Provided by: chiark-utils-bin_6.1.2_amd64 bug


       summer - print checksum and system metainformation for files


       summer -ACDbfqtx [startpoint...]


       summer prints the MD5 checksum of the contents, and the system metainformation (ownership,
       permissions, timestamps, etc.), for a file, or recursively for a whole directory tree.

       Each command line argument should be a file or directory to  be  processed;  if  it  is  a
       directory  then  it  will  be  processed  and  then  its  contents will also be processed,
       recursively. If no startpoints are specified on the command line then summer will  read  a
       list of newline-separated startpoints from standard input.

       Since summer correctly handles devices, FIFOs and other non-regular files it is useful for
       generating and comparing summaries of arbitrary directory trees where md5sum  alone  would
       not be.


       summer  prints one line of information for each filesystem object it processes.  Each line
       has the following columns:

           MD5 checksum (in hex) or file type information
           Size of file in bytes
           File access rights (in octal)
           User ID of owner (in decimal)
           Group ID of owner (in decimal)
           atime (time of last access, decimal time_t)
           mtime (time of last modification)
           ctime (time of last status change)

       For regular files, the first column is the md5sum. For directories,  pipes,  symlinks  and
       sockets  it is the literal string dir, mountpoint, pipe, symlink or socket as appropriate.
       For devices it begins with c for character or b for block devices, followed by the  device
       number  as  a  single  32  bit hex number and as four separate 8 bit decimal numbers (most
       significant first).

       Note that any bytes in the filename other than printing 7-bit ASCII are escaped using \xNN
       syntax, where NN are two hex digits; backslashes are also escaped in this way.  This makes
       the output unambiguous.  Filenames  will  be  relative  if  the  relevant  startpoint  was
       relative, and absolute if it was absolute.

       For symlinks the filename column is followed by ` -> ' (note the spaces) and the target of
       the link, again escaped, as above.


       -A     Do not print the atime (time of last access). The atime column will be omitted.

       -C     Do not print the ctime (time of last status  change).  The  ctime  column  will  be

       -M     Do  not  print  the  mtime  (time  of  last modification). The mtime column will be

       -D     Do not print directory sizes. The size column for directories will read dir.

       -b     Do not print mtime (time of last modification) for symbolic links. The mtime  field
              for symbolic links will read link.

       -B     Do  not print any times for special files, symlinks, sockets, or fifos.  The atime,
              mtime and ctime fields for these objects will read char, block, link, sock or  pipe

       -f     Include information about errors encountered (for example, unreadable files) in the
              output, and continue processing. The default  is  to  print  error  information  to
              standard error and stop immediately an error is encountered.

       -x     Do  not  cross  mountpoints while recursing into subdirectories.  Startpoints which
              are mountpoints are descended into.

       -q     Suppress the progress information which summer normally prints to standard error.

       -t     Set the field separator between the information and the filename to a tab character
              (default is space).

       -f     Normally  any  errors  (problems accessing files including nonexistent startpoings,
              and the like) are fatal; an error message is reported to stderr.

              With -f errors are nonfatal and the problems are reported inline.   The  filesystem
              object  with  the  problem is reported in the normal way except that instead of the
              checksum, the string \[problem[: details]] appears.  Fields whose value  could  not
              be determined are printed as ?.

       -h     Print a brief usage message to stderr (and do nothing else, exiting nonzero).


       If  the  first  character  in  the  line is \[, then the first (checksum or type) field is
       everything until the first subsequent ]; this may  be  of  variable  length  and  will  be
       followed  by  one  or  more  spaces.   Otherwise  the  first  field  has a fixed width: 64
       characters, the size of an MD5 checksum represented in hex, and is followed  by  a  single

       The  metadata  fields are space-separated but are also space-padded to a minimum width: 10
       characters for sizes and times and ids; 4 characters for the mode.

       The filename field, and optional link target information, are of variable length, but they
       are escaped so that they do not contain spaces.


       summer is
       Copyright (C) 2003-2007 Ian Jackson <>

       This manpage was written by Peter Maydell and subsequently improved by Ian Jackson.  It is
       Copyright (C) 2006 Peter Maydell <>
       Copyright (C) 2007 Ian Jackson <>

       This  is free software, distributed under the GNU General Public Licence, version 3 or (at
       your  option)  any  later  version;   see   /usr/share/doc/chiark-utils-bin/copyright   or
       /usr/share/common-licenses/GPL-3  for  copying conditions.  There is NO warranty; not even