Provided by: apt_2.0.2_amd64 bug

NAME

       apt-patterns - Syntax and semantics of apt search patterns

DESCRIPTION

       Starting with version 2.0, APT provides support for patterns, which can be used to query
       the apt cache for packages.

LOGIC PATTERNS

       These patterns provide the basic means to combine other patterns into more complex
       expressions, as well as ?true and ?false patterns.

       ?and(PATTERN, PATTERN, ...), PATTERN PATTERN ...
           Selects objects where all specified patterns match.

       ?false, ~F
           Selects nothing.

       ?not(PATTERN), !PATTERN
           Selects objects where PATTERN does not match.

       ?or(PATTERN, PATTERN, ...), PATTERN | PATTERN | ...
           Selects objects where at least one of the specified patterns match.

       ?true, ~T
           Selects all objects.

       (PATTERN)
           Selects the same as PATTERN, can be used to work around precedence, for example,
           (~ramd64|~ri386)~nfoo

NARROWING PATTERNS

       ?all-versions(PATTERN)
           Selects packages where all versions match PATTERN. When matching versions instead,
           same as PATTERN.

       ?any-version(PATTERN)
           Selects any version where the pattern matches on the version.

           For example, while ?and(?version(1),?version(2)) matches a package which has one
           version containing 1 and one version containing 2,
           ?any-version(?and(?version(1),?version(2))) restricts the ?and to act on the same
           version.

       ?narrow(PATTERN...)
           Selects any version matching all PATTERNs, short for ?any-version(?and(PATTERN...)).

PACKAGE PATTERNS

       These patterns select specific packages.

       ?architecture(WILDCARD), ~rWILDCARD
           Selects packages matching the specified architecture, which may contain wildcards
           using any.

       ?automatic, ~M
           Selects packages that were installed automatically.

       ?broken, ~b
           Selects packages that have broken dependencies.

       ?config-files, ~c
           Selects packages that are not fully installed, but have solely residual configuration
           files left.

       ?essential, ~E
           Selects packages that have Essential: yes set in their control file.

       ?exact-name(NAME)
           Selects packages with the exact specified name.

       ?garbage, ~g
           Selects packages that can be removed automatically.

       ?installed, ~i
           Selects packages that are currently installed.

       ?name(REGEX), ~nREGEX
           Selects packages where the name matches the given regular expression.

       ?obsolete, ~o
           Selects packages that no longer exist in repositories.

       ?upgradable, ~U
           Selects packages that can be upgraded (have a newer candidate).

       ?virtual, ~v
           Selects all virtual packages; that is packages without a version. These exist when
           they are referenced somewhere in the archive, for example because something depends on
           that name.

VERSION PATTERNS

       These patterns select specific versions of a package.

       ?archive(REGEX), ~AREGEX
           Selects versions that come from the archive that matches the specified regular
           expression. Archive, here, means the values after a= in apt-cache policy.

       ?origin(REGEX), ~OREGEX
           Selects versions that come from the origin that matches the specified regular
           expression. Origin, here, means the values after o= in apt-cache policy.

       ?section(REGEX), ~sREGEX
           Selects versions where the section matches the specified regular expression.

       ?source-package(REGEX), ~eREGEX
           Selects versions where the source package name matches the specified regular
           expression.

       ?source-version(REGEX)
           Selects versions where the source package version matches the specified regular
           expression.

       ?version(REGEX), ~VREGEX
           Selects versions where the version string matches the specified regular expression.

EXAMPLES

       apt remove ?garbage
           Remove all packages that are automatically installed and no longer needed - same as
           apt autoremove

       apt purge ?config-files
           Purge all packages that only have configuration files left

       apt list '~i !~M (~slibs|~sperl|~spython)'
           List all manually-installed packages in sections matching libs, perl, or python.

MIGRATING FROM APTITUDE

       Patterns in apt are heavily inspired by patterns in aptitude, but with some tweaks:

       ·   Syntax is uniform: If there is an opening parenthesis after a term, it is always
           assumed to be the beginning of an argument list.

           In aptitude, a syntactic form "?foo(bar)" could mean "?and(?foo,bar)" if foo does not
           take an argument. In APT, this will cause an error.

       ·   Not all patterns are supported.

       ·   Some additional patterns are available, for example, for finding gstreamer codecs.

       ·   Escaping terms with ~ is not supported.

       ·   A trailing comma is allowed in argument lists

       ·   ?narrow accepts infinite arguments

       ·   foo cannot be used as a shortform for ?name(foo), as this can cause typos to go
           unnoticed: Consider ?and(...,~poptional): this requires the package to have required
           priority, but if you do not type the ~, it would require the package name to contain
           poptional.

       ·   Grouping patterns with (...)  or writing ?or(A,B) as A|B are not supported. We do not
           believe that the use of | is that common, and the grouping is not necessary without
           it.

SEE ALSO

       apt-get(8), apt(8)

BUGS

       APT bug page[1]. If you wish to report a bug in APT, please see
       /usr/share/doc/debian/bug-reporting.txt or the reportbug(1) command.

AUTHOR

       APT was written by the APT team <apt@packages.debian.org>.

AUTHORS

       Jason Gunthorpe

       APT team

NOTES

        1. APT bug page
           http://bugs.debian.org/src:apt