Provided by: hebcal_4.19-1_amd64 bug


       hebcal - a Jewish calendar generator


       hebcal [ -8acdDehHiorsStTwy ]
                 [ -I input_file ]
                 [ -Y yahrtzeit_file ]
                 [ -C city ]
                 [ -l latitude -L longitude ]
                 [ -z timezone ]
                 [[ month [ day ] year ]
       hebcal help
       hebcal info
       hebcal cities
       hebcal copying
       hebcal warranty


       With  no  arguments,  hebcal  will print to stdout the dates of the Jewish holidays in the
       current secular year.  Each line is prefixed with a Gregorian date of the form mm/dd/yyyy.

       By specifying month, day, or year, output can be limited to a particular month or date  in
       a  particular  year.   Note that year is usually a four-digit integer, so 92 is during the
       Roman period, not the late twentieth century.  If the Hebrew dates option  is  turned  on,
       this  number  represents  the  Jewish calendar year.  month is a number from 1..12, or the
       name of a Jewish calendar month.  day is a number from 1..31.

       For example, the command

            hebcal 10 1992

       will print out the holidays occurring in October of 1992 C.E., while the command

            hebcal Tish 5752

       will print dates of interest in the month of Tishrei in Jewish calendar year 5752.

       Note: hebcal 92 is not the same as hebcal 1992.  The year is assumed to  be  complete,  so
       the former calendar precedes the latter by nineteen centuries.

       A  few  other  bells and whistles include the weekly sedra as well as the day of the week,
       the count of the omer, and the Hebrew date.

       Output from hebcal can be used  to  drive  calendar(1).   Day-to-day  use  for  hebcal  is
       provided  for  in  the -T and -t switches, which print out Jewish calendar entries for the
       current date.

       To get a quick-reference online help, type

            hebcal help

       at the command prompt.


       -8     Use 8-bit Hebrew (ISO-8859-8-Logical).

       -a     Use Ashkenazi Hebrew.

       -b mins
              Set candle-lighting to occur mins minutes before sundown

       -c     Add approximate candle-lighting times.  See below.

       -C city
              Set latitude, longitude, and timezone according to city.  This option  implies  the
              -c option.

       -d     Print the Hebrew date for the entire date range.

       -D     Print the Hebrew date for dates with some events

       -e     Change the output format to European-style dates:

       -E     Output 24-hour times (e.g., 18:37 instead of 6:37)

       -F     Output the Daf Yomi for the entire date range

       -g     --iso-8601 Emit ISO-8601 dates, i.e. YYYY-MM-DD

       -h     Suppress  holidays  in output.  User-defined calendar events are unaffected by this

       -H     When the -H switch is used, all dates specified on the command line are assumed  to
              be Hebrew dates.  So for instance,

                   example% hebcal -H 5754

              will print data for 5754, starting in Tishrei, and ending in Elul.  Hebcal is smart
              enough to detect a Hebrew month and infer that you want a Hebrew date range, so you
              could type

                   example% hebcal tish 5754

              The  -H switch would be superfluous in this case.  Invoking hebcal with just the -H
              switch by itself will print data for the current Hebrew year, starting in Tishrei.

       -i     Use the Israeli sedra scheme when used in conjunction with -S or -s.  This  has  no
              effect if the -S or -s switches are unused.

       -I file
              Read  extra  events  from  file.   These  events  are  printed regardless of the -h
              suppress holidays switch.

              There is one holiday per line in file, each with the format

                   month day description

              where month is a string identifying the Jewish month in question day  is  a  number
              from  1  to  30,  and  description  is  a  newline-terminated string describing the
              holiday.  An example might be

                   Adar 1 Start cleaning kitchen for Passover.
                   Adar 1 Start cleaning kitchen for Passover.

       -l deg,min
              Set the latitude for solar calculations to deg degrees and min  minutes.   Negative
              values are south.

       -L deg,min
              Set  the  longitude  for  solar calculations to deg degrees and min minutes.  Note:
              Negative values are east.

       --lang lang
              Display calendar in the lang language, which must be specified as one  of  the  ISO
              639-1    codes    of    “ashkenazi”,    “ashkenazi_litvish”,   “ashkenazi_poylish”,
              “ashkenazi_standard”, “fi”, “fr”, “he”, “hu”, “pl”, “ru”

       -m mins
              Set havdalah to occur mins minutes after sundown

       -M     Print the molad on shabbat mevorchim

       -o     Add the count of the omer to the output.

       -r     Use a tab-delineated format, and somewhat terser strings.  Instead of saying “ 13th
              day of the omer ” hebcal will say “ Omer: 13 ”

       -s     Add the weekly sedra to the output on Saturdays.  See -i.

       -S     Add  the  weekly sedra to the output every day.  When this option is invoked, every
              time a day is printed, the  torah  reading  for  the  Saturday  on  or  immediately
              following that date is printed.  If there is no reading for the next Saturday, then
              nothing is printed.  See -i.

       -t     Print calendar information for today's date only.  -d and -o are asserted with this

       -T     Same  as  -t,  only  without  the  Gregorian  date.  This option is useful in login
              scripts, just to see what's happening today in the Jewish calendar.

       -w     Add the day of the week to the output.

       -W     Weekly view.  Omer, dafyomi, and non-date-specific zemanim are shown once  a  week,
              on the day which corresponds to the first day in the range.

       -x     Suppress Rosh Chodesh

       -y     Print only the last two digits of the year.

       --years  n
              Generate events for n years (default 1)

       -Y file
              Read  a table of yahrtzeit dates from file.  These events are printed regardless of
              the -h suppress holidays switch.

              There is one death-date per line in file, each with the format

                   month day year description

              where month, day and year form the  Gregorian date  of  death.   description  is  a
              newline-terminated string to be printed on the yahrtzeit.  An example might be

                   12 29 1957 Menachem Mendel's yahrtzeit.
                   5 15 1930 Benjamin's yahrtzeit.

       -z timezone
              Use the specified timezone, overriding the -C (localize to city) switch

       -Z     (Experimental)  Add  zemanim  (Alot  HaShachar; Misheyakir; Kriat Shema, sof zeman;
              Tefilah, sof zeman; Chatzot hayom; Mincha Gedolah; Mincha Ketanah;  Plag  HaMincha;
              Tzait HaKochavim)

       --help Show help text

              Show version number


       Hebcal's  candlelighting times are only approximations.  If you ever have any doubts about
       its times, consult your local halachic authority.  If  you  enter  geographic  coordinates
       above  the  artic  circle  or  below  the antarctic circle, the times are guaranteed to be

       Hebcal contains a small database of cities with their  associated  geographic  information
       and  time-zone  information.   The  geographic and time information necessary to calculate
       sundown times can come to hebcal any of three ways:

       1)     The default: the system manager sets a default city when the program is compiled.

       2)     Hebcal looks in the environment variable HEBCAL_CITY for the  name  of  a  city  in
              hebcal's database, and if it finds one, hebcal will make that the new default city.

       3)     1  and  2 may be overridden by command line arguments, including those specified in
              the HEBCAL_OPTS environment variable.  The most natural way to do this  is  to  use
              the  -c  city  command.   This  will localize hebcal to city.  A list of the cities
              hebcal knows about can be obtained by typing

                   hebcal cities

              at the command prompt.  If the city you want isn't on that list, you  can  directly
              control  hebcal's  geographic  information  with the -l, -L -z switches.  Note that
              changing the geographic coordinates causes the timezone to default to UTC.

       For a status report on customizations, type type

            hebcal info

       at the command prompt.


       To find the days of the omer in 1997, printing the days of the week:

              example% hebcal -how 1997
              4/23/97 Wed, 1st day of the Omer
              4/24/97 Thu, 2nd day of the Omer
              4/25/97 Fri, 3rd day of the Omer
              6/9/97 Mon, 48th day of the Omer
              6/10/97 Tue, 49th day of the Omer

       To print only the weekly sedrot of Nisan 5770

              example% hebcal -hs Nisan 5770
              3/20/2010 Parashat Vayikra
              3/27/2010 Parashat Tzav
              4/10/2010 Parashat Shmini

       To find out what's happening in the Jewish calendar today, use

              example% hebcal -TS
              19 of Nisan, 5752
              Parshat Achrei Mot
              Pesach V (CH"M)
              4th day of the Omer


       Hebcal uses two environment variables:

              Hebcal uses this value as the default city for  sunset  calculations.   A  list  of
              available cities is available with from hebcal with the command:

                   hebcal cities

              The  value  of  this variable is automatically processed as if it were typed at the
              command line before any other actual command-line arguments.


       Danny Sadinoff
       Michael J. Radwin


       calendar(1), emacs(1), hcal(1), hdate(1), omer(1), remind(1), rise(1)

       The latest version of the code will be available from

       The original motivation for the algorithms in this program was the Tur Shulchan Aruch.

       For version 3, much of the program was rewritten using Emacs  19's  calendar  routines  by
       Edward  M.  Reingold and Nachum Dershowitz.  Their program is extremely clear and provides
       many instructive examples of fine calendar code in emacs LISP.

       A well written  treatment  of  the  Jewish  calendar  for  the  layman  can  be  found  in
       Understanding  the Jewish Calendar by Rabbi Nathan Bushwick.  A more complete bibliography
       on the topic can be found there, as well as in  the  Encyclopedia  Judaica  entry  on  the


       hebcal help
              Prints a shorter version of this manpage, with comments on each option.

       hebcal info
              Prints the version number and default values of the program.

       hebcal cities
              Prints  a  list of cities which hebcal knows about, suitable as arguments to the -C
              city option.  If your city does not appear on this list, put the necessary defaults
              in the HEBCAL_OPTS  environment variable.

       hebcal copying
              Prints the GNU license, with information about copying the program.  See below.

       hebcal warranty
              Tells you how there's NO WARRANTY for hebcal.


       This  is just a program I wrote during summer school and while avoiding my senior project.
       It should not be invested with any sort of halachic authority.


       Hebrew dates are only valid before sundown on that secular date.   An  option  to  control
       this will be added in a later release.

       Negative longitudes are east of Greenwich.

       Some combinations of options produce weird results, e.g. ,

            hebcal -dH nisan 5744
            hebcal -dH 5744

       This comes into play when you use the HEBCAL_OPTS environment variable.

       The  sunup/sundown  routines  aren't accurate enough.  If you enter geographic coordinates
       above the artic circle or below the antarctic circle,  the  times  are  guaranteed  to  be

       Hebcal  only translates between the Gregorian calendar and the Jewish calendar. This means
       that the results will be at least partly useless where and when the Gregorian calendar was
       not  used, e.g. before 1752 in Britain and before circa 1918 in Russia.  See the Wikipedia
       entry for “Daylight saving time” for a splendid chart depicting when the  changeover  from
       the Julian to the Gregorian calendars occurred in various places.

       Hebcal cannot handle date computations before 2 C.E.  Sorry.


       Danny Sadinoff


       Copyright © 1994-2006 Danny Sadinoff
       Portions Copyright © 2010 Michael J. Radwin. All Rights Reserved.

       Permission  is  granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the
       copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this  manual  under  the
       conditions  for  verbatim  copying,  provided  that  the  entire resulting derived work is
       distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations  of  this  manual  into  another
       language,  under  the  above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission
       notice may be included in translations approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of
       in the original English.

       For a full text of the copyright and lack of warranty information, type

            hebcal copying


            hebcal warranty

       at the command line.