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       yecc - LALR-1 Parser Generator


       An  LALR-1 parser generator for Erlang, similar to yacc. Takes a BNF grammar definition as
       input, and produces Erlang code for a parser.

       To understand this text, you also have to look at the yacc documentation in  the  UNIX(TM)
       manual.  This  is  most  probably  necessary  in  order to understand the idea of a parser
       generator, and the principle and problems of LALR parsing with finite look-ahead.


       file(Grammarfile [, Options]) -> YeccRet


                 Grammarfile = filename()
                 Options = Option | [Option]
                 Option = - see below -
                 YeccRet = {ok, Parserfile} |  {ok,  Parserfile,  Warnings}  |  error  |  {error,
                 Errors, Warnings}
                 Parserfile = filename()
                 Warnings = Errors = [{filename(), [ErrorInfo]}]
                 ErrorInfo = {ErrorLine, module(), Reason}
                 ErrorLine = integer()
                 Reason = - formatable by format_error/1 -

              Grammarfile is the file of declarations and grammar rules. Returns ok upon success,
              or error if there are errors. An Erlang file containing the parser  is  created  if
              there are no errors. The options are:

                {parserfile, Parserfile}.:
                  Parserfile  is  the  name  of the file that will contain the Erlang parser code
                  that is generated. The default ("") is to add the extension .erl to Grammarfile
                  stripped of the .yrl extension.

                {includefile, Includefile}.:
                  Indicates  a customized prologue file which the user may want to use instead of
                  the default file lib/parsetools/include/yeccpre.hrl which is otherwise included
                  at the beginning of the resulting parser file. N.B. The Includefile is included
                  'as is' in the parser file, so it must not have a  module  declaration  of  its
                  own,  and  it  should  not be compiled. It must, however, contain the necessary
                  export declarations. The default is indicated by "".

                {report_errors, bool()}.:
                  Causes errors to be printed as they occur. Default is true.

                {report_warnings, bool()}.:
                  Causes warnings to be printed as they occur. Default is true.

                {report, bool()}.:
                  This is a short form for both report_errors and report_warnings.

                  Causes warnings to be treated as errors.

                {return_errors, bool()}.:
                  If this flag is set, {error, Errors,  Warnings}  is  returned  when  there  are
                  errors. Default is false.

                {return_warnings, bool()}.:
                  If  this  flag is set, an extra field containing Warnings is added to the tuple
                  returned upon success. Default is false.

                {return, bool()}.:
                  This is a short form for both return_errors and return_warnings.

                {verbose, bool()}. :
                  Determines whether the parser generator  should  give  full  information  about
                  resolved  and  unresolved  parse  action  conflicts (true), or only about those
                  conflicts that prevent a parser from being generated  from  the  input  grammar
                  (false, the default).

              Any  of  the  Boolean options can be set to true by stating the name of the option.
              For example, verbose is equivalent to {verbose, true}.

              The value of the Parserfile option stripped of the .erl extension is used  by  Yecc
              as the module name of the generated parser file.

              Yecc will add the extension .yrl to the Grammarfile name, the extension .hrl to the
              Includefile name, and the  extension  .erl  to  the  Parserfile  name,  unless  the
              extension is already there.

       format_error(Reason) -> Chars


                 Reason = - as returned by yecc:file/1,2 -
                 Chars = [char() | Chars]

              Returns   a   descriptive   string  in  English  of  an  error  tuple  returned  by
              yecc:file/1,2. This function is mainly used by the compiler invoking Yecc.


       A scanner to pre-process the text (program, etc.) to be parsed is not provided in the yecc
       module. The scanner serves as a kind of lexicon look-up routine. It is possible to write a
       grammar that uses only character tokens as terminal symbols, thereby eliminating the  need
       for a scanner, but this would make the parser larger and slower.

       The user should implement a scanner that segments the input text, and turns it into one or
       more lists of tokens. Each token should be a tuple containing information about  syntactic
       category, position in the text (e.g. line number), and the actual terminal symbol found in
       the text: {Category, LineNumber, Symbol}.

       If a terminal symbol is the only member of a category, and the symbol name is identical to
       the category name, the token format may be {Symbol, LineNumber}.

       A  list  of  tokens  produced  by the scanner should end with a special end_of_input tuple
       which the parser  is  looking  for.  The  format  of  this  tuple  should  be  {Endsymbol,
       LastLineNumber},  where  Endsymbol  is  an  identifier  that is distinguished from all the
       terminal and non-terminal categories of the syntax rules. The Endsymbol may be declared in
       the grammar file (see below).

       The  simplest  case  is to segment the input string into a list of identifiers (atoms) and
       use those atoms both as categories and values of the tokens. For example, the input string
       aaa bbb 777, X may be scanned (tokenized) as:

       [{aaa, 1}, {bbb, 1}, {777, 1}, {',' , 1}, {'X', 1},
        {'$end', 1}].

       This  assumes  that  this  is  the  first  line  of the input text, and that '$end' is the
       distinguished end_of_input symbol.

       The Erlang scanner in the io module can be used as a starting point  when  writing  a  new
       scanner.  Study  yeccscan.erl  in  order  to  see  how  a  filter  can  be added on top of
       io:scan_erl_form/3 to provide a scanner for  Yecc  that  tokenizes  grammar  files  before
       parsing them with the Yecc parser. A more general approach to scanner implementation is to
       use a scanner generator. A scanner generator in Erlang called leex is under development.


       Erlang style comments, starting with a '%', are allowed in grammar files.

       Each declaration or rule ends with a dot (the character '.').

       The grammar starts with an optional header  section.  The  header  is  put  first  in  the
       generated  file,  before the module declaration. The purpose of the header is to provide a
       means to make the documentation generated by EDoc look nicer. Each header line  should  be
       enclosed in double quotes, and newlines will be inserted between the lines. For example:

       Header "%% Copyright (C)"
       "%% @private"
       "%% @Author John".

       Next  comes  a  declaration  of  the  nonterminal  categories to be used in the rules. For

       Nonterminals sentence nounphrase verbphrase.

       A non-terminal category can be used at the left hand side (= lhs, or head)  of  a  grammar
       rule. It can also appear at the right hand side of rules.

       Next  comes  a  declaration of the terminal categories, which are the categories of tokens
       produced by the scanner. For example:

       Terminals article adjective noun verb.

       Terminal categories may only appear in the right hand sides (= rhs) of grammar rules.

       Next comes a declaration of the rootsymbol, or start category of the grammar. For example:

       Rootsymbol sentence.

       This symbol should appear in the lhs of at least  one  grammar  rule.  This  is  the  most
       general syntactic category which the parser ultimately will parse every input string into.

       After  the rootsymbol declaration comes an optional declaration of the end_of_input symbol
       that your scanner is expected to use. For example:

       Endsymbol '$end'.

       Next comes one or more declarations of operator precedences, if needed. These are used  to
       resolve shift/reduce conflicts (see yacc documentation).

       Examples of operator declarations:

       Right 100 '='.
       Nonassoc 200 '==' '=/='.
       Left 300 '+'.
       Left 400 '*'.
       Unary 500 '-'.

       These  declarations  mean  that '=' is defined as a right associative binary operator with
       precedence 100, '==' and '=/=' are operators with no associativity, '+' and '*'  are  left
       associative  binary  operators, where '*' takes precedence over '+' (the normal case), and
       '-' is a unary operator of  higher  precedence  than  '*'.  The  fact  that  '=='  has  no
       associativity means that an expression like a == b == c is considered a syntax error.

       Certain  rules  are  assigned  precedence:  each  rule  gets  its precedence from the last
       terminal symbol mentioned in the right hand side of the  rule.  It  is  also  possible  to
       declare  precedence  for non-terminals, "one level up". This is practical when an operator
       is overloaded (see also example 3 below).

       Next come the grammar rules. Each rule has the general form

       Left_hand_side -> Right_hand_side : Associated_code.

       The left hand side is a non-terminal category. The right hand side is a sequence of one or
       more  non-terminal  or  terminal  symbols  with  spaces  between. The associated code is a
       sequence of zero or more Erlang expressions  (with  commas  ','  as  separators).  If  the
       associated  code is empty, the separating colon ':' is also omitted. A final dot marks the
       end of the rule.

       Symbols such as '{', '.', etc., have to be enclosed in single quotes when used as terminal
       or  non-terminal  symbols  in  grammar rules. The use of the symbols '$empty', '$end', and
       '$undefined' should be avoided.

       The last part of the grammar file is an optional section  with  Erlang  code  (=  function
       definitions)  which  is  included  'as is' in the resulting parser file. This section must
       start with the pseudo declaration, or key words

       Erlang code.

       No syntax rule definitions or  other  declarations  may  follow  this  section.  To  avoid
       conflicts with internal variables, do not use variable names beginning with two underscore
       characters ('__') in the Erlang code in this section, or in the code associated  with  the
       individual syntax rules.

       The  optional  expect  declaration can be placed anywhere before the last optional section
       with Erlang code. It  is  used  for  suppressing  the  warning  about  conflicts  that  is
       ordinarily given if the grammar is ambiguous. An example:

       Expect 2.

       The  warning  is given if the number of shift/reduce conflicts differs from 2, or if there
       are reduce/reduce conflicts.


       A grammar to parse list expressions (with empty associated code):

       Nonterminals list elements element.
       Terminals atom '(' ')'.
       Rootsymbol list.
       list -> '(' ')'.
       list -> '(' elements ')'.
       elements -> element.
       elements -> element elements.
       element -> atom.
       element -> list.

       This grammar can be used to generate a parser which parses list expressions, such  as  (),
       (a),  (peter  charles),  (a  (b  c) d (())), ... provided that your scanner tokenizes, for
       example, the input (peter charles) as follows:

       [{'(', 1} , {atom, 1, peter}, {atom, 1, charles}, {')', 1},
        {'$end', 1}]

       When a grammar rule is used by the parser to  parse  (part  of)  the  input  string  as  a
       grammatical phrase, the associated code is evaluated, and the value of the last expression
       becomes the value of the parsed phrase. This value may be used  by  the  parser  later  to
       build  structures that are values of higher phrases of which the current phrase is a part.
       The values initially associated with terminal category phrases, i.e. input tokens, are the
       token tuples themselves.

       Below is an example of the grammar above with structure building code added:

       list -> '(' ')' : nil.
       list -> '(' elements ')' : '$2'.
       elements -> element : {cons, '$1', nil}.
       elements -> element elements : {cons, '$1', '$2'}.
       element -> atom : '$1'.
       element -> list : '$1'.

       With  this  code  added  to  the  grammar  rules,  the parser produces the following value
       (structure) when parsing the input string (a b c).. This still assumes that this  was  the
       first input line that the scanner tokenized:

       {cons, {atom, 1, a,} {cons, {atom, 1, b},
                                   {cons, {atom, 1, c}, nil}}}

       The  associated  code contains pseudo variables '$1', '$2', '$3', etc. which refer to (are
       bound to) the values associated previously by the parser with the  symbols  of  the  right
       hand  side  of  the rule. When these symbols are terminal categories, the values are token
       tuples of the input string (see above).

       The associated code may not only be used to build structures associated with phrases,  but
       may  also  be  used  for  syntactic  and semantic tests, printout actions (for example for
       tracing), etc. during the parsing process. Since tokens contain positional  (line  number)
       information, it is possible to produce error messages which contain line numbers. If there
       is no associated code after the right hand side of the rule,  the  value  '$undefined'  is
       associated with the phrase.

       The right hand side of a grammar rule may be empty. This is indicated by using the special
       symbol '$empty' as rhs. Then the list grammar above may be simplified to:

       list -> '(' elements ')' : '$2'.
       elements -> element elements : {cons, '$1', '$2'}.
       elements -> '$empty' : nil.
       element -> atom : '$1'.
       element -> list : '$1'.


       To call the parser generator, use the following command:


       An error message from Yecc will be shown if the grammar is  not  of  the  LALR  type  (for
       example  too ambiguous). Shift/reduce conflicts are resolved in favor of shifting if there
       are no operator precedence declarations. Refer to the yacc documentation  on  the  use  of
       operator precedence.

       The  output file contains Erlang source code for a parser module with module name equal to
       the Parserfile parameter. After compilation, the parser can  be  called  as  follows  (the
       module name is assumed to be myparser):


       The  call  format  may  be  different if a customized prologue file has been included when
       generating the parser instead of the default file lib/parsetools/include/yeccpre.hrl.

       With the standard prologue, this call will return either {ok, Result}, where Result  is  a
       structure  that  the  Erlang  code of the grammar file has built, or {error, {Line_number,
       Module, Message}} if there was a syntax error in the input.

       Message   is   something   which   may   be   converted   into   a   string   by   calling
       Module:format_error(Message) and printed with io:format/3.

       By default, the parser that was generated will not print out error messages to the screen.
       The user will have to do this either by  printing  the  returned  error  messages,  or  by
       inserting tests and print instructions in the Erlang code associated with the syntax rules
       of the grammar file.

       It is also possible to make the parser ask for  more  input  tokens  when  needed  if  the
       following call format is used:

       myparser:parse_and_scan({Function, Args})
       myparser:parse_and_scan({Mod, Tokenizer, Args})

       The   tokenizer  Function  is  either  a  fun  or  a  tuple  {Mod,  Tokenizer}.  The  call
       apply(Function, Args) or apply({Mod, Tokenizer}, Args) is executed whenever a new token is
       needed. This, for example, makes it possible to parse from a file, token by token.

       The tokenizer used above has to be implemented so as to return one of the following:

       {ok, Tokens, Endline}
       {eof, Endline}
       {error, Error_description, Endline}

       This conforms to the format used by the scanner in the Erlang io library module.

       If {eof, Endline} is returned immediately, the call to parse_and_scan/1 returns {ok, eof}.
       If {eof, Endline} is returned before the parser expects  end  of  input,  parse_and_scan/1
       will, of course, return an error message (see above). Otherwise {ok, Result} is returned.


       1.  A  grammar  for  parsing  infix  arithmetic  expressions into prefix notation, without
       operator precedence:

       Nonterminals E T F.
       Terminals '+' '*' '(' ')' number.
       Rootsymbol E.
       E -> E '+' T: {'$2', '$1', '$3'}.
       E -> T : '$1'.
       T -> T '*' F: {'$2', '$1', '$3'}.
       T -> F : '$1'.
       F -> '(' E ')' : '$2'.
       F -> number : '$1'.

       2. The same with operator precedence becomes simpler:

       Nonterminals E.
       Terminals '+' '*' '(' ')' number.
       Rootsymbol E.
       Left 100 '+'.
       Left 200 '*'.
       E -> E '+' E : {'$2', '$1', '$3'}.
       E -> E '*' E : {'$2', '$1', '$3'}.
       E -> '(' E ')' : '$2'.
       E -> number : '$1'.

       3. An overloaded minus operator:

       Nonterminals E uminus.
       Terminals '*' '-' number.
       Rootsymbol E.

       Left 100 '-'.
       Left 200 '*'.
       Unary 300 uminus.

       E -> E '-' E.
       E -> E '*' E.
       E -> uminus.
       E -> number.

       uminus -> '-' E.

       4. The Yecc grammar that is used for parsing grammar files, including itself:

       grammar declaration rule head symbol symbols attached_code
       token tokens.
       atom float integer reserved_symbol reserved_word string char var
       '->' ':' dot.
       Rootsymbol grammar.
       Endsymbol '$end'.
       grammar -> declaration : '$1'.
       grammar -> rule : '$1'.
       declaration -> symbol symbols dot: {'$1', '$2'}.
       rule -> head '->' symbols attached_code dot: {rule, ['$1' | '$3'],
       head -> symbol : '$1'.
       symbols -> symbol : ['$1'].
       symbols -> symbol symbols : ['$1' | '$2'].
       attached_code -> ':' tokens : {erlang_code, '$2'}.
       attached_code -> '$empty' : {erlang_code,
                        [{atom, 0, '$undefined'}]}.
       tokens -> token : ['$1'].
       tokens -> token tokens : ['$1' | '$2'].
       symbol -> var : value_of('$1').
       symbol -> atom : value_of('$1').
       symbol -> integer : value_of('$1').
       symbol -> reserved_word : value_of('$1').
       token -> var : '$1'.
       token -> atom : '$1'.
       token -> float : '$1'.
       token -> integer : '$1'.
       token -> string : '$1'.
       token -> char : '$1'.
       token -> reserved_symbol : {value_of('$1'), line_of('$1')}.
       token -> reserved_word : {value_of('$1'), line_of('$1')}.
       token -> '->' : {'->', line_of('$1')}.
       token -> ':' : {':', line_of('$1')}.
       Erlang code.
       value_of(Token) ->
           element(3, Token).
       line_of(Token) ->
           element(2, Token).

       The symbols '->', and ':' have to be treated in a special way, as they are meta symbols of
       the grammar notation, as well as terminal symbols of the Yecc grammar.

       5. The file erl_parse.yrl in the lib/stdlib/src directory contains the grammar for Erlang.

       Syntactic  tests  are  used in the code associated with some rules, and an error is thrown
       (and caught by the generated parser to produce an error message) when a  test  fails.  The
       same effect can be achieved with a call to return_error(Error_line, Message_string), which
       is defined in the yeccpre.hrl default header file.




       Aho & Johnson: 'LR Parsing', ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 6:2, 1974.