Provided by: feersum_1.407-2_amd64 bug


       Feersum - A PSGI engine for Perl based on EV/libev


           use Feersum;
           my $ngn = Feersum->endjinn; # singleton

           # register a PSGI handler
           $ngn->psgi_request_handler(sub {
               my $env = shift;
               return [200,
                   ["You win one cryptosphere!\n"]];

           # register a Feersum handler:
           $ngn->request_handler(sub {
               my $req = shift;
               my $t; $t = EV::timer 2, 0, sub {
                       ['Content-Type' => 'text/plain'],
                       \"You win one cryptosphere!\n"
                   undef $t;


       Feersum is an HTTP server built on EV.  It fully supports the PSGI 1.03 spec including the
       "psgi.streaming" interface and is compatible with Plack.  PSGI 1.1, which has yet to be
       published formally, is also supported.  Feersum also has its own "native" interface which
       is similar in a lot of ways to PSGI, but is not compatible with PSGI or PSGI middleware.

       Feersum uses a single-threaded, event-based programming architecture to scale and can
       handle many concurrent connections efficiently in both CPU and RAM.  It skips doing a lot
       of sanity checking with the assumption that a "front-end" HTTP/HTTPS server is placed
       between it and the Internet.

   How It Works
       All of the request-parsing and I/O marshalling is done using C or XS code.  HTTP parsing
       is done by picohttpparser, which is the core of HTTP::Parser::XS.  The network I/O is done
       via the libev library. This is made possible by "EV::MakeMaker", which allows extension
       writers to link against the same libev that "EV" is using.  This means that one can write
       an evented app using "EV" or AnyEvent from Perl that completely co-operates with the
       server's event loop.

       Since the Perl "app" (handler) is executed in the same thread as the event loop, one need
       to be careful to not block this thread.  Standard techniques include using AnyEvent or EV
       idle and timer watchers, using Coro to multitask, and using sub-processes to do heavy
       lifting (e.g.  AnyEvent::Worker and AnyEvent::DBI).

       Feersum also attempts to do as little copying of data as possible. Feersum uses the low-
       level "writev" system call to avoid having to copy data into a buffer.  For response data,
       references to scalars are kept in order to avoid copying the string values (once the data
       is written to the socket, the reference is dropped and the data is garbage collected).

       A trivial hello-world handler can process in excess of 5000 requests per second on a
       4-core Intel(R) Xeon(R) E5335 @ 2.00GHz using TCPv4 on the loopback interface, OS Ubuntu
       6.06LTS, Perl 5.8.7.  Your mileage will likely vary.

       For even faster results, Feersum can support very simple pre-forking (See feersum,
       Feersum::Runner or Plack::Handler::Feersum for details).


       There are two handler interfaces for Feersum: The PSGI handler interface and the "Feersum-
       native" handler interface.  The PSGI handler interface is fully PSGI 1.03 compatible and
       supports "psgi.streaming". The "psgix.input.buffered" and "" features of PSGI 1.1
       are also supported.  The Feersum-native handler interface is "inspired by" PSGI, but does
       some things differently for speed.

       Feersum will use "Transfer-Encoding: chunked" for HTTP/1.1 clients and "Connection: close"
       streaming as a fallback.  Technically "Connection: close" streaming isn't part of the
       HTTP/1.0 or 1.1 spec, but many browsers and agents support it anyway.

       Currently POST/PUT does not stream input, but read() can be called on "psgi.input" to get
       the body (which has been buffered up before the request callback is called and therefore
       will never block).  Likely "read()" will change to raise EAGAIN responses and allow for a
       callback to be registered on the arrival of more data. (The "psgix.input.buffered" env var
       is set to reflect this).

   PSGI interface
       Feersum fully supports the PSGI 1.03 spec including "psgi.streaming".

       See also Plack::Handler::Feersum, which provides a way to use Feersum with plackup and

       Call "psgi_request_handler($app)" to register $app as a PSGI handler.

           my $app = do $filename;

       The env hash passed in will always have the following keys in addition to dynamic ones:

           psgi.version      => [1,0],
           psgi.nonblocking  => 1,
           psgi.multithread  => '', # i.e. false
           psgi.multiprocess => '',
           psgi.streaming    => 1,
           psgi.errors       => \*STDERR,
           SCRIPT_NAME       => "",

       Feersum adds these extensions (see below for info)

           psgix.input.buffered   => 1,
           psgix.output.buffered  => 1,
           psgix.body.scalar_refs => 1,
           psgix.output.guard     => 1,
                => \$magical_io_socket,

       Note that SCRIPT_NAME is always blank (but defined).  PATH_INFO will contain the path part
       of the requested URI.

       For requests with a body (e.g. POST) "psgi.input" will contain a valid file-handle.
       Feersum currently passes "undef" for psgi.input when there is no body to avoid unnecessary

           my $r = delete $env->{'psgi.input'};
           $r->read($body, $env->{CONTENT_LENGTH});
           # optional: choose to stop receiving further input, discard buffers:

       The "psgi.streaming" interface is fully supported, including the writer-object "poll_cb"
       callback feature defined in PSGI 1.03.  Note that poll_cb is removed from the preliminary
       PSGI 1.1 spec.  Feersum calls the poll_cb callback after all data has been flushed out and
       the socket is write-ready.  The data is buffered until the callback returns at which point
       it will be immediately flushed to the socket.

           my $app = sub {
               my $env = shift;
               return sub {
                   my $respond = shift;
                   my $w = $respond->([
                       200, ['Content-Type' => 'application/json']
                   my $n = 0;
                   $w->poll_cb(sub {
                       # will also unset the poll_cb:
                       $_[0]->close if ($n++ >= 100);

       Note that "$w->close()" will be called when the last reference to the writer is dropped.

   PSGI extensions
           Scalar refs in the response body are supported, and is indicated as an via the
           psgix.body.scalar_refs env variable. Passing by reference is significantly faster than
           copying a value onto the return stack or into an array.  It's also very useful when
           broadcasting a message to many connected clients.  This is a Feersum-native feature
           exposed to PSGI apps; very few other PSGI handlers will support this.

           Calls to "$w->write()" will never block.  This behaviour is indicated by
           psgix.output.buffered in the PSGI env hash.

           "psgix.input.buffered" is defined as part of PSGI 1.1. It means that calls to read on
           the input handle will never block because the complete input has been buffered in some

           Feersum currently buffers the entire input in memory calling the callback.

           Feersum's input behaviour MAY eventually change to not be psgix.input.buffered!
           Likely, a "poll_cb()" method similar to how the writer handle works could be
           registered to have input "pushed" to the app.

           The streaming responder has a "response_guard()" method that can be used to attach a
           guard to the request.  When the request completes (all data has been written to the
           socket and the socket has been closed) the guard will trigger.  This is an alternate
           means to doing a "write completion" callback via "poll_cb()" that should be more
           efficient.  An analogy is the "on_drain" handler in AnyEvent::Handle.

           A "guard" in this context is some object that will do something interesting in its
           DESTROY/DEMOLISH method. For example, Guard.
           The raw socket extension is provided in order to support Web::Hippie and
           websockets.  "" is defined as part of PSGI 1.1.  To obtain the IO::Socket
           corresponding to this connection, read this environment variable.

           The underlying file descriptor will have "O_NONBLOCK", "TCP_NODELAY", "SO_OOBINLINE"
           enabled and "SO_LINGER" disabled.

           PSGI apps MUST use a "psgi.streaming" response so that Feersum doesn't try to flush
           and close the connection.  Additionally, the "respond" parameter to the streaming
           callback MUST NOT be called for the same reason.

               my $env = shift;
               return sub {
                   my $fh = $env->{''};
                   syswrite $fh,

   The Feersum-native interface
       The Feersum-native interface is inspired by PSGI, but is inherently incompatible with it.
       Apps written against this API will not work as a PSGI app.

       This interface may have removals and is not stable until Feersum reaches version 1.0, at
       which point the interface API will become stable and will only change for bug fixes or new
       additions.  The "stable" and will retain backwards compatibility until at least the next
       major release.

       The main entry point is a sub-ref passed to "request_handler".  This sub is passed a
       reference to an object that represents an HTTP connection.  Currently the request_handler
       is called during the "check" and "idle" phases of the EV event loop.  The handler is
       always called after request headers have been read.  Currently, the handler will only be
       called after a full request entity has been received for POST/PUT/etc.

       The simplest way to send a response is to use "send_response":

           my $req = shift;
           $req->send_response(200, \@headers, ["body ", \"parts"]);

       Or, if the app has everything packed into a single scalar already, just pass it in by

           my $req = shift;
           $req->send_response(200, \@headers, \"whole body");

       Both of the above will generate "Content-Length" header (replacing any that were pre-
       defined in @headers).

       An environment hash is easy to obtain, but is a method call instead of a parameter to the
       callback. (In PSGI, there is no $req object; the env hash is the first parameter to the
       callback).  The hash contains the same items as it would for a PSGI handler (see above for

           my $req = shift;
           my $env = $req->env();

       To read input from a POST/PUT, use the "psgi.input" item of the env hash.

           if ($req->{REQUEST_METHOD} eq 'POST') {
               my $body = '';
               my $r = delete $env->{'psgi.input'};
               $r->read($body, $env->{CONTENT_LENGTH});
               # optional:

       Starting a response in stream mode enables the "write()" method (which really acts more
       like a buffered 'print').  Calls to "write()" will never block.

           my $req = shift;
           my $w = $req->start_streaming(200, \@headers);
           $w->write(\"this is a reference to some shared chunk\n");
           $w->write("regular scalars are OK too\n");
           $w->close(); # close off the stream

       The writer object supports "poll_cb" as also specified in PSGI 1.03.  Feersum will call
       the callback only when all data has been flushed out at the socket level.  Use "close()"
       or unset the handler ("$w->poll_cb(undef)") to stop the callback from getting called.

           my $req = shift;
           my $w = $req->start_streaming(
               "200 OK", ['Content-Type' => 'application/json']);
           my $n = 0;
           $w->poll_cb(sub {
               # $_[0] is a copy of $w so a closure doesn't need to be made
               $_[0]->close if ($n++ >= 100);

       Note that "$w->close()" will be called when the last reference to the writer is dropped.


       These are methods on the global Feersum singleton.

           Returns the "Feersum" singleton. Takes no parameters.

           Use the file-descriptor attached to a listen-socket to accept connections.

           TLS sockets are NOT supported nor are they detected. Feersum needs to use the socket
           at a low level and will ignore any encryption that has been established (data is
           always sent in the clear).  The intented use of Feersum is over localhost-only

           A reference to $sock is kept as "Feersum->endjinn->{socket}".

           Use the specified fileno to accept connections.  May be used as an alternative to

           Stop listening to the socket specified by use_socket or accept_on_fd.

       "request_handler(sub { my $req = shift; ... })"
           Sets the global request handler.  Any previous handler is replaced.

           The handler callback is passed a Feersum::Connection object.

           Subject to change: if the request has an entity body then the handler will be called
           only after receiving the body in its entirety.  The headers *must* specify a Content-
           Length of the body otherwise the request will be rejected.  The maximum size is hard
           coded to 2147483647 bytes (this may be considered a bug).

       "psgi_request_handler(sub { my $env = shift; ... })"
           Like request_handler, but assigns a PSGI handler instead.

           Get or set the global read timeout.

           Feersum will wait about this long to receive all headers of a request (within the
           tollerances provided by libev).  If an entity body is part of the request (e.g. POST
           or PUT) it will wait this long between successful "read()" system calls.

       "graceful_shutdown(sub { .... })"
           Causes Feersum to initiate a graceful shutdown of all outstanding connections.  No new
           connections will be accepted.  The reference to the socket provided in use_socket() is

           The sub parameter is a completion callback.  It will be called when all connections
           have been flushed and closed.  This allows one to do something like this:

               my $cv = AE::cv;
               my $death = AE::timer 2.5, 0, sub {
                   fail "SHUTDOWN TOOK TOO LONG";
                   exit 1;
               Feersum->endjinn->graceful_shutdown(sub {
                   pass "all gracefully shut down, supposedly";
                   undef $death;

           Not really a method so much as a static function.  Works similar to EV's/AnyEvent's
           error handler.

           To install a handler:

               no strict 'refs';
               *{'Feersum::DIED'} = sub { warn "nuts $_[0]" };

           Will get called for any errors that happen before the request handler callback is
           called, when the request handler callback throws an exception and potentially for
           other not-in-a-request-context errors.

           It will not get called for read timeouts that occur while waiting for a complete
           header (and also, until Feersum supports otherwise, time-outs while waiting for a
           request entity body).

           Any exceptions thrown in the handler will generate a warning and not propagated.

           Override Feersum's notion of what SERVER_HOST and SERVER_PORT should be.


   Compile Time Options
       There are a number of constants at the top of Feersum.xs.  If you change any of these, be
       sure to note that in any bug reports.

           Defaults to 64.  Controls how many headers can be present in an HTTP request.

           If a request exceeds this limit, a 400 response is given and the app handler does not

           Defaults to 128.  Controls how long the name of each header can be.

           If a request exceeds this limit, a 400 response is given and the app handler does not

           Defaults to ~2GB.  Controls how large the body of a POST/PUT/etc. can be when that
           request has a "Content-Length" header.

           If a request exceeds this limit, a 413 response is given and the app handler does not

           See also BUGS

           READ_BUFSZ defaults to 4096, READ_INIT_FACTOR 2 and READ_GROW_FACTOR 8.

           Together, these tune how data is read for a request.

           Read buffers start out at READ_INIT_FACTOR * READ_BUFSZ bytes.  If another read is
           needed and the buffer is under READ_BUFSZ bytes then the buffer gets an additional
           READ_GROW_FACTOR * READ_BUFSZ bytes.  The trade-off with the grow factor is memory
           usage vs. system calls.

           Controls how response data is written to sockets.  If enabled (the default) the event
           loop is used to wait until the socket is writable, otherwise a write is performed
           immediately.  In either case, non-blocking writes are used.  Using the event loop is
           "nicer" but perhaps introduces latency, hence this option.

           FLASH_SOCKET_POLICY_SUPPORT defaults to disabled.

           When it's enabled, Feersum will detect a Flash "<policy-file-request/>" packet and
           respond with the FLASH_SOCKET_POLICY string.

           The default FLASH_SOCKET_POLICY string looks like this:

               <?xml version="1.0"?>
               <!DOCTYPE cross-domain-policy SYSTEM "/xml/dtds/cross-domain-policy.dtd">
                 <site-control permitted-cross-domain-policies="master-only"/>
                 <allow-access-from domain="*" to-ports="*" secure="false"/>

           Since that's fairly wide-open, you may not wish to enable FLASH_SOCKET_POLICY_SUPPORT.

           Note that this feature likely won't work if you use a front-end HTTP server (e.g.
           nginx) since the request isn't valid HTTP.

           Controls the size of the main write-buffer structure in Feersum.  Making this value
           lower will use slightly less memory per connection at the cost of speed (and vice-
           versa for raising the value).  The effect is most noticeable when you're app is making
           a lot of sparce writes.  The default of 64 generally keeps usage under 4k per
           connection on full 64-bit platforms when you take into account the other connection
           and request structures.

           NOTE: FEERSUM_IOMATRIX_SIZE cannot exceed your OS's defined IOV_MAX or UIO_MAXIOV
           constant.  Solaris defines IOV_MAX to be 16, making it the default on that platform.
           Linux and OSX seem to set this at 1024.

           For non-threaded perls >= 5.12.0, this defaults to enabled.

           When enabled, Feersum will "steal" the contents of temporary lexical scalars used for
           response bodies.  The scalars become "undef" as a result, but due to them being temps
           they likely aren't used again anyway.  Stealing saves the time and memory needed to
           make a copy of that scalar, resulting in a mild to moderate performance boost.

           This egregious hack only extends to non-magical, string, "PADTMP" scalars.

           If it breaks for your new version of perl, please send stash a note (or a pull
           request!) on github.

           Worth noting is that a similar zero-copy effect can be achieved by using the
           "psgix.body.scalar_refs" feature.


       Please report bugs using

       Keep-alive is ignored completely.

       Currently there's no way to limit the request entity length of a streaming POST/PUT/etc.
       This could lead to a DoS attack on a Feersum server.  Suggested remedy is to only run
       Feersum behind some other web server and to use that to limit the entity size.

       Although not explicitly a bug, the following may cause undesirable behavior.  Feersum will
       have set SIGPIPE to be ignored by the time your handler gets called.  If your handler
       needs to detect SIGPIPE, be sure to do a "local $SIG{PIPE} = ..." (perlipc) to make it
       active just during the necessary scope.


       Feersum Git: "" "git://"

       picohttpparser Git: ""


       Jeremy Stashewsky, ""


       Tatsuhiko Miyagawa for PSGI and Plack.

       Marc Lehmann for EV and AnyEvent (not to mention JSON::XS and Coro).

       Kazuho Oku for picohttpparser.

       Luke Closs (lukec), Scott McWhirter (konobi), socialtexters and for initial
       feedback and ideas.  Audrey Tang and Graham Termarsch for XS advice.

       Hans Dieter Pearcey (confound) for docs and packaging guidance.

       For bug reports: Chia-liang Kao (clkao), Lee Aylward (leedo)

       Audrey Tang (au) for flash socket policy support.


       Copyright (C) 2011 by Jeremy Stashewsky

       Portions Copyright (C) 2010 Socialtext Inc.

       This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself, either Perl version 5.8.7 or, at your option, any later version of
       Perl 5 you may have available.

       picohttpparser is Copyright 2009 Kazuho Oku.  It is released under the same terms as Perl