Provided by: libjpeg-progs_9d-1_amd64 bug


       cjpeg - compress an image file to a JPEG file


       cjpeg [ options ] [ filename ]


       cjpeg  compresses  the  named  image  file, or the standard input if no file is named, and
       produces a JPEG/JFIF file on the standard output.   The  currently  supported  input  file
       formats  are: PPM (PBMPLUS color format), PGM (PBMPLUS grayscale format), BMP, GIF, Targa,
       and RLE (Utah Raster Toolkit format).  (RLE is  supported  only  if  the  URT  library  is
       available, which it isn't on most non-Unix systems.)


       All  switch names may be abbreviated; for example, -grayscale may be written -gray or -gr.
       Most of the "basic" switches can be abbreviated to as little as  one  letter.   Upper  and
       lower  case  are  equivalent  (thus -BMP is the same as -bmp).  British spellings are also
       accepted (e.g., -greyscale), though for brevity these are not mentioned below.

       The basic switches are:

       -quality N[,...]
              Scale quantization tables to adjust image quality.  Quality is  0  (worst)  to  100
              (best); default is 75.  (See below for more info.)

              Create  monochrome  JPEG  file  from  color input.  Be sure to use this switch when
              compressing a grayscale BMP or GIF file,  because  cjpeg  isn't  bright  enough  to
              notice  whether  a BMP or GIF file uses only shades of gray.  By saying -grayscale,
              you'll get a smaller JPEG file that takes less time to process.

       -rgb   Create RGB JPEG file.   Using  this  switch  suppresses  the  conversion  from  RGB
              colorspace  input to the default YCbCr JPEG colorspace.  You can use this switch in
              combination with the -block N switch (see below) for  lossless  JPEG  coding.   See
              also the -rgb1 switch below.

              Perform  optimization  of  entropy  encoding  parameters.   Without  this,  default
              encoding parameters are used.  -optimize usually  makes  the  JPEG  file  a  little
              smaller,  but cjpeg runs somewhat slower and needs much more memory.  Image quality
              and speed of decompression are unaffected by -optimize.

              Create progressive JPEG file (see below).

       -scale M/N
              Scale the output image by a factor M/N.  Currently supported scale factors are  M/N
              with all N from 1 to 16, where M is the destination DCT size, which is 8 by default
              (see -block N switch below).

       -targa Input file is Targa format.  Targa files that  contain  an  "identification"  field
              will  not  be  automatically  recognized  by cjpeg; for such files you must specify
              -targa to make cjpeg treat the input as Targa format.  For most  Targa  files,  you
              won't need this switch.

       The  -quality  switch  lets  you  trade  off  compressed  file size against quality of the
       reconstructed image: the higher the quality setting, the larger the  JPEG  file,  and  the
       closer  the  output  image  will  be  to the original input.  Normally you want to use the
       lowest  quality  setting  (smallest  file)  that  decompresses  into  something   visually
       indistinguishable from the original image.  For this purpose the quality setting should be
       between 50 and 95; the default of 75 is often about right.  If you see defects at -quality
       75,  then  go up 5 or 10 counts at a time until you are happy with the output image.  (The
       optimal setting will vary from one image to another.)

       -quality 100 will generate a quantization  table  of  all  1's,  minimizing  loss  in  the
       quantization step (but there is still information loss in subsampling, as well as roundoff
       error).  This setting is mainly of interest for  experimental  purposes.   Quality  values
       above  about  95  are  not  recommended  for  normal use; the compressed file size goes up
       dramatically for hardly any gain in output image quality.

       In the other direction, quality values below 50 will produce very small files of low image
       quality.   Settings  around 5 to 10 might be useful in preparing an index of a large image
       library, for example.  Try -quality 2 (or so) for some  amusing  Cubist  effects.   (Note:
       quality  values  below  about 25 generate 2-byte quantization tables, which are considered
       optional in the JPEG standard.  cjpeg emits a warning message when you give such a quality
       value,  because  some other JPEG programs may be unable to decode the resulting file.  Use
       -baseline if you need to ensure compatibility at low quality values.)

       The -quality option has been extended in IJG version 7 for  support  of  separate  quality
       settings  for  luminance  and  chrominance (or in general, for every provided quantization
       table slot).  This feature is useful for high-quality applications which cannot accept the
       damage  of color data by coarse subsampling settings.  You can now easily reduce the color
       data amount more smoothly with finer control without separate subsampling.  The  resulting
       file is fully compliant with standard JPEG decoders.  Note that the -quality ratings refer
       to the quantization table slots, and that the last value is replicated if there  are  more
       q-table  slots  than  parameters.  The default q-table slots are 0 for luminance and 1 for
       chrominance with default tables as given in the JPEG standard.  This  is  compatible  with
       the  old  behaviour  in case that only one parameter is given, which is then used for both
       luminance and chrominance (slots 0 and 1).  More or custom quantization tables can be  set
       with -qtables and assigned to components with -qslots parameter (see the "wizard" switches
       below).  Caution: You must explicitly add -sample 1x1 for efficient separate color quality
       selection, since the default value used by library is 2x2!

       The -progressive switch creates a "progressive JPEG" file.  In this type of JPEG file, the
       data is stored in multiple scans of increasing quality.  If the file is being  transmitted
       over  a  slow  communications  link,  the decoder can use the first scan to display a low-
       quality image very quickly, and can then improve the display with  each  subsequent  scan.
       The final image is exactly equivalent to a standard JPEG file of the same quality setting,
       and the total file size is about the same --- often a little smaller.

       Switches for advanced users:

              Use  arithmetic  coding.   Caution:  arithmetic  coded  JPEG  is  not  yet   widely
              implemented,  so many decoders will be unable to view an arithmetic coded JPEG file
              at all.

       -block N
              Set DCT block size.  All N from 1 to 16  are  possible.   Default  is  8  (baseline
              format).   Larger  values produce higher compression, smaller values produce higher
              quality (exact DCT stage possible with 1 or 2; with the default quality of  75  and
              default Luminance qtable the DCT+Quantization stage is lossless for N=1).  Caution:
              An implementation of the JPEG SmartScale extension is required  for  this  feature.
              SmartScale  enabled  JPEG  is  not yet widely implemented, so many decoders will be
              unable to view a SmartScale extended JPEG file at all.

       -rgb1  Create RGB JPEG file with reversible color transform.  Works like the  -rgb  switch
              (see  above)  and  inserts  a simple reversible color transform into the processing
              which significantly improves the compression.  Use this switch in combination  with
              the  -block N switch (see above) for lossless JPEG coding.  Caution: A decoder with
              inverse color transform support is required for  this  feature.   Reversible  color
              transform support is not yet widely implemented, so many decoders will be unable to
              view a reversible color transformed JPEG file at all.

       -bgycc Create big gamut YCC JPEG file.  In this type  of  encoding  the  color  difference
              components  are  quantized  further  by  a factor of 2 compared to the normal Cb/Cr
              values, thus creating space to allow larger color  values  with  higher  saturation
              than the normal gamut limits to be encoded.  In order to compensate for the loss of
              color fidelity compared to a normal YCC encoded file, the color quantization tables
              can  be  adjusted  accordingly.  For example, cjpeg -bgycc -quality 80,90 will give
              similar results as cjpeg -quality 80.  Caution: For correct decompression a decoder
              with big gamut YCC support (JFIF version 2) is required.  An old decoder may or may
              not display a big gamut YCC encoded JPEG file, depending on JFIF version check  and
              corresponding  warning/error configuration.  In case of a granted decompression the
              old decoder will display the image with half saturated colors.

       -dct int
              Use integer DCT method (default).

       -dct fast
              Use fast integer DCT (less accurate).

       -dct float
              Use floating-point DCT method.  The float method is  very  slightly  more  accurate
              than the int method, but is much slower unless your machine has very fast floating-
              point hardware.  Also note that results  of  the  floating-point  method  may  vary
              slightly  across  machines,  while the integer methods should give the same results
              everywhere.  The fast integer method is much less accurate than the other two.

              Don't use high-quality downsampling.

       -restart N
              Emit a JPEG restart marker every N MCU rows, or  every  N  MCU  blocks  if  "B"  is
              attached to the number.  -restart 0 (the default) means no restart markers.

       -smooth N
              Smooth  the  input  image  to eliminate dithering noise.  N, ranging from 1 to 100,
              indicates the strength of smoothing.  0 (the default) means no smoothing.

       -maxmemory N
              Set limit for amount of memory to use in processing  large  images.   Value  is  in
              thousands  of  bytes,  or  millions of bytes if "M" is attached to the number.  For
              example, -max 4m selects 4000000 bytes.  If more space is needed,  temporary  files
              will be used.

       -outfile name
              Send output image to the named file, not to standard output.

              Enable  debug  printout.  More -v's give more output.  Also, version information is
              printed at startup.

       -debug Same as -verbose.

       The -restart option inserts extra markers that allow a JPEG decoder to resynchronize after
       a  transmission  error.   Without  restart  markers,  any damage to a compressed file will
       usually ruin the image from the point of the error to the end of the image;  with  restart
       markers, the damage is usually confined to the portion of the image up to the next restart
       marker.  Of course, the restart markers occupy extra space.  We recommend -restart  1  for
       images that will be transmitted across unreliable networks such as Usenet.

       The  -smooth option filters the input to eliminate fine-scale noise.  This is often useful
       when converting dithered images to JPEG: a moderate smoothing factor of 10 to 50 gets  rid
       of  dithering  patterns  in the input file, resulting in a smaller JPEG file and a better-
       looking image.  Too large a smoothing factor will visibly blur the image, however.

       Switches for wizards:

              Force  baseline-compatible  quantization  tables  to  be  generated.   This  clamps
              quantization values to 8 bits even at low quality settings.  (This switch is poorly
              named, since it does not ensure that the output is  actually  baseline  JPEG.   For
              example, you can use -baseline and -progressive together.)

       -qtables file
              Use the quantization tables given in the specified text file.

       -qslots N[,...]
              Select which quantization table to use for each color component.

       -sample HxV[,...]
              Set JPEG sampling factors for each color component.

       -scans file
              Use the scan script given in the specified text file.

       The  "wizard" switches are intended for experimentation with JPEG.  If you don't know what
       you are doing, don't use  them.   These  switches  are  documented  further  in  the  file


       This  example  compresses  the  PPM file foo.ppm with a quality factor of 60 and saves the
       output as foo.jpg:

              cjpeg -quality 60 foo.ppm > foo.jpg


       Color GIF files are not the ideal input for JPEG; JPEG is really intended for  compressing
       full-color  (24-bit) images.  In particular, don't try to convert cartoons, line drawings,
       and other images that have only a few distinct colors.  GIF works  great  on  these,  JPEG
       does  not.   If  you  want  to  convert  a GIF to JPEG, you should experiment with cjpeg's
       -quality and -smooth options to get a satisfactory conversion.  -smooth 10 or so is  often

       Avoid  running  an image through a series of JPEG compression/decompression cycles.  Image
       quality loss will accumulate; after ten or so cycles the image  may  be  noticeably  worse
       than  it  was  after  one cycle.  It's best to use a lossless format while manipulating an
       image, then convert to JPEG format when you are ready to file the image away.

       The -optimize option to cjpeg is worth using when you are making  a  "final"  version  for
       posting  or  archiving.   It's  also a win when you are using low quality settings to make
       very small JPEG files; the percentage improvement is often a lot more than it is on larger
       files.   (At  present,  -optimize mode is always selected when generating progressive JPEG


              If this environment variable is set, its value is the default  memory  limit.   The
              value  is  specified as described for the -maxmemory switch.  JPEGMEM overrides the
              default value specified when the program was compiled, and itself is overridden  by
              an explicit -maxmemory.


       djpeg(1), jpegtran(1), rdjpgcom(1), wrjpgcom(1)
       ppm(5), pgm(5)
       Wallace,  Gregory K.  "The JPEG Still Picture Compression Standard", Communications of the
       ACM, April 1991 (vol. 34, no. 4), pp. 30-44.


       Independent JPEG Group


       Not all variants of BMP and Targa file formats are supported.

       The -targa switch is not a bug, it's a feature.  (It would be a bug if  the  Targa  format
       designers had not been clueless.)

                                          28 April 2019                                  CJPEG(1)