Provided by: mmv_1.01b-14_i386 bug


        mmv - move/copy/append/link multiple files by wildcard patterns


        mmv [-m|x|r|c|o|a|l|s] [-h] [-d|p] [-g|t] [-v|n] [--] [from to]


        Mmv moves (or copies, appends, or links, as specified) each source file
        matching a from pattern to the target name specified by the to pattern.
        This  multiple  action is performed safely, i.e. without any unexpected
        deletion of files due to collisions of target names with existing file‐
        names  or with other target names.  Furthermore, before doing anything,
        mmv attempts to detect any errors that would result from the entire set
        of actions specified and gives the user the choice of either proceeding
        by avoiding the offending parts or aborting.  mmv  does  support  large
        files  (LFS)  but  it does *NOT* support sparse files (i.e. it explodes
                                   The Task Options
        Whether mmv moves, copies, appends, or links is governed by  the  first
        set  of  options given above.  If none of these are specified, the task
        is given by the command name under which mmv was invoked (argv[0]):
             command name   default task
             mmv            -x
             mcp            -c
             mad            -a
             mln            -l
        The task option choices are:
        -m :   move source file to target name.   Both  must  be  on  the  same
               device.   Will  not  move  directories.  If the source file is a
               symbolic link, moves the link without  checking  if  the  link’s
               target from the new directory is different than the old.
        -x :   same  as -m, except cross-device moves are done by copying, then
               deleting source.  When copying, sets  the  permission  bits  and
               file  modification time of the target file to that of the source
        -r :   rename source file or directory to target name.  The target name
               must  not include a path: the file remains in the same directory
               in all cases.  This option is the only way of renaming  directo‐
               ries under mmv.
        -c :   copy  source  file  to  target name.  Sets the file modification
               time and permission bits of the  target  file  to  that  of  the
               source  file,  regardless  of  whether  the  target file already
               exists.  Chains and cycles  (to  be  explained  below)  are  not
        -o :   overwrite  target name with source file.  If target file exists,
               it is overwritten, keeping its  original  owner  and  permission
               bits.  If it does not exist, it is created, with read-write per‐
               mission bits set according to umask(1), and the execute  permis‐
               sion bits copied from the source file.  In either case, the file
               modification time is set to the current time.
        -a :   append contents of source file to target name.  Target file mod‐
               ification  time is set to the current time.  If target file does
               not exist, it is created with permission bits set as  under  -o.
               Unlike  all  other  options,  -a allows multiple source files to
               have the same target name, e.g. "mmv -a \*.c  big"  will  append
               all ".c" files to "big".  Chains and cycles are also allowed, so
               "mmv -a f f" will double up "f".
        -l :   link target name to source file.   Both  must  be  on  the  same
               device,  and  the  source  must  not be a directory.  Chains and
               cycles are not allowed.
        -s :   same as -l, but use symbolic links instead of hard  links.   For
               the  resulting link to aim back at the source, either the source
               name must begin with a ’/’, or the target must reside in  either
               the  current  or  the source directory.  If none of these condi‐
               tions are met, the link is refused.  However, source and  target
               can  reside on different devices, and the source can be a direc‐
        Only one of these option may be given, and it applies to  all  matching
        files.   Remaining options need not be given separately, i.e. "mmv -mk"
        is allowed.
                                Multiple Pattern Pairs
        Multiple from -- to pattern pairs may be specified by omitting the pat‐
        tern pair on the command line, and entering them on the standard input,
        one pair per line.  (If a pattern pair is given on  the  command  line,
        the standard input is not read.)  Thus,
           a b
           c d
        would  rename  "a"  to "b" and "c" to "d".  If a file can be matched to
        several of the given from patterns, the to pattern of the first  match‐
        ing pair is used.  Thus,
           a b
           a c
        would give the error message "a -> c : no match" because file "a" (even
        if it exists) was already matched by the first pattern pair.
                                   The From Pattern
        The from pattern is a  filename  with  embedded  wildcards:  ’*’,  ’?’,
        ’[’...’]’,  and  ’;’.   The first three have their usual sh(1) meanings
        of, respectively, matching any string of characters, matching any  sin‐
        gle character, and matching any one of a set of characters.
        Between  the  ’[’ and ’]’, a range from character ’a’ through character
        ’z’ is specified with "a-z".  The set of  matching  characters  can  be
        negated  by  inserting  a  ’^’  after the ’[’.  Thus, "[^b-e2-5_]" will
        match any character but ’b’ through ’e’, ’2’ through ’5’, and ’_’.
        Note that paths are allowed in  the  patterns,  and  wildcards  may  be
        intermingled  with slashes arbitrarily.  The ’;’ wildcard is useful for
        matching files at any depth in the directory tree.  It matches the same
        as  "*/"  repeated  any  number  of times, including zero, and can only
        occur either at the beginning of the pattern or following a ’/’.   Thus
        ";*.c"  will  match  all  ".c" files in or below the current directory,
        while "/;*.c" will match them anywhere on the file system.
        In addition, if the from pattern (or the to pattern) begins with  "~/",
        the  ’~’  is  replaced  with  the  home directory name.  (Note that the
        "~user" feature of csh(1) is not implemented.)  However, the ’~’ is not
        treated  as a wildcard, in the sense that it is not assigned a wildcard
        index (see below).
        Since matching a directory under a task option  other  than  -r  or  -s
        would  result in an error, tasks other than -r and -s match directories
        only against completely explicit from  patterns  (i.e.  not  containing
        wildcards).  Under -r and -s, this applies only to "." and "..".
        Files  beginning  with  ’.’ are only matched against from patterns that
        begin with an explicit ’.’.  However, if  -h  is  specified,  they  are
        matched normally.
        Warning:  since the shell normally expands wildcards before passing the
        command-line arguments to mmv, it is usually necessary to  enclose  the
        command-line from and to patterns in quotes.
                                    The To Pattern
        The  to  pattern is a filename with embedded wildcard indexes, where an
        index consists of the character ’#’ followed by  a  string  of  digits.
        When  a  source file matches a from pattern, a target name for the file
        is constructed out of the to pattern by replacing the wildcard  indexes
        by  the  actual characters that matched the referenced wildcards in the
        source name.  Thus, if the from pattern is "abc*.*" and the to  pattern
        is "xyz#2.#1", then "abc.txt" is targeted to "xyztxt.".  (The first ’*’
        matched "", and the second matched "txt".)  Similarly, for the  pattern
        pair   ";*.[clp]"  ->  "#1#3/#2",  "foo1/foo2/prog.c"  is  targeted  to
        "foo1/foo2/c/prog".  Note that there is no ’/’ following  the  "#1"  in
        the  to  pattern,  since the string matched by any ’;’ is always either
        empty or ends in a ’/’.  In this case, it matches "foo1/foo2/".
        To convert the string matched by a  wildcard  to  either  lowercase  or
        uppercase  before  embedding  it in the target name, insert ’l’ or ’u’,
        respectively, between the ’#’ and the string of digits.
        The to pattern, like the from pattern,  can  begin  with  a  "~/"  (see
        above).   This  does not necessitate enclosing the to pattern in quotes
        on the command line since csh(1) expands the ’~’ in the exact same man‐
        ner as mmv (or, in the case of sh(1), does not expand it at all).
        For  all task options other than -r, if the target name is a directory,
        the real target name is formed by appending a ’/’ followed by the  last
        component  of  the  source  file  name.  For example, "mmv dir1/a dir2"
        will, if "dir2" is  indeed  a  directory,  actually  move  "dir1/a"  to
        "dir2/a".   However,  if "dir2/a" already exists and is itself a direc‐
        tory, this is considered an error.
        To strip any character (e.g. ’*’, ’?’, or ’#’) of its  special  meaning
        to  mmv, as when the actual replacement name must contain the character
        ’#’, precede the special character with a ´\’ (and enclose the argument
        in  quotes because of the shell).  This also works to terminate a wild‐
        card index when it has to be followed by a digit in the filename,  e.g.
                                   Chains and Cycles
        A chain is a sequence of specified actions where the target name of one
        action refers to the source file of another action.  For example,
        a b
        b c
        specifies the chain "a" -> "b" -> "c".  A cycle is a  chain  where  the
        last  target name refers back to the first source file, e.g. "mmv a a".
        Mmv detects chains and cycles regardless of the order  in  which  their
        constituent actions are actually given.  Where allowed, i.e. in moving,
        renaming, and appending files, chains and  cycles  are  handled  grace‐
        fully,  by  performing  them in the proper order.  Cycles are broken by
        first renaming one of the files to a temporary name (or just  remember‐
        ing its original size when doing appends).
                               Collisions and Deletions
        When  any two or more matching files would have to be moved, copied, or
        linked to the same target filename, mmv detects  the  condition  as  an
        error before performing any actions.  Furthermore, mmv checks if any of
        its actions will result in the destruction of existing files.   If  the
        -d  (delete)  option is specified, all file deletions or overwrites are
        done silently.  Under -p (protect), all deletions or overwrites (except
        those  specified  with  "(*)"  on  the  standard  input, see below) are
        treated as errors.  And if neither option is  specified,  the  user  is
        queried  about each deletion or overwrite separately.  (A new stream to
        "/dev/tty" is used  for  all  interactive  queries,  not  the  standard
                                    Error Handling
        Whenever  any error in the user’s action specifications is detected, an
        error message is given on the standard  output,  and  mmv  proceeds  to
        check the rest of the specified actions.  Once all errors are detected,
        mmv queries the user whether he wishes  to  continue  by  avoiding  the
        erroneous  actions  or to abort altogether.  This and all other queries
        may be avoided by specifying either  the  -g  (go)  or  -t  (terminate)
        option.  The former will resolve all difficulties by avoiding the erro‐
        neous actions; the latter will abort mmv if any  errors  are  detected.
        Specifying  either  of  them defaults mmv to -p, unless -d is specified
        (see above).  Thus, -g and -t are most useful when running mmv  in  the
        background  or in a shell script, when interactive queries are undesir‐
        Once the actions to be performed  are  determined,  mmv  performs  them
        silently,  unless  either the -v (verbose) or -n (no-execute) option is
        specified.  The former causes mmv to report each  performed  action  on
        the standard output as
        a -> b : done.
        Here,  "a"  and  "b"  would be replaced by the source and target names,
        respectively.  If the  action  deletes  the  old  target,  a  "(*)"  is
        inserted  after the the target name.  Also, the "->" symbol is modified
        when a cycle has to be broken: the ’>’ is  changed  to  a  ’^’  on  the
        action prior to which the old target is renamed to a temporary, and the
        ’-’ is changed to a ’=’ on the action where the temporary is used.
        Under -n, none of the actions are  performed,  but  messages  like  the
        above are printed on the standard output with the ": done." omitted.
        The  output generated by -n can (after editing, if desired) be fed back
        to mmv on the standard input (by omitting the from -- to  pair  on  the
        mmv  command line).  To facilitate this, mmv ignores lines on the stan‐
        dard input that look like its own error and "done" messages, as well as
        all  lines  beginning  with  white space, and will accept pattern pairs
        with or without the intervening "->" (or "-^", "=>", or  "=^").   Lines
        with  "(*)" after the target pattern have the effect of enabling -d for
        the files matching this pattern only, so that such deletions  are  done
        silently.   When feeding mmv its own output, one must remember to spec‐
        ify again the task option (if any) originally used to generate it.
        Although mmv attempts to predict all mishaps prior  to  performing  any
        specified  actions,  accidents  may  happen.  For example, mmv does not
        check for adequate free space when copying.  Thus, despite all efforts,
        it  is  still  possible  for  an  action to fail after some others have
        already been done.  To make recovery as easy as possible,  mmv  reports
        which  actions  have  already  been done and which are still to be per‐
        formed after such a failure occurs.  It then aborts, not attempting  to
        do  anything  else.   Once  the user has cleared up the problem, he can
        feed this report back to mmv on the standard input to have it  complete
        the  task.  (The user is queried for a file name to dump this report if
        the standard output has not been redirected.)
        Mmv exits with status 1 if it aborts before doing anything, with status
        2 if it aborts due to failure after completing some of the actions, and
        with status 0 otherwise.
        mv(1), cp(1), ln(1), umask(1)


        Vladimir Lanin


        If the search pattern is not quoted, the shell expands  the  wildcards.
        Mmv then (usually) gives some error message, but can not determine that
        the lack of quotes is the cause.
        To avoid difficulties in semantics and error checking, mmv  refuses  to
        move or create directories.
                           November 20, 2001 (v1.0lfs)                   MMV(1)