Provided by: grass-doc_7.8.2-1build3_all bug


       r.out.gdal  - Exports GRASS raster maps into GDAL supported formats.


       raster, export, output


       r.out.gdal --help
       r.out.gdal     [-lcmtf]     input=name     output=name     format=string     [type=string]
       [createopt=string[,string,...]]        [metaopt=string[,string,...]]        [nodata=float]
       [overviews=integer]   [--overwrite]  [--help]  [--verbose]  [--quiet]  [--ui]

           List supported output formats

           Do not write GDAL standard colortable
           Only applicable to Byte or UInt16 data types

           Do not write non-standard metadata
           Enhances compatibility with other GIS software

           Write raster attribute table
           Some export formats may not be supported

           Force raster export despite any warnings of data loss
           Overrides nodata safety check

           Allow output files to overwrite existing files

           Print usage summary

           Verbose module output

           Quiet module output

           Force launching GUI dialog

       input=name [required]
           Name of raster map (or group) to export

       output=name [required]
           Name for output raster file

       format=string [required]
           Raster data format to write (case sensitive, see also -l flag)
           Options:  VRT,  GTiff, NITF, HFA, ELAS, AAIGrid, DTED, PNG, JPEG, MEM, GIF, FITS, XPM,
           BMP,  PCIDSK,  PCRaster,  ILWIS,  SGI,  SRTMHGT,  Leveller,  Terragen,  GMT,   netCDF,
           PAux,  MFF,  MFF2,  BT, LAN, IDA, LCP, GTX, NTv2, CTable2, KRO, ROI_PAC, RRASTER, BYN,
           ZMap, SIGDEM, GPKG, NGW, ENVI, EHdr, ISCE
           Default: GTiff

           Data type
           Options:  Byte,  Int16,  UInt16,  Int32,  UInt32,  Float32,  Float64,  CInt16, CInt32,
           CFloat32, CFloat64

           Creation option(s) to pass to the output format driver
           In the form of "NAME=VALUE", separate multiple entries with a comma

           Metadata key(s) and value(s) to include
           In the form of "META-TAG=VALUE", separate multiple entries with a comma. Not supported
           by all output format drivers.

           Assign a specified nodata value to output bands
           If  given,  the  nodata  value is always written to metadata even if there are no NULL
           cells in the input band (enhances output compatibility).

           Number of overviews to create for the output dataset
           Options: 0-5
           Default: 0


       r.out.gdal allows a user to export a GRASS raster map layer into any GDAL supported raster
       map  format.  If  a  GRASS  raster  map  is  exported  for  a  particular application, the
       application’s native format would be preferable. GeoTIFF is supported by a wide  range  of
       applications (see also NOTES on GeoTIFF below).

       To    specify    multiple    creation    options    use    a    comma    separated    list

       For possible createopt and metaopt parameters  please  consult  the  individual  supported
       formats  pages  on the GDAL website.  The createopt parameter may be used to create TFW or
       World files ("TFW=YES","WORLDFILE=ON").

       r.out.gdal also supports the export of multiband rasters as  a  group,  when  the  imagery
       group’s name is entered as input.  (created imagery groups with the module)

       As  with  most  GRASS raster modules, the current region extents and region resolution are
       used, and a MASK is respected if present.  Use g.region’s "align=", or  "raster="  options
       if you need to realign the region settings to match the original map’s before export.


       The  set  of  supported  raster  formats  written  by r.out.gdal depends on the local GDAL
       installation, printed with the -l flag. Available may be (incomplete list):

         AAIGrid: Arc/Info ASCII Grid
         BMP: MS Windows Device Independent Bitmap
         BSB: Maptech BSB Nautical Charts
         DTED: DTED Elevation Raster
         ELAS: ELAS
         ENVI: ENVI .hdr Labelled
         FIT: FIT Image
         GIF: Graphics Interchange Format (.gif)
         GTiff: GeoTIFF
         HDF4Image: HDF4 Dataset
         HFA: Erdas Imagine Images (.img)
         JPEG2000: JPEG-2000 part 1 (ISO/IEC 15444-1)
         JPEG: JPEG JFIF
         MEM: In Memory Raster
         MFF2: Atlantis MFF2 (HKV) Raster
         MFF: Atlantis MFF Raster
         NITF: National Imagery Transmission Format
         PAux: PCI .aux Labelled
         PCIDSK: PCIDSK Database File
         PNG: Portable Network Graphics
         PNM: Portable Pixmap Format (netpbm)
         VRT: Virtual Raster
         XPM: X11 PixMap Format


       Out of the GDAL data types, the closest match for GRASS CELL, FCELL and DCELL rasters  are
       respectively  Int32,  Float32  and Float64. These are not exact equivalents, but they will
       preserve the maximum possible data range and number of decimal places for each  respective
       GRASS  raster data type.  Please keep in mind that not all CELL rasters will require Int32
       - e.g., 0-255 CELL  raster  are  covered  by  the  Byte  type  as  well.   Moreover,  some
       GDAL-supported  formats  do not support all the data types possible in GDAL and GRASS. Use to check the data type and range for your GRASS raster, refer  to  specific  format
       documentation (on the GDAL website), format vendor’s documentation, and e.g. the Wikipedia
       article Typical boundaries of primitive integral types for details.

   Ranges of GDAL data types
         GDAL data type           minimum      maximum
         Byte                   0        255
         UInt16                 0     65,535
         Int16, CInt16            -32,768       32,767
         UInt32                 0    4,294,967,295
         Int32, CInt32     -2,147,483,648    2,147,483,647
         Float32, CFloat32        -3.4E38       3.4E38
         Float64, CFloat64      -1.79E308         1.79E308

       If there is a need to keep file sizes small, use the simplest data type covering the  data
       range  of the raster(s) to be exported, e.g., if suitable use Byte rather than UInt16; use
       Int16 rather than Int32; or use Float32 rather than Float64.  In  addition,  the  COMPRESS
       createopt used can have a very large impact on the size of the output file.

       Some  software may not recognize all of the compression methods available for a given file
       format, and certain compression methods may only  be  supported  for  certain  data  types
       (depends on vendor and version).

       If  the  export  settings are set such that data loss would occur in the output file (i.e,
       due to the particular choice of data type and/or  file  type),  the  normal  behaviour  of
       r.out.gdal in this case would be to issue an error message describing the problem and exit
       without exporting. The -f flag allows raster export even if some of the  data  loss  tests
       are not passed, and warnings are issued instead of errors.

       r.out.gdal  exports may appear all black or gray on initial display in other GIS software.
       This is not a bug of r.out.gdal, but often caused by the default color table  assigned  by
       that  software.   The  default  color  table  may be grayscale covering the whole range of
       possible values which is very large for e.g. Int32 or Float32. E.g.  stretching the  color
       table to actual min/max would help (sometimes under symbology).

   Adding overviews to speed up map display in other software
       Adding  overviews  with  gdaladdo  after exporting can speed up display. The overviews are
       created internally within the exported file. The amount of levels  (power-of-two  factors)
       are  controlled with the overviews parameter. The higher the overview level defined by the
       user the more lower resolution internal overviews are added Note that other software might
       create their own overviews, ignoring existing overviews.

   GeoTIFF caveats
       GeoTIFF  exports can only be displayed by standard image viewers if the GDAL data type was
       set to Byte and the GeoTIFF contains either one or three bands. All other data  types  and
       numbers  of  bands  can  be  properly  read with GIS software only. Although GeoTIFF files
       usually have a .tif extension, these files are not necessarily images  but  first  of  all
       spatial raster datasets, e.g. land cover or elevation.

       When  writing out multi-band GeoTIFF images for users of ESRI software or ImageMagick, the
       interleaving mode should  be  set  to  "pixel"  using  createopt="INTERLEAVE=PIXEL".  BAND
       interleaving  is  slightly  more  efficient, but not supported by some applications.  This
       issue only arises when writing out multi-band imagery groups.

       Classic TIFF format supports only files with up to 4GB. Files that exceed this  limit  (in
       compressed or uncompressed form) need to be exported with createopt="BIGTIFF=YES". BIGTIFF
       is available if GDAL is built with libtiff >= 4.0.

   Improving GeoTIFF compatibility
       To create a GeoTIFF that is highly compatible with various other GIS software packages, it
       is recommended to keep the GeoTIFF file as simple as possible. You will have to experiment
       with which options your software is compatible with, as this varies widely between vendors
       and  versions.  Long  term, the less metadata you have to remove the more self-documenting
       (and useful) the dataset will be.

       Here are some things to try:

           ·   Create a World file with createopt="TFW=YES".

           ·   Do not use GeoTIFF internal compression. Other GIS software often supports only  a
               subset  of  the available compression methods with the supported methods differing
               between GIS software packages. Unfortunately this means the output  image  can  be
               rather  huge,  but  the  file can be compressed with software like zip, gnuzip, or

           ·   Skip exporting the color table. Color tables are  not  always  properly  rendered,
               particularly for type UInt16, and the GeoTIFF file can appear completely black. If
               you are lucky the problematic software package has a method  to  reset  the  color
               table and assign a new color table (sometimes called symbology).

           ·   Keep       metadata      simple      with      createopt="PROFILE=GeoTIFF"      or
               createopt="PROFILE=BASELINE". With BASELINE  no  GDAL  or  GeoTIFF  tags  will  be
               written and a World file is required (createopt="TFW=YES").

       Cloud   Optimized   GeoTIFFs   (COG)   can   be   created   with   the   creation  options
       createopt=TILED=YES,COMPRESS=DEFLATE, followed by gdaladdo to build overviews.


   Export the integer raster basin_50K map to GeoTIFF format
       g.region raster=basin_50K -p
       r.out.gdal input=basin_50K output=basin_50K.tif

   Export a DCELL raster map in GeoTIFF format suitable for ESRI software
       g.region raster=elevation -p
       r.out.gdal in=elevation output=elevation.tif createopt="PROFILE=GeoTIFF,TFW=YES"

   Export a raster map in "Deflate" compressed GeoTIFF format
       g.region raster=elevation -p
       r.out.gdal in=elevation output=elevation.tif createopt="COMPRESS=DEFLATE"

   Export a large raster map in LZW compressed (Big) GeoTIFF format
       g.region raster=elevation -p
       # Using PREDICTOR 2 or 3 (the latter mainly for floating point data) can further reduce file size
       r.out.gdal in=elevation output=elevation.tif createopt="COMPRESS=LZW,PREDICTOR=3,BIGTIFF=YES"

   Export a raster map with internal overview in "Deflate" compressed GeoTIFF format
       g.region raster=elevation -p
       # overviews=5 corresponds to ’gdaladdo ... 2 4 8 16 32’
       r.out.gdal in=elevation output=elevation.tif createopt="COMPRESS=DEFLATE" overviews=5

   Export R,G,B imagery bands in GeoTIFF format suitable for ESRI software group=nc_landsat_rgb input=lsat7_2002_30,lsat7_2002_20,lsat7_2002_10
       g.region raster=lsat7_2002_30 -p
       r.out.gdal in=nc_landsat_rgb output=nc_landsat_rgb.tif type=Byte \

   Export the floating point raster elevation map to ERDAS/IMG format
       g.region raster=elevation -p
       r.out.gdal input=elevation output=elelevation.img format=HFA type=Float32

   Export group of image maps as multi-band file
       g.list group group=tm7 subgroup=tm7 input=tm7_10,tm7_20,tm7_30,tm7_40,tm7_50,tm7_60,tm7_70 -l tm7
       g.region raster=tm7_10 -p
       r.out.gdal tm7 output=lsat_multiband.tif
       gdalinfo lsat_multiband.tif

   Export RGB with alpha channel that encodes NULL cells
       When exporting exporting RGB data rather than GIS data for Web applications  or  generally
       the  scope of visualization, the alpha channel is of use. Here the export type is commonly
       the Byte data type.

       When exporting data with r.out.gdal, assigning a nodata value (specific parameter  of  the
       module)  means  that  any  band  values  equal to this nodata value will be interpreted as
       nodata. Using an additional alpha channel means that all pixels with an alpha value  of  0
       are transparent. The alpha channel thus represents per-pixel encoding of nodata, just like
       the GRASS MASK (null file). That means when using an alpha channel, you  do  not  need  to
       "free  up" any particular value, but you can use any value you like to replace NULL cells,
       as long as the value can be represented by the Byte data type. It does not matter if  that
       value is already present in any of the input bands.

       Hence for "visual-only" RGB data export it is needed to create an additional alpha channel
       that encodes all NULL cells and in the RGB bands to be exported replace  NULL  cells  with
       some value in the range 0-255. For example:

       # for simplicity variables are used
       # extract alpha
       r.mapcalc "out_a = if(isnull($RMAP) || isnull($GMAP) || isnull($BMAP), 0, 255)"
       # replace NULL cells with a valid value, extract colors
       # exporting 8 bit RGB data, not GIS data, therefore the `#` operator:
       r.mapcalc "out_r = if(isnull($RMAP), 0, #$RMAP)"
       r.mapcalc "out_g = if(isnull($GMAP), 0, #$GMAP)"
       r.mapcalc "out_b = if(isnull($BMAP), 0, #$BMAP)"
       # create group for export group=out_rgba input=out_r,out_g,out_b,out_a
       # remove any MASK because this works only if there are
       # no NULL cells in the bands to be exported
       r.mask -r
       # export the group:
       # add PROFILE=BASELINE to createopt to produce a standard TIFF file
       # without any GTiff extensions
       r.out.gdal input=out_rgba output=$OUTNAME -cm createopt="PHOTOMETRIC=RGB,ALPHA=YES"
       gdalinfo $OUTNAME
       The resulting GeoTIFF file can be used e.g. for Web server applications.


           ·   "ERROR  6:  SetColorInterpretation()  not  supported  for this dataset.": This may
               indicate that the color table was not written properly.  But usually  it  will  be
               correct and the message can be ignored.

           ·   "ERROR  6:  SetNoDataValue() not supported for this dataset.": The selected output
               format does not support "no data". It is recommended to  use  a  different  output
               format if your data contains NULLs.

           ·   "Warning  1:  Lost  metadata writing to GeoTIFF ... too large to fit in tag.": The
               color table metadata may be too large. It is recommended to simplify or not  write
               the color table, or use a different output format or the flags -c and -m.


       The GDAL supported formats page.
        r.out.ascii, r.out.bin, r.out.mat, r.out.png, r.out.ppm, r.pack


       GDAL Pages:


       Vytautas Vebra (oliver4grass at
       Markus Metz (improved nodata logic)


       Available at: r.out.gdal source code (history)

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       © 2003-2019 GRASS Development Team, GRASS GIS 7.8.2 Reference Manual