; if this is negative then use minutes (prec = -2 or -3) or
       degrees (prec <= -4) as the least significant component.  Print convergence, resp. scale,
       with 5 + prec, resp. 7 + prec, digits after the decimal point.  The minimum value of prec
       is -5 (-6 for MGRS) and the maximum is 9 for UTM/UPS, 9 for decimal degrees, 10 for DMS, 6
       for MGRS, and 8 for convergence and scale.


       The utility accepts geographic coordinates, latitude and longitude, in a number of common
       formats.  Latitude precedes longitude, unless the -w option is given which switches this
       convention.  On input, either coordinate may be given first by appending or prepending N
       or S to the latitude and E or W to the longitude.  These hemisphere designators carry an
       implied sign, positive for N and E and negative for S and W.  This sign multiplies any +/-
       sign prefixing the coordinate.  The coordinates may be given as decimal degree or as
       degrees, minutes, and seconds.  d, ', and " are used to denote degrees, minutes, and
       seconds, with the least significant designator optional.  (See "QUOTING" for how to quote
       the characters ' and " when entering coordinates on the command line.)  Alternatively, :
       (colon) may be used to separate the various components.  Only the final component of
       coordinate can include a decimal point, and the minutes and seconds components must be
       less than 60.

       It is also possible to carry out addition or subtraction operations in geographic
       coordinates.  If the coordinate includes interior signs (i.e., not at the beginning or
       immediately after an initial hemisphere designator), then the coordinate is split before
       such signs; the pieces are parsed separately and the results summed.  For example the
       point 15" east of 39N 70W is

           39N 70W+0:0:15E

       WARNING: "Exponential" notation is not recognized for geographic coordinates.  Thus 7.0E1
       is illegal, while 7.0E+1 is parsed as (7.0E) + (+1), yielding the same result as 8.0E.

       Various unicode characters (encoded with UTF-8) may also be used to denote degrees,
       minutes, and seconds, e.g., the degree, prime, and double prime symbols; in addition two
       single quotes can be used to represent ".

       The other GeographicLib utilities use the same rules for interpreting geographic
       coordinates; in addition, azimuths and arc lengths are interpreted the same way.


       Unfortunately the characters ' and " have special meanings in many shells and have to be
       entered with care.  However note (1) that the trailing designator is optional and that (2)
       you can use colons as a separator character.  Thus 10d20' can be entered as 10d20 or 10:20
       and 10d20'30" can be entered as 10:20:30.

       Unix shells (sh, bash, tsch)
           The characters ' and " can be quoted by preceding them with a \ (backslash); or you
           can quote a string containing ' with a pair of "s.  The two alternatives are
           illustrated by

              echo 10d20\'30\" "20d30'40" | GeoConvert -d -p -1
              => 10d20'30"N 020d30'40"E

           Quoting of command line arguments is similar

              GeoConvert -d -p -1 --input-string "10d20'30\" 20d30'40"
              => 10d20'30"N 020d30'40"E

       Windows command shell (cmd)
           The ' character needs no quoting; the " character can either be quoted by a ^ or can
           be represented by typing ' twice.  (This quoting is usually unnecessary because the
           trailing designator can be omitted.)  Thus

              echo 10d20'30'' 20d30'40 | GeoConvert -d -p -1
              => 10d20'30"N 020d30'40"E

           Use \ to quote the " character in a command line argument

              GeoConvert -d -p -1 --input-string "10d20'30\" 20d30'40"
              => 10d20'30"N 020d30'40"E

       Input from a file
           No quoting need be done if the input from a file.  Thus each line of the file
           "input.txt" should just contain the plain coordinates.

             GeoConvert -d -p -1 < input.txt


       MGRS coordinates represent a square patch of the earth, thus "38SMB4488" is in zone "38n"
       with 444km <= easting < 445km and 3688km <= northing < 3689km.  Consistent with this
       representation, coordinates are truncated (instead of rounded) to the requested precision.
       When an MGRS coordinate is provided as input, GeoConvert treats this as a representative
       point within the square.  By default, this representative point is the center of the
       square ("38n 444500 3688500" in the example above).  (This leads to a stable conversion
       between MGRS and geographic coordinates.)  However, if the -n option is given then the
       south-west corner of the square is returned instead ("38n 444000 3688000" in the example


       If the input is geographic, GeoConvert uses the standard rules of selecting UTM vs UPS and
       for assigning the UTM zone (with the Norway and Svalbard exceptions).  If the input is
       UTM/UPS or MGRS, then the choice between UTM and UPS and the UTM zone mirrors the input.
       The -z zone, -s, and -t options allow these rules to be overridden with zone = 0 being
       used to indicate UPS.  For example, the point

          79.9S 6.1E

       corresponds to possible MGRS coordinates

          32CMS4324728161 (standard UTM zone = 32)
          31CEM6066227959 (neighboring UTM zone = 31)
            BBZ1945517770 (neighboring UPS zone)


          echo 79.9S 6.1E      | GeoConvert -p -3 -m       => 32CMS4328
          echo 31CEM6066227959 | GeoConvert -p -3 -m       => 31CEM6027
          echo 31CEM6066227959 | GeoConvert -p -3 -m -s    => 32CMS4328
          echo 31CEM6066227959 | GeoConvert -p -3 -m -z 0  =>   BBZ1917

       Is zone is specified with a hemisphere, then this is honored when printing UTM

          echo -1 3 | GeoConvert -u         => 31s 500000 9889470
          echo -1 3 | GeoConvert -u -z 31   => 31s 500000 9889470
          echo -1 3 | GeoConvert -u -z 31s  => 31s 500000 9889470
          echo -1 3 | GeoConvert -u -z 31n  => 31n 500000 -110530

       NOTE: the letter in the zone specification for UTM is a hemisphere designator n or s and
       not an MGRS latitude band letter.  Convert the MGRS latitude band letter to a hemisphere
       as follows: replace C thru M by s (or south); replace N thru X by n (or north).


          echo 38SMB4488 | GeoConvert         => 33.33424 44.40363
          echo 38SMB4488 | GeoConvert -: -p 1 => 33:20:03.25N 044:2413.06E
          echo 38SMB4488 | GeoConvert -u      => 38n 444500 3688500
          echo E44d24 N33d20 | GeoConvert -m -p -3 => 38SMB4488

       GeoConvert can be used to do simple arithmetic using degree, minutes, and seconds.  For
       example, sometimes data is tiled in 15 second squares tagged by the DMS representation of
       the SW corner.  The tags of the tile at 38:59:45N 077:02:00W and its 8 neighbors are then
       given by

           for y in -$t +0 +$t; do
               for x in -$t +0 +$t; do
                   echo 38:59:45N$y 077:02:00W$x
           done | GeoConvert -: -p -1 | tr -d ': '


       An illegal line of input will print an error message to standard output beginning with
       "ERROR:" and causes GeoConvert to return an exit code of 1.  However, an error does not
       cause GeoConvert to terminate; following lines will be converted.


       UTM Universal Transverse Mercator,

       UPS Universal Polar Stereographic,

           Military Grid Reference System,

           World Geodetic System 1984, <>.


       An online version of this utility is availbable at

       The algorithms for the transverse Mercator projection are described in C. F. F. Karney,
       Transverse Mercator with an accuracy of a few nanometers, J. Geodesy 85(8), 475-485 (Aug.
       2011); DOI <>; preprint


       GeoConvert was written by Charles Karney.


       GeoConvert was added to GeographicLib, <>, in 2009-01.