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NAME

        glob,  globfree  -  find pathnames matching a pattern, free memory from
        glob()
 

SYNOPSIS

        #include <glob.h>
 
        int glob(const char *pattern, int flags,
                 int (*errfunc) (const char *epath, int eerrno),
                 glob_t *pglob);
        void globfree(glob_t *pglob);
 

DESCRIPTION

        The glob() function searches for all  the  pathnames  matching  pattern
        according  to  the  rules  used  by  the shell (see glob(7)).  No tilde
        expansion or parameter substitution is done; if  you  want  these,  use
        wordexp(3).
 
        The globfree() function frees the dynamically allocated storage from an
        earlier call to glob().
 
        The results of a glob() call are stored in the structure pointed to  by
        pglob, which is a glob_t which is declared in <glob.h> and includes the
        following elements defined by POSIX.2 (more may be present as an exten‐
        sion):
 
           typedef struct {
               size_t   gl_pathc;    /* Count of paths matched so far  */
               char   **gl_pathv;    /* List of matched pathnames.  */
               size_t   gl_offs;     /* Slots to reserve in ‘gl_pathv’.  */
           } glob_t;
 
        Results are stored in dynamically allocated storage.
 
        The  parameter  flags is made up of bitwise OR of zero or more the fol‐
        lowing symbolic constants, which modify the of behavior of glob():
 
        GLOB_ERR
               which means to return upon read error (because a directory  does
               not have read permission, for example),
 
        GLOB_MARK
               which  means to append a slash to each path which corresponds to
               a directory,
 
        GLOB_NOSORT
               which means don’t sort  the  returned  pathnames  (they  are  by
               default),
 
        GLOB_DOOFFS
               which  means  that  pglob->gl_offs slots will be reserved at the
               beginning of the list of strings in pglob->pathv,
 
        GLOB_NOCHECK
               which means that, if no pattern matches, to return the  original
               pattern,
 
        GLOB_APPEND
               which means to append to the results of a previous call.  Do not
               set this flag on the first invocation of glob().
 
        GLOB_NOESCAPE
               which means that meta  characters  cannot  be  quoted  by  back‐
               slashes.
 
        The  flags may also include some of the following, which are GNU exten‐
        sions and not defined by POSIX.2:
 
        GLOB_PERIOD
               which means that a leading period can be matched by meta charac‐
               ters,
 
        GLOB_ALTDIRFUNC
               which   means  that  alternative  functions  pglob->gl_closedir,
               pglob->gl_readdir,   pglob->gl_opendir,   pglob->gl_lstat,   and
               pglob->gl_stat  are  used  for file system access instead of the
               normal library functions,
 
        GLOB_BRACE
               which means  that  csh(1)  style  brace  expressions  {a,b}  are
               expanded,
 
        GLOB_NOMAGIC
               which  means  that  the  pattern  is  returned if it contains no
               metacharacters,
 
        GLOB_TILDE
               which means that tilde expansion is carried out, and
 
        GLOB_ONLYDIR
               which means that only directories are matched.
 
        If errfunc is not NULL, it will be called in case of an error with  the
        arguments  epath,  a  pointer to the path which failed, and eerrno, the
        value of errno as returned from one of the calls to  opendir(3),  read     
        dir(3),  or  stat(2).   If  errfunc returns non-zero, or if GLOB_ERR is
        set, glob() will terminate after the call to errfunc.
 
        Upon successful return, pglob->gl_pathc contains the number of  matched
        pathnames  and  pglob->gl_pathv  a pointer to the list of matched path‐
        names.  The first pointer after the last pathname is NULL.
 
        It is possible to  call  glob()  several  times.   In  that  case,  the
        GLOB_APPEND flag has to be set in flags on the second and later invoca‐
        tions.
 
        As a GNU extension, pglob->gl_flags is set to the flags specified, ored
        with GLOB_MAGCHAR if any metacharacters were found.
        On  successful completion, glob() returns zero.  Other possible returns
        are:
 
        GLOB_NOSPACE
               for running out of memory,
 
        GLOB_ABORTED
               for a read error, and
 
        GLOB_NOMATCH
               for no found matches.
        POSIX.2, POSIX.1-2001.
 

NOTES

        The structure elements gl_pathc and gl_offs are declared as  size_t  in
        glibc 2.1, as they should according to POSIX.2, but are declared as int
        in libc4, libc5 and glibc 2.0.
 

BUGS

        The glob() function may fail due  to  failure  of  underlying  function
        calls,  such  as malloc(3) or opendir(3).  These will store their error
        code in errno.
 

EXAMPLE

        One example of use is the following code, which simulates typing
 
        ls -l *.c ../*.c
 
        in the shell:
 
           glob_t globbuf;
 
           globbuf.gl_offs = 2;
           glob("*.c", GLOB_DOOFFS, NULL, &globbuf);
           glob("../*.c", GLOB_DOOFFS | GLOB_APPEND, NULL, &globbuf);
           globbuf.gl_pathv[0] = "ls";
           globbuf.gl_pathv[1] = "-l";
           execvp("ls", &globbuf.gl_pathv[0]);
        ls(1), sh(1),  stat(2),  exec(3),  fnmatch(3),  malloc(3),  opendir(3),
        readdir(3), wordexp(3), glob(7)