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       poll, ppoll - wait for some event on a file descriptor


       #include <poll.h>

       int poll(struct pollfd *fds, nfds_t nfds, int timeout);

       #define _GNU_SOURCE
       #include <poll.h>

       int ppoll(struct pollfd *fds, nfds_t nfds,
               const struct timespec *timeout, const sigset_t *sigmask);


       poll()  performs a similar task to select(2): it waits for one of a set
       of file descriptors to become ready to perform I/O.

       The set of file descriptors to be monitored is  specified  in  the  fds
       argument, which is an array of nfds structures of the following form:

           struct pollfd {
               int   fd;         /* file descriptor */
               short events;     /* requested events */
               short revents;    /* returned events */

       The field fd contains a file descriptor for an open file.

       The  field  events  is  an  input  parameter, a bit mask specifying the
       events the application is interested in.

       The field revents is an output parameter, filled by the kernel with the
       events  that  actually  occurred.   The  bits  returned  in revents can
       include any of those specified in events, or one of the values POLLERR,
       POLLHUP,  or POLLNVAL.  (These three bits are meaningless in the events
       field, and will be set in the revents field whenever the  corresponding
       condition is true.)

       If  none of the events requested (and no error) has occurred for any of
       the file descriptors, then  poll()  blocks  until  one  of  the  events

       The  timeout  argument  specifies  an upper limit on the time for which
       poll() will block, in milliseconds.  Specifying  a  negative  value  in
       timeout means an infinite timeout.

       The  bits that may be set/returned in events and revents are defined in

              POLLIN There is data to read.

                     There is urgent data to read (e.g., out-of-band  data  on
                     TCP  socket;  pseudo-terminal  master  in packet mode has
                     seen state change in slave).

                     Writing now will not block.

              POLLRDHUP (since Linux 2.6.17)
                     Stream  socket  peer  closed  connection,  or  shut  down
                     writing half of connection.  The _GNU_SOURCE feature test
                     macro must be defined in order to obtain this definition.

                     Error condition (output only).

                     Hang up (output only).

                     Invalid request: fd not open (output only).

       When  compiling with _XOPEN_SOURCE defined, one also has the following,
       which convey no further information beyond the bits listed above:

                     Equivalent to POLLIN.

                     Priority band data  can  be  read  (generally  unused  on

                     Equivalent to POLLOUT.

                     Priority data may be written.

       Linux also knows about, but does not use POLLMSG.

       The  relationship  between  poll()  and  ppoll()  is  analogous  to the
       relationship between select(2) and pselect(2): like pselect(2), ppoll()
       allows  an  application  to  safely wait until either a file descriptor
       becomes ready or until a signal is caught.

       Other than the  difference  in  the  timeout  argument,  the  following
       ppoll() call:

           ready = ppoll(&fds, nfds, timeout, &sigmask);

       is equivalent to atomically executing the following calls:

           sigset_t origmask;

           sigprocmask(SIG_SETMASK, &sigmask, &origmask);
           ready = poll(&fds, nfds, timeout);
           sigprocmask(SIG_SETMASK, &origmask, NULL);

       See  the description of pselect(2) for an explanation of why ppoll() is

       The timeout argument specifies an upper limit on  the  amount  of  time
       that  ppoll() will block.  This argument is a pointer to a structure of
       the following form:

           struct timespec {
               long    tv_sec;         /* seconds */
               long    tv_nsec;        /* nanoseconds */

       If timeout is specified as NULL, then ppoll() can block indefinitely.


       On success, a positive number  is  returned;  this  is  the  number  of
       structures  which  have  nonzero  revents fields (in other words, those
       descriptors with events or errors reported).  A value  of  0  indicates
       that  the call timed out and no file descriptors were ready.  On error,
       -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.


       EBADF  An invalid file descriptor was given in one of the sets.

       EFAULT The array given as argument was not  contained  in  the  calling
              program’s address space.

       EINTR  A signal occurred before any requested event.

       EINVAL The nfds value exceeds the RLIMIT_NOFILE value.

       ENOMEM There was no space to allocate file descriptor tables.


       The  poll()  system  call  was  introduced in Linux 2.1.23.  The poll()
       library call was introduced in  libc  5.4.28  (and  provides  emulation
       using select(2) if your kernel does not have a poll() system call).

       The  ppoll()  system  call  was  added  to Linux in kernel 2.6.16.  The
       ppoll() library call was added in glibc 2.4.


       poll() conforms to POSIX.1-2001.  ppoll() is Linux-specific.


       Some implementations define the non-standard constant INFTIM  with  the
       value -1 for use as a timeout.  This constant is not provided in glibc.

   Linux Notes
       The Linux ppoll() system call modifies its timeout argument.   However,
       the  glibc  wrapper  function  hides  this  behavior  by  using a local
       variable for the timeout argument that is passed to  the  system  call.
       Thus,  the glibc ppoll() function does not modify its timeout argument.


       See the discussion of spurious readiness notifications under  the  BUGS
       section of select(2).


       select(2), select_tut(2), feature_test_macros(7)


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