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       sched_setscheduler,   sched_getscheduler   -  set  and  get  scheduling


       #include <sched.h>

       int sched_setscheduler(pid_t pid, int policy,
                              const struct sched_param *param);

       int sched_getscheduler(pid_t pid);

       struct sched_param {
           int sched_priority;


       sched_setscheduler() sets both the scheduling policy and the associated
       parameters  for the process identified by pid.  If pid equals zero, the
       scheduler of the calling process will be set.   The  interpretation  of
       the  parameter  param  depends  on the selected policy.  Currently, the
       following  three  scheduling  policies  are  supported   under   Linux:
       SCHED_FIFO,  SCHED_RR,  SCHED_OTHER,  and SCHED_BATCH; their respective
       semantics are described below.

       sched_getscheduler() queries the scheduling policy currently applied to
       the  process  identified by pid.  If pid equals zero, the policy of the
       calling process will be retrieved.

   Scheduling Policies
       The scheduler is the kernel part that decides  which  runnable  process
       will  be  executed  by  the CPU next.  The Linux scheduler offers three
       different scheduling policies, one for normal  processes  and  two  for
       real-time  applications.   A  static  priority  value sched_priority is
       assigned to each process and this value can be changed only via  system
       calls.   Conceptually,  the  scheduler  maintains  a  list  of runnable
       processes for each possible sched_priority  value,  and  sched_priority
       can  have  a  value  in  the  range 0 to 99.  In order to determine the
       process that runs next, the Linux scheduler looks for the nonempty list
       with  the  highest static priority and takes the process at the head of
       this list.  The scheduling policy determines for each process, where it
       will  be inserted into the list of processes with equal static priority
       and how it will move inside this list.

       SCHED_OTHER is the default universal time-sharing scheduler policy used
       by most processes.  SCHED_BATCH is intended for "batch" style execution
       of processes.  SCHED_FIFO and SCHED_RR are intended for  special  time-
       critical  applications  that need precise control over the way in which
       runnable processes are selected for execution.

       Processes scheduled with SCHED_OTHER or SCHED_BATCH  must  be  assigned
       the  static  priority  0.   Processes  scheduled  under  SCHED_FIFO  or
       SCHED_RR can have a static priority in the range 1 to 99.   The  system
       calls  sched_get_priority_min(2)  and  sched_get_priority_max(2) can be
       used to find out the valid priority range for a scheduling policy in  a
       portable way on all POSIX.1-2001 conforming systems.

       All  scheduling  is  preemptive:  If  a  process  with  a higher static
       priority gets ready to run, the calling process will be  preempted  and
       returned into its wait list.  The scheduling policy only determines the
       ordering within the  list  of  runnable  processes  with  equal  static

   SCHED_FIFO: First In-First Out scheduling
       SCHED_FIFO can only be used with static priorities higher than 0, which
       means that when a SCHED_FIFO processes becomes runnable, it will always
       immediately  preempt  any  currently running SCHED_OTHER or SCHED_BATCH
       process.  SCHED_FIFO is a  simple  scheduling  algorithm  without  time
       slicing.   For  processes  scheduled  under  the SCHED_FIFO policy, the
       following rules  are  applied:  A  SCHED_FIFO  process  that  has  been
       preempted  by  another process of higher priority will stay at the head
       of the list for its priority and will resume execution as soon  as  all
       processes  of  higher  priority  are  blocked again.  When a SCHED_FIFO
       process becomes runnable, it will be inserted at the end  of  the  list
       for  its priority.  A call to sched_setscheduler() or sched_setparam(2)
       will put the SCHED_FIFO (or SCHED_RR) process identified by pid at  the
       start of the list if it was runnable.  As a consequence, it may preempt
       the  currently  running  process  if  it   has   the   same   priority.
       (POSIX.1-2001  specifies  that  the process should go to the end of the
       list.)  A process calling sched_yield(2) will be put at the end of  the
       list.   No  other  events  will  move  a  process  scheduled  under the
       SCHED_FIFO policy in the wait list of  runnable  processes  with  equal
       static  priority.  A SCHED_FIFO process runs until either it is blocked
       by an I/O request, it is preempted by a higher priority process, or  it
       calls sched_yield(2).

   SCHED_RR: Round Robin scheduling
       SCHED_RR  is  a simple enhancement of SCHED_FIFO.  Everything described
       above for SCHED_FIFO also applies to SCHED_RR, except that each process
       is  only  allowed  to  run  for  a maximum time quantum.  If a SCHED_RR
       process has been running for a time period equal to or longer than  the
       time  quantum,  it will be put at the end of the list for its priority.
       A SCHED_RR process that has been preempted by a higher priority process
       and  subsequently  resumes execution as a running process will complete
       the unexpired portion of its round robin time quantum.  The  length  of
       the time quantum can be retrieved using sched_rr_get_interval(2).

   SCHED_OTHER: Default Linux time-sharing scheduling
       SCHED_OTHER  can only be used at static priority 0.  SCHED_OTHER is the
       standard  Linux  time-sharing  scheduler  that  is  intended  for   all
       processes  that  do  not  require  special  static  priority  real-time
       mechanisms.  The process to run is chosen from the  static  priority  0
       list  based  on  a dynamic priority that is determined only inside this
       list.  The dynamic priority is based on the nice level (set by  nice(2)
       or  setpriority(2))  and increased for each time quantum the process is
       ready to run, but denied to run by the scheduler.   This  ensures  fair
       progress among all SCHED_OTHER processes.

   SCHED_BATCH: Scheduling batch processes
       (Since  Linux 2.6.16.)  SCHED_BATCH can only be used at static priority
       0.  This policy is similar to SCHED_OTHER, except that this policy will
       cause the scheduler to always assume that the process is CPU-intensive.
       Consequently, the scheduler will apply a small  scheduling  penalty  so
       that  this  process is mildly disfavored in scheduling decisions.  This
       policy is useful for workloads that are  non-interactive,  but  do  not
       want  to  lower  their  nice  value,  and  for  workloads  that  want a
       deterministic scheduling policy  without  interactivity  causing  extra
       preemptions (between the workload’s tasks).

   Privileges and resource limits
       In   Linux   kernels  before  2.6.12,  only  privileged  (CAP_SYS_NICE)
       processes can set a nonzero static priority.  The only change  that  an
       unprivileged  process  can  make  is to set the SCHED_OTHER policy, and
       this can only be done if  the  effective  user  ID  of  the  caller  of
       sched_setscheduler()  matches  the  real  or  effective  user ID of the
       target process (i.e., the process specified by  pid)  whose  policy  is
       being changed.

       Since  Linux 2.6.12, the RLIMIT_RTPRIO resource limit defines a ceiling
       on an unprivileged process’s priority for the SCHED_RR  and  SCHED_FIFO
       policies.   If an unprivileged process has a nonzero RLIMIT_RTPRIO soft
       limit, then it can change its scheduling policy and  priority,  subject
       to  the  restriction  that the priority cannot be set to a value higher
       than the RLIMIT_RTPRIO soft limit.  If the RLIMIT_RTPRIO soft limit  is
       0, then the only permitted change is to lower the priority.  Subject to
       the same rules,  another  unprivileged  process  can  also  make  these
       changes,  as  long  as  the effective user ID of the process making the
       change matches the real or effective user ID  of  the  target  process.
       See  getrlimit(2) for further information on RLIMIT_RTPRIO.  Privileged
       (CAP_SYS_NICE) processes ignore this limit; as with older kernels, they
       can make arbitrary changes to scheduling policy and priority.

   Response time
       A  blocked  high  priority  process  waiting  for the I/O has a certain
       response time before it is scheduled again.  The device  driver  writer
       can  greatly  reduce  this  response  time  by using a "slow interrupt"
       interrupt handler.

       Child processes inherit the scheduling algorithm and parameters  across
       a  fork(2).   The  scheduling  algorithm  and  parameters are preserved
       across execve(2).

       Memory locking is usually  needed  for  real-time  processes  to  avoid
       paging delays, this can be done with mlock(2) or mlockall(2).

       As a non-blocking end-less loop in a process scheduled under SCHED_FIFO
       or SCHED_RR will block all processes with  lower  priority  forever,  a
       software  developer should always keep available on the console a shell
       scheduled under a higher static priority than the  tested  application.
       This will allow an emergency kill of tested real-time applications that
       do not block or terminate as expected.

       POSIX systems on which  sched_setscheduler()  and  sched_getscheduler()
       are available define _POSIX_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING in <unistd.h>.


       On   success,   sched_setscheduler()   returns   zero.    On   success,
       sched_getscheduler() returns the policy for the process (a non-negative
       integer).  On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.


       EINVAL The  scheduling policy is not one of the recognized policies, or
              the parameter param does not make sense for the policy.

       EPERM  The calling process does not have appropriate privileges.

       ESRCH  The process whose ID is pid could not be found.


       POSIX.1-2001 (but see BUGS below).  The SCHED_BATCH  policy  is  Linux-


       POSIX.1  does  not  detail the permissions that an unprivileged process
       requires in order to call sched_setscheduler(), and details vary across
       systems.   For example, the Solaris 7 manual page says that the real or
       effective user ID of the calling process must match the real user ID or
       the save set-user-ID of the target process.

       Originally,  Standard Linux was intended as a general-purpose operating
       system  being  able  to  handle   background   processes,   interactive
       applications,  and  less demanding real-time applications (applications
       that need to usually meet timing deadlines).  Although the Linux kernel
       2.6  allowed  for  kernel  preemption  and  the  newly  introduced O(1)
       scheduler ensures that  the  time  needed  to  schedule  is  fixed  and
       deterministic  irrespective  of  the number of active tasks, true real-
       time computing was not possible up to kernel version 2.6.17.

   Real-time features in the mainline Linux kernel
       From  kernel  version  2.6.18  onwards,  however,  Linux  is  gradually
       becoming  equipped  with  real-time  capabilities,  most  of  which are
       derived from the former  realtime-preempt  patches  developed  by  Ingo
       Molnar,  Thomas  Gleixner  and  others.   Until  the  patches have been
       completely merged into the mainline kernel  (this  is  expected  to  be
       around  kernel  version 2.6.24 or 2.6.25), the realtime-preempt patches
       must be installed to achieve  the  best  realtime  performance.   These
       patches are named:


       and  can  be  downloaded  from

       Without the patches and prior to their full inclusion into the mainline
       kernel,  the  kernel  configuration  offers  only  the three preemption
       classes     CONFIG_PREEMPT_NONE,     CONFIG_PREEMPT_VOLUNTARY,      and
       CONFIG_PREEMPT_DESKTOP   which   respectively  provide  no,  some,  and
       considerable reduction of the worst-case scheduling latency.

       With the patches  applied  or  after  their  full  inclusion  into  the
       mainline  kernel,  the  additional configuration item CONFIG_PREEMPT_RT
       becomes available.  If this is selected, Linux is  transformed  into  a
       regular  real-time  operating  system.   The  FIFO  and  RR  scheduling
       policies that can be selected using sched_setscheduler() are then  used
       to  run a process with true real-time priority and a minimum worst-case
       scheduling latency.


       POSIX says that on  success,  sched_setscheduler()  should  return  the
       previous   scheduling  policy.   Linux  sched_setscheduler()  does  not
       conform to this requirement, since it always returns 0 on success.


       getpriority(2),  mlock(2),  mlockall(2),   munlock(2),   munlockall(2),
       nice(2),      sched_get_priority_max(2),     sched_get_priority_min(2),
       sched_getaffinity(2),   sched_getparam(2),    sched_rr_get_interval(2),
       sched_setaffinity(2),         sched_setparam(2),        sched_yield(2),
       setpriority(2), capabilities(7)

       Programming for the real  world  -  POSIX.4  by  Bill  O.  Gallmeister,
       O’Reilly & Associates, Inc., ISBN 1-56592-074-0


       This  page  is  part of release 2.77 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting  bugs,  can
       be found at