Provided by: hobbit_4.2.0.dfsg-10_i386
bb-hosts - Main Hobbit configuration file
The bb-hosts(5) file is the most important configuration file for all
of the Hobbit programs. This file contains the full list of all the
systems monitored by Hobbit, including the set of tests and other
configuration items stored for each host.
Each line of the file defines a host. Blank lines and lines starting
with a hash mark (#) are treated as comments and ignored. Long lines
can be broken up by putting a backslash at the end of the line and
continuing the entry on the next line.
The format of an entry in the bb-hosts file is as follows:
IP-address hostname # tag1 tag2 ...
The IP-address and hostname are mandatory; all of the tags are
optional. Listing a host with only IP-address and hostname will cause
a network test to be executed for the host - the connectivity test is
enabled by default, but no other tests.
The optional tags are then used to define which tests are relevant for
the host, and also to set e.g. the time-interval used for availability
reporting by bbgen(1)
An example of setting up the bb-hosts file is in the Hobbit on-line
documentation (from the Help menu, choose "Configuring Monitoring").
The following describes the possible settings in a bb-hosts file
supported by Hobbit.
TAGS RECOGNIZED BY ALL TOOLS
This tag is used to include another file into the bb-hosts file
at run-time, allowing for a large bb-hosts file to be split up
into more manageable pieces.
The "filename" argument should point to a file that uses the
same syntax as bb-hosts. The filename can be an absolute
filename (if it begins with a ’/’), or a relative filename -
relative filenames are prefixed with the directory where the
main bb-hosts file is located (usually $BBHOME/etc/).
You can nest include tags, i.e. a file that is included from the
main bb-hosts file can itself include other files.
Acts like the "include" tag, but only on the BBDISPLAY server.
Can be used e.g. to put a group of hosts on multiple subpages,
without having to repeat the host definitions.
Acts like the "include" tag, but only on the BBNET server.
BBGEN DISPLAY OPTIONS
These tags are processed by the bbgen(1) tool when generating the
Hobbit webpages or reports.
page NAME [Page-title]
This defines a page at the level below the entry page. All hosts
following the "page" directive appear on this page, until a new
"page", "subpage" or "subparent" line is found.
subpage NAME [Page-title]
This defines a subpage in the second level below the entry page.
You must have a previous "page" line to hook this subpage to.
subparent parentpage newpage [Page-title]
This is used to define subpages in whatever levels you may wish.
Just like the standard "subpage" tag, "subparent" defines a new
Hobbit webpage; however with "subparent" you explicitly list
which page it should go as a subpage to. You can pick any page
as the parent - pages, subpages or even other subparent pages.
So this allows you to define any tree structure of pages that
E.g. with this in bb-hosts:
page USA United States
subpage NY New York
subparent NY manhattan Manhattan data centers
subparent manhattan wallstreet Wall Street center
you get this hierarchy of pages:
USA (United States)
NY (New York)
manhattan (Manhattan data centers)
wallstreet (Wall Street center)
Note: The parent page must be defined before you define the
subparent. If not, the page will not be generated, and you get a
message in the log file.
Note: bbgen is case-sensitive, when trying to match the name of
the parent page.
The inspiration for this came from Craig Cook’s mkbb.pl script,
and I am grateful to Craig for suggesting that I implement it in
bbgen. The idea to explicitly list the parent page in the
"subparent" tag was what made it easy to implement.
Defines a group of hosts, that appear together on the webpage,
with a single header-line listing all of the columns. Hosts
following the "group" line appear inside the group, until a new
"group" or page-line is found. The two group-directives are
handled identically by Hobbit and bbgen, but both forms are
allowed for backwards compatibility.
group-only COLUMN1|COLUMN2|COLUMN3 [group-title]
Same as the "group" and "group-compress" lines, but includes
only the columns explicitly listed in the group. Any columns not
listed will be ignored for these hosts.
group-except COLUMN1|COLUMN2|COLUMN3 [group-title]
Same as the "group-only" lines, but includes all columns EXCEPT
those explicitly listed in the group. Any columns listed will be
ignored for these hosts - all other columns are shown.
title Page, group or host title text
The "title" tag is used to put custom headings into the pages
generated by bbgen, in front of page/subpage links, groups or
The title tag operates on the next item in the bb-hosts file
following the title tag.
If a title tag precedes a host entry, the title is shown just
before the host is listed on the status page. The column
headings present for the host will be repeated just after the
If a title tag precedes a group entry, the title is show just
before the group on the status page.
If a title tag precedes a page/subpage/subparent entry, the
title text replaces the normal "Pages hosted locally" heading
normally inserted by Hobbit. This appears on the page that links
to the subpages, not on the subpage itself. To get a custom
heading on the subpage, you may want to use the "--pagetext-
heading" when running bbgen(1)
Overrides the default hostname used on the overview web pages.
If "hostname" contains spaces, it must be enclosed in double
quotes, e.g. NAME:"R&D Oracle Server"
Defines an alias for a host, which will be used when identifying
status messages. This is typically used to accomodate a local
client that sends in status reports with a different hostname,
e.g. if you use hostnames with domains in your Hobbit
configuration, but the client is a silly Window box that does
not include the hostname. Or vice versa. Whatever the reason,
this can be used to match status reports with the hosts you
define in your bb-hosts file. It causes incoming status reports
with the specified hostname to be filed using the hostname
defined in bb-hosts.
Used to drop certain of the status columns generated by the
Hobbit client. column is one of cpu, disk, files, memory, msgs,
ports, procs. This setting stops these columns from being
updated for the host. Note: If the columns already exist, you
must use the bb(1) utility to drop them, or they will go purple.
Adds a small text after the hostname on the webpage. This can be
used to describe the host, without completely changing its
display-name as the NAME: tag does. If the comment includes
whitespace, it must be in double-quotes, e.g. COMMENT:"Sun
Define some informational text about the host. The "Hosttype" is
a text describing the type of this device - "router", "switch",
"hub", "server" etc. The "Description" is an informational text
that will be shown on the "Info" column page; this can e.g. be
used to store information about the physical location of the
device, contact persons etc. If the text contain whitespace, you
must enclose it in double-quotes, e.g. DESCR:"switch:4th floor
Force the host to belong to a specific class. Class-names are
used when configuring log-file monitoring (they can be used as
references in client-local.cfg(5) and hobbit-clients.cfg(5) to
group logfile checks). Normally, class-names are controlled on
the client by starting the Hobbit client with the
"--class=Classname" option. If you specify it in the bb-hosts
file on the Hobbit server, it overrides any classname that the
dialup The keyword "dialup" for a host means that it is OK for it to be
off-line - this should not trigger an alert. All network tests
will go "clear" upon failure, and any missing reports from e.g.
cpu- and disk-status will not go purple when they are not
nobb2 Ignore this host on the BB2 page. Even if it has an active
alert, it will not be included in the BB2 page. This also
removes the host from the event-log display.
nodisp Ignore this host completely when generating the Hobbit webpages.
Can be useful for monitoring a host without having it show up on
the webpages, e.g. because it is not yet in production use. Or
for hiding a host that is shown only on a second pageset.
prefer When a single host is defined multiple time in the bb-hosts
file, bbgen tries to guess which definition is the best to use
for the information used on the "info" column, or for the
NOPROPRED and other bbgen-specific settings. Host definitions
that have a "noconn" tag or an IP of 0.0.0.0 get lower priority.
By using the "prefer" tag you tell bbgen that this host
definition should be used.
Note: This only applies to hosts that are defined multiple times
in the bb-hosts file, although it will not hurt to add it on
other hosts as well.
Defines the RRD graphs to include in the "trends" column
generated by bbgen. This option syntax is complex.
If this option is not present, bbgen provides graphs matching
the standard set of RRD files: la, disk, memory, users, vmstat,
iostat, netstat, tcp, bind, apache, sendmail
* If this option is specified, the list of graphs to include
start out as being empty (no graphs).
* To include all default graphs, use an asterisk. E.g.
* To exclude a certain graph, speficy it prefixed with ’!’. E.g.
to see all graphs except users: "TRENDS:*,!users"
* The netstat, vmstat and tcp graphs have many "subgraphs".
Which of these are shown can be speficied like this:
will show all graphs, but instead of the normal netstat graph,
there will be two: The netstat2 and netstat3 graphs. Instead of
the combined tcp graphs showing all services, there will be
three: One for each of the http, conn and smtp services.
HOBBIT TAGS FOR THE CRITICAL SYSTEMS OVERVIEW PAGE
NOTE: The "NK" set of tags is deprecated. They will be supported for
Hobbit 4.x, but will be dropped in version 5. It is recommended that
you move your critical systems view to the hobbit-nkview.cgi(1) viewer,
which has a separate configuration tool, hobbit-nkedit.cgi(1) with more
facilities than the NK tags in bb-hosts.
bbgen will create three sets of pages: The main page bb.html, the all-
non-green-statuses page (bb2.html), and a specially reduced version of
bb2.html with only selected tests (bbnk.html). This page includes
selected tests that currently have a red or yellow status.
Define the tests that you want included on the bbnk page. E.g.
if you have a host where you only want to see the http tests on
bbnk.html, you specify it as
220.127.116.11 www.acme.com # http://www.acme.com/ NK:http
If you want multiple tests for a host to show up on the
bbnk.html page, specify all the tests separated by commas. The
test names correspond to the column names (e.g. https tests are
covered by an "NK:http" tag).
This tag limits the time when an active alert is presented on
the NK webpage.
By default, tests with a red or yellow status that are listed in
the "NK:testname" tag will appear on the NK page. However, you
may not want the test to be shown outside of normal working
hours - if, for example, the host is not being serviced during
You can then use the NKTIME tag to define the time periods where
the alert will show up on the NK page.
The timespecification consists of
day-of-week: W means Mon-Fri ("weekdays"), * means all days, 0
.. 6 = Sunday .. Saturday. Listing multiple days is possible,
e.g. "60" is valid meaning "Saturday and Sunday".
starttime: Time to start showing errors, must be in 24-hour
clock format as HHMM hours/minutes. E.g. for 8 am enter "0800",
for 9.30 pm enter "2130"
endtime: Time to stop showing errors.
If necessary, multiple periods can be specified. E.g. to monitor
a site 24x7, except between noon and 1 pm, use
The interval between starttime and endtime may cross midnight,
e.g. *:2330:0200 would be valid and have the same effect as
HOBBIT TAGS FOR THE WML (WAP) CARDS
If bbgen is run with the "--wml" option, it will generate a set of WAP-
format output "cards" that can be viewed with a WAP-capable device,
e.g. a PDA or cell-phone.
This tag determines which tests for this hosts are included in
the WML (WAP) page. Syntax is identical to the NK: tag.
The default set of WML tests are taken from the --wml
commandline option. If no "WML:" tag is specified, the "NK:"
tag is used if present.
HOBBIT STATUS PROPAGATION OPTIONS
These tags affect how a status propagates upwards from a single test to
the page and higher. This can also be done with the command-line
options --nopropyellow and --nopropred, but the tags apply to
individual hosts, whereas the command line options are global.
This tag is used to inhibit a yellow or red status from
propagating upwards - i.e. from a test status color to the
(sub)page status color, and further on to bb.html or bb2.html
If a host-specific tag begins with a ’-’ or a ’+’, the host-
specific tags are removed/added to the default setting from the
command-line option. If the host-specific tag does not begin
with a ’+’ or a ’-’, the default setting is ignored for this
host and the NOPROPRED applies to the tests given with this tag.
E.g.: bbgen runs with "--nopropred=ftp,smtp".
"NOPROPRED:+dns,-smtp" gives a NOPROPRED setting of "ftp,dns"
(dns is added to the default, ftp is removed). "NOPROPRED:dns"
gives a setting of "dns" only (the default is ignored).
Note: If you set use the "--nopropred=*" commandline option to
disable propagation of all alerts, you cannot use the "+" and
"-" methods to add or remove from the wildcard setting. In that
case, do not use the "+" or "-" setting, but simply list the
required tests that you want to keep from propagating.
Similar to NOPROPRED: tag, but applies to propagating a yellow
Similar to NOPROPRED: tag, but applies to propagating a purple
Similar to NOPROPRED: tag, but applies to propagating an
acknowledged status upwards.
HOBBIT AVAILABILITY REPORT OPTIONS
These options affect the way the Hobbit availability reports are
processed (see bb-rep.cgi(1) for details about availability reports).
This tag defines the time interval where you measure uptime of a
service for reporting purposes.
When bbgen generates a report, it computes the availability of
each service - i.e. the percentage of time that the service is
reported as available (meaning: not red).
By default, this calculation is done on a 24x7 basis, so no
matter when an outage occurs, it counts as downtime.
The REPORTTIME tag allows you to specify a period of time other
than 24x7 for the service availability calculation. If you have
systems where you only guarantee availability from e.g. 7 AM to
8 PM on weekdays, you can use
and the availability calculation will only be performed for the
service with measurements from this time interval.
The syntax for REPORTTIME is the same as the one used by the
When REPORTTIME is specified, the availability calculation
happens like this:
* Only measurements done during the given time period is used
for the calculation.
* "blue" time reduces the length of the report interval, so if
you are generating a report for a 10-hour period and there are
20 minutes of "blue" time, then the availability calculation
will consider the reporting period to be 580 minutes (10 hours
minus 20 minutes). This allows you to have scheduled downtime
during the REPORTTIME interval without hurting your
availability; this is (I believe) the whole idea of the downtime
* "red" and "clear" status counts as downtime; "yellow" and
"green" count as uptime. "purple" time is ignored.
The availability calculation correctly handles status changes
that cross into/out of a REPORTTIME interval.
If no REPORTTIME is given, the standard 24x7 calculation is
BB’s reporting facility uses a computed availability threshold
to color services green (100% available), yellow (above
threshold, but less than 100%), or red (below threshold) in the
This option allows you to set the threshold value on a host-by-
host basis, instead of using a global setting for all hosts. The
threshold is defined as the percentage of the time that the host
must be available, e.g. "WARNPCT:98.5" if you want the threshold
to be at 98.5%
NETWORK TEST SETTINGS
This tag defines the host as being tested from a specific
location. If bbtest-net sees that the environment variable
BBLOCATION is set, it will only test the hosts that have a
matching "NET:location" tag in the bb-hosts file. So this tag is
useful if you have more than one BBNET system, but you still
want to keep a consolidated bb-hosts file for all your systems.
Note: The "--test-untagged" option modifies this behaviour, see
Some network tests depend on others. E.g. if the host does not
respond to ping, then there’s a good chance that the entire host
is down and all network tests will fail. Or if the http server
is down, then any web content checks are also likely to fail.
To avoid floods of alerts, the default behaviour is for bbtest-
net to change the status of these tests that fail because of
another problem to "clear" instead of "red". The "noclear" tag
disables this behaviour and causes all failing tests to be
reported with their true color.
Note that this behaviour can also be implemented on a per-test
basis by putting the "~" flag on any network test.
Disables the standard check of any SSL certificates for this
host. By default, if an SSL-enabled service is tested, a second
test result is generated with information about the SSL
certificate - this tag disables the SSL certificate checks for
Define the number of days before an SSL certificate expires, in
which the sslcert status shows a warning (yellow) or alarm (red)
status. These default to the values from the "--sslwarndays" and
"--sslalarmdays" options for the bbtest-net(1) tool; the values
specified in the "ssldays" tag overrides the default.
This tag can be used to ignore failed checks during specific
times of the day - e.g. if you run services that are only
monitored e.g. Mon-Fri 8am-5pm, or you always reboot a server
every Monday between 5 and 6 pm.
What happens is that if a test fails during the specified time,
it is reported with status BLUE instead of yellow or red. Thus
you can still see when the service was unavailable, but alarms
will not be triggered and the downtime is not counted in the
availability calculations generated by the Hobbit reports.
The "cause" string (optional) is a text that will be displayed
on the status web page to explain thy the system is down.
The syntax for DOWNTIME is the same as the one used by the
This tag is now deprecated. Use the DOWNTIME tag instead.
This tag works the opposite of the DOWNTIME tag - you use it to
specify the periods of the day that the service should be green.
Failures OUTSIDE the SLA interval are reported as blue.
This tag allows you to define dependencies betweeen tests. If
"testA" for the current host depends on "test1" for host "host1"
and test "test2" for "host2", this can be defined with
When deciding the color to report for testA, if either
host1/test1 failed or host2/test2 failed, if testA has failed
also then the color of testA will be "clear" instead of red or
Since all tests are actually run before the dependencies are
evaluated, you can use any host/test in the dependency -
regardless of the actual sequence that the hosts are listed, or
the tests run. It is also valid to use tests from the same host
that the dependency is for. E.g.
18.104.22.168 foo # http://foo/ webmin depends=(webmin:foo/http)
is valid; if both the http and the webmin tests fail, then
webmin will be reported as clear.
Note: The "depends" tag is evaluated on the BBNET server while
running the network tests. It can therefore only refer to other
network tests that are handled by the same BBNET server - there
is currently no way to use the e.g. the status of locally run
tests (disk, cpu, msgs) or network tests from other BBNET
servers in a dependency definition. Such dependencies are
Normally when a network test fails, the status changes to red
immediately. With a "badTEST:x:y:z" tag this behaviour changes:
* While "z" or more successive tests fail, the column goes RED.
* While "y" or more successive tests fail, but fewer than "z",
the column goes YELLOW.
* While "x" or more successive tests fail, but fewer than "y",
the column goes CLEAR.
* While fewer than "x" successive tests fail, the column stays
The optional timespecification can be used to limit this
"badTEST" setting to a particular time of day, e.g. to require a
longer period of downtime before raising an alarm during out-of-
office hours. The time-specification uses:
* Weekdays: The weekdays this badTEST tag applies, from 0
(Sunday) through 6 (Saturday). Putting "W" here counts as
"12345", i.e. all working days. Putting "*" here counts as all
days of the week, equivalent to "0123456".
* starttime and endtime are specified using 24-hour clocks, e.g.
"badTEST-W-0900-2000" is valid for working days between 9 AM
(09:00) and 8 PM (20:00).
When using multiple badTEST tags, the LAST one specified with a
matching time-spec is used.
Note: The "TEST" is replaced by the name of the test, e.g.
22.214.171.124 www.foo.com # http://www.foo.com/ badhttp:1:2:4
defines a http test that goes "clear" after the first failure,
"yellow" after two successive failures, and "red" after four
For the other network tests, use "badftp", "badssh" etc.
CONNECTIVITY (PING) TEST
These tags affect the behaviour of the bbtest-net connectivity test.
noping Disables the ping-test, but will keep the "conn" column on the
web display with a notice that it has been disabled.
noconn Disables the ping-test, and does not put a "conn" column on the
conn The "conn" test (which does a ping of the host) is enabled for
all hosts by default, and normally you just want to disable it
using "noconn" or "noping". However, on the rare occasion where
you may want to check that a host is NOT up, you can specify it
as an explicit test, and use the normal test modifiers, e.g.
"!conn" will be green when the host is NOT up, and red if it
does appear on the network.
The actual name of the tag - "conn" by default - depends on the
"--ping=TESTNAME" option for bbtest-net, as that decides the
testname for the connectivity test.
This adds additional IP-adresses that are pinged during the
normal "conn" test. So the normal "conn" test must be enabled
(the default) before this tag has any effect. The IP-adresses
listed here are pinged in addition to the main IP-address.
When multiple IP’s are pinged, you can choose if ALL IP’s must
respond (the "worst" method), or AT LEAST one IP must respond
(the "best" setting). All of the IP’s are reported in a single
"conn" status, whose color is determined from the result of
pinging the IP’s and the best/worst setting. The default method
is "best" - so it will report green if just one of the IP’s
respond to ping.
This is taken directly from the "fping.sh" connectivity- testing
script, and is used by bbtest-net when it runs with ping testing
enabled (the default). See the description of the "badTEST" tag.
This tag is taken from the "fping.sh" script, and is used by
bbtest-net when run with the "--ping" option to enable ping
The router1,router2,... is a comma-separated list of hosts
elsewhere in the bb-hosts file. You cannot have any spaces in
the list - separate hosts with commas.
This tag changes the color reported for a ping check that fails,
when one or more of the hosts in the "route" list is also down.
A "red" status becomes "yellow" - other colors are unchanged.
The status message will include information about the hosts in
the router-list that are down, to aid tracking down which router
is the root cause of the problem.
Note: Internally, the ping test will still be handled as
"failed", and therefore any other tests run for this host will
report a status of "clear".
If the BBLOCATION environment variable is defined, a tag of
"route_BBLOCATION:" is recognized by bbtest-net with the same
effect as the normal "route:" tag (see above). This allows you
to have different route: tags for each BBNET server. The actual
text for the tag then must match the value you have for the
BBLOCATION setting. E.g. with BBLOCATION=dmz, the tag becomes
trace If the connectivity test fails, run a "traceroute" and include
the output from this in the status message from the failed
connectivity test. Note: For this to work, you may have to
define the TRACEROUTE environment variable, see
Similar to the "trace" option, this disables the running of a
traceroute for the host after a failed connectivity test. It is
only used if running traceroute is made the default via the
SIMPLE NETWORK TESTS
These tests perform a simple network test of a service by connecting to
the port and possibly checking that a banner is shown by the server.
How these tests operate are configured in the bb-services(5)
configuration file, which controls which port to use for the service,
whether to send any data to the service, whether to check for a
response from the service etc.
You can modify the behaviour of these tests on a per-test basis by
adding one or more modifiers to the test: :NUMBER changes the port
number from the default to the one you specify for this test. E.g. to
test ssh running on port 8022, specify the test as ssh:8022.
:s makes the test silent, i.e. it does not send any data to the
service. E.g. to do a silent test of an smtp server, enter smtp:s.
You can combine these two: ftp:8021:s is valid.
The name of the test also determines the columnname that the test
result will appear with in the Hobbit webpages.
By prefixing a test with "!" it becomes a reverse test: Hobbit will
expect the service NOT to be available, and send a green status if it
does NOT respond. If a connection to the service succeeds, the status
will go red.
By prefixing a test with "?" errors will be reported with a "clear"
status instead of red. This is known as a test for a "dialup" service,
and allows you to run tests of hosts that are not always online,
without getting alarms while they are off-line.
ftp ssh telnet smtp pop3 imap nntp rsync clamd oratns qmtp qmqp
These tags are for testing services offering the FTP, Secure
Shell (ssh), SMTP, POP3, IMAP, NNTP, rsync, CLAM antivirus
daemon (clamd), Oracle TNS listener (oratns), qmail QMTP and
ftps telnets smtps pop3s imaps nntps
These tags are for testing of the SSL-tunneled versions of the
standard ftp, telnet, smtp, pop3, imap and nntp protocols. If
Hobbit was configured with support for SSL, you can test these
services like any other network service - bbtest-net will setup
an SSL-encrypted session while testing the service. The server
certificate is validated and information about it sent in the
"sslcert" column. Note that smtps does not have a standard
portnumber assignment, so you will need to enter this into the
bb-services file or your /etc/services file.
bbd Test that a Big Brother compatible daemon is running. This check
works both for the Hobbit hobbitd(8) daemon, and the original
Big Brother bbd daemon.
DNS SERVER TESTS
These tags are used to setup monitoring of DNS servers.
dns Simple DNS test. It will attempt to lookup the A record for the
hostname of the DNS server.
dig This is an alias for the "dns" test. In bbtest-net, the "dns"
and "dig" tests are handled identically, so all of the
facilities for testing described for the "dns" test are also
available for the "dig" test.
The default DNS tests will attempt a DNS lookup of the DNS’
servers own hostname. You can specify the hostname to lookup on
a DNS server by listing it on each test.
The second form of the test allows you to perform multiple
queries of the DNS server, requesting different types of DNS
records. The TYPE defines the type of DNS data: A (IP-address),
MX (Mail eXchanger), PTR (reverse), CNAME (alias), SOA (Start-
Of-Authority), NS (Name Server) are among the more common ones
used. The "lookup" is the query. E.g. to lookup the MX records
for the "foo.com" domain, you would use "dns=mx:foo.com". Or to
lookup the nameservers for the "bar.org" domain,
"dns=ns:bar.org". You can list multiple lookups, separated by
commas. For the test to end up with a green status, all lookups
OTHER NETWORK TESTS
ntp Check for a running NTP (Network Time Protocol) server on this
host. This test uses the "ntpdate" utility to check for a NTP
server - you should either have ntpdate in your PATH, or set the
location of the ntpdate program in $BBHOME/etc/bbsys.local
Check for one or more available RPC services. This check is
indirect in that it only queries the RPC Portmapper on the host,
not the actual service.
If only "rpc" is given, the test only verifies that the
portmapper is available on the remote host. If you want to check
that one or more RPC services are registered with the
portmapper, list the names of the desired RPC services after the
equals-sign. E.g. for a working NFS server the "mount",
"nlockmgr" and "nfs" services must be available; this can be
checked with "rpc=mount,nlockmgr,nfs".
This test uses the rpcinfo tool for the actual test; if this
tool is not available in the PATH of bbtest-net, you must define
the RPCINFO environment variable to point at this tool. See
Simple testing of a http URL is done simply by putting the URL into the
bb-hosts file. Note that this only applies to URL’s that begin with
"http:" or "https:".
The following items describe more advanced forms of http URL’s.
Basic Authentication with username/password
If the URL requires authentication in the form of a username and
password, it is most likely using the HTTP "Basic"
authentication. bbtest-net support this, and you can provide the
username and password either by embedding them in the URL e.g.
or by putting the username and password into the ~/.netrc file
(see ftp(1) for details).
Authentication with SSL client certificates
An SSL client certificate can be used for authentication. To
use this, the client certificate must be stored in a PEM-
formatted file together with the client certificate key, in the
$BBHOME/certs/ directory. The URL is then given as
The "CERT:" part is literal - i.e. you write C-E-R-T-colon and
then the filename of the PEM-formatted certificate.
A PEM-formatted certificate file can be generated based on
certificates stored in Microsoft Internet Explorer and OpenSSL.
Do as follows:
From the MSIE Tools-Options menu, pick the Content tab, click on
Certificates, choose the Personal tab, select the certificate
and click Export. Make sure you export the private key also. In
the Export File Format, choose PKCS 12 (.PFX), check the
"Include all certificates" checkbox and uncheck the "Enable
strong protection". Provide a temporary password for the
exported file, and select a filename for the PFX-file.
Now run "openssl pkcs12 -in file.pfx -out file.pem". When
prompted for the "Import Password", provide the temporary
password you gave when exporting the certificate. Then provide a
"PEM pass phrase" (twice) when prompted for one.
The file.pem file is the one you should use in the FILENAME
field in the URL - this file must be kept in $BBHOME/certs/.
The PEM pass phrase must be put into a file named the same as
the certificate, but with extension ".pass". E.g. if you have
the PEM certificate in $BBHOME/certs/client.pem, you must put
the pass phrase into the $BBHOME/certs/client.pass file. Make
sure to protect this file with Unix permissions, so that only
the user running Hobbit can read it.
Forcing an HTTP or SSL version
Some SSL sites will only allow you to connect, if you use
specific "dialects" of HTTP or SSL. Normally this is auto-
negotiated, but experience shows that this fails on some
bbtest-net can be told to use specific dialects, by adding one
or more "dialect names" to the URL scheme, i.e. the "http" or
"https" in the URL:
* "2", e.g. https2://www.sample.com/ : use only SSLv2
* "3", e.g. https3://www.sample.com/ : use only SSLv3
* "m", e.g. httpsm://www.sample.com/ : use only 128-bit ciphers
* "h", e.g. httpsh://www.sample.com/ : use only >128-bit
* "10", e.g. http10://www.sample.com/ : use HTTP 1.0
* "11", e.g. http11://www.sample.com/ : use HTTP 1.1
These can be combined where it makes sense, e.g to force SSLv2
and HTTP 1.0 you would use "https210".
Testing sites by IP-address
bbtest-net ignores the "testip" tag normally used to force a
test to use the IP-address from the bb-hosts file instead of the
hostname, when it performs http and https tests.
The reason for this is that it interacts badly with virtual
hosts, especially if these are IP-based as is common with https-
Instead the IP-address to connect to can be overridden by
specifying it as:
The "=126.96.36.199" will case bbtest-net to run the test against the
IP-address "188.8.131.52", but still trying to access a virtual
website with the name "www.sample.com".
The "=ip.address.of.host" must be the last part of the hostname,
so if you need to combine this with e.g. an explicit portnumber,
it should be done as
HTTP Testing via proxy
bbtest-net supports the Big Brother syntax for specifying an
HTTP proxy to use when performing http tests. This syntax just
joins the proxy- and the target-URL into one, e.g.
would be the syntax for testing the www.foo.com website via the
proxy running on "webproxy.sample.com" port 3128.
If the proxy portnumber is not specified, the default HTTP
portnumber (80) is used.
If your proxy requires authentication, you can specify the
username and password inside the proxy-part of the URL, e.g.
will authenticate to the proxy using a username of "fred" and a
password of "Wilma1", before requesting the proxy to fetch the
Note that it is not possible to test https-sites via a proxy,
nor is it possible to use https for connecting to the proxy
This tag is used to specify a http/https check, where it is also
checked that specific content is present in the server response.
If the URL itself includes a semi-colon, this must be escaped as
’%3B’ to avoid confusion over which semicolon is part of the
URL, and which semicolon acts as a delimiter.
The data that must be returned can be specified either as a
regular expression (except that <space> is not allowed) or as a
message digest (typically using an MD5 sum or SHA-1 hash).
The regex is pre-processed for backslash "\" escape sequences.
So you can really put any character in this string by escaping
\n Newline (LF, ASCII 10 decimal)
\r Carriage return (CR, ASCII 13 decimal)
\t TAB (ASCII 8 decimal)
\\ Backslash (ASCII 92 decimal)
\XX The character with ASCII hex-value XX
If you must have whitespace in the regex, use the [[:space:]]
syntax, e.g. if you want to test for the string "All is OK", use
"All[[:space:]]is[[:space:]]OK". Note that this may depend on
your particular implementation of the regex functions found in
your C library. Thanks to Charles Goyard for this tip.
Note: If you are migrating from the "cont2.sh" script, you must
change the ’_’ used as wildcards by cont2.sh into ’.’ which is
the regular-expression wildcard character.
Message digests can use whatever digest algorithms your
libcrypto implementation (usually OpenSSL) supports. Common
message digests are "md5" and "sha1". The digest is calculated
on the data portion of the response from the server, i.e. HTTP
headers are not included in the digest (as they change from one
request to the next).
The expected digest value can be computed with the bbdigest(1)
"cont" tags in bb-hosts result in two status reports: One status
with the "http" check, and another with the "content" check.
As with normal URL’s, the extended syntax described above can be
used e.g. when testing SSL sites that require the use of SSLv2
or strong ciphers.
The column name for the result of the content check is by
default called "content" - you can change the default with the
"--content=NAME" option to bbtest-net. See bbtest-net(1) for a
description of this option.
If more than one content check is present for a host, the first
content check is reported in the column "content", the second is
reported in the column "content1", the third in "content2" etc.
You can also specify the columnname directly in the test
specification, by writing it as "cont=COLUMN;http://...".
Column-names cannot include whitespace or semi-colon.
The content-check status by default includes the full URL that
was requested, and the HTML data returned by the server. You
can hide the HTML data on a per-host (not per-test) basis by
adding the HIDEHTTP tag to the host entry.
This syntax is deprecated. You should use the "cont" tag
instead, see above.
This tag can be used to test web pages, that use an input form.
Data can be posted to the form by specifying them in the form-
data field, and the result can be checked as if it was a normal
content check (see above for a description of the cont-tag and
the restrictions on how the URL must be writen).
The form-data field must be entered in "application/x-www-form-
urlencoded" format, which is the most commonly used format for
E.g. if you have a web form defined like this:
<form action="/cgi-bin/form.cgi" method="post">
<p>Given name<input type="text" name="givenname"></p>
<p>Surname<input type="text" name="surname"></p>
<input type="submit" value="Send">
and you want to post the value "John" to the first field and
"Doe Jr." to the second field, then the formdata field would be
Note that any spaces in the input value is replaced with ’+’.
The [expected_data_regexp|#digesttype:digest] is the expected
data returned from the server in response to the POST. See the
"cont;" tag above for details. If you are only interested in
knowing if it is possible to submit the form (but don’t care
about the data), this can be an empty string - but the ’;’ at
the end is required.
This tag works just like "cont" tag, but reverses the test. It
is green when the "forbidden_data_regexp" is NOT found in the
response, and red when it IS found. So it can be used to watch
for data that should NOT be present in the response, e.g. a
server error message.
This tag works just like "post" tag, but reverses the test. It
is green when the "forbidden_data_regexp" is NOT found in the
response, and red when it IS found. So it can be used to watch
for data that should NOT be present in the response, e.g. a
server error message.
This is a variant of the content check - instead of checking the
content data, it checks the type of the data as given by the
HTTP Content-Type: header. This can used to check if a URL
returns e.g. a PDF file, regardless of what is inside the PDF
The status display for HTTP checks usually includes the URL, and
for content checks also the actual data from the webpage. If
you would like to hide these from view, then the HIDEHTTP tag
will keep this information from showing up on the status
By default, Hobbit sends an HTTP "User-Agent" header identifying
it a "Hobbit". Some websites require that you use a specific
browser, typically Internet Explorer. To cater for testing of
such sites, this tag can be used to modify the data sent in the
E.g. to perform an HTTP test with Hobbit masquerading as an
Internet Explorer 6.0 browser, use browser="Mozilla/4.0
(compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.0)". If you do not know
what the User-Agent header should be, open up the browser that
works with this particular site, and open the URL
this into the "Open URL" dialog. The text that shows up is what
the browser sends as the User-Agent header.
LDAP (DIRECTORY SERVER) TESTS
ldaps Simple check for an LDAP service. This check merely looks for
any service running on the ldap/ldaps service port, but does not
perform any actual LDAP transaction.
Check for an LDAP service by performing an LDAP request. This
tag is in the form of an LDAP URI (cf. RFC 2255). This type of
LDAP test requires that bbtest-net(1) was built with support for
LDAP, e.g. via the OpenLDAP library. The components of the LDAP
hostport is a host name with an optional ":portnumber"
dn is the search base
attrs is a comma separated list of attributes to request
scope is one of these three strings:
base one sub (default=base)
filter is filter
exts are recognized set of LDAP and/or API extensions.
LDAP service check using LDAPv3 and STARTTLS for talking to an
LDAP server that requires TLS encryption. See bbtest-net(1) for
a discussion of the different ways of running LDAP servers with
SSL/TLS, and which of these are supported by bbtest-net.
Define a username and password to use when binding to the LDAP
server for ldap URI tests. If not specified, bbtest-net will
attempt an anonymous bind.
Used with an LDAP URL test. If the LDAP query fails during the
search of the directory, the ldap status is normally reported as
"red" (alarm). This tag reduces a search failure to a "yellow"
PERFORMANCE MONITORING TESTS
If you are running an Apache webserver, adding this tag makes
bbtest-net(1) collect performance statistics from the Apache
webserver by querying the URL http://IP.ADDRESS.OF.HOST/server-
status?auto. The response is sent as a data-report and
processed by the Hobbit hobbitd_rrd module into an RRD file and
an "apache" graph. If your webserver requires e.g.
authentication, or runs on a different URL for the server-
status, you can provide the full URL needed to fetch the server-
status page, e.g. apache=http://LOGIN:PASSWORD@10.0.0.1/server-
status?auto for a password protected server-status page, or
apache=http://10.0.0.1:8080/apache/server-status?auto for a
server listening on port 8080 and with a different path to the
Note that you need to enable the server-status URL in your
Apache configuration. The following configuration is needed:
Deny from all
allow from 127.0.0.1
Change "127.0.0.1" to the IP-address of the server that runs
your network tests.
If you have certain tags that you want to apply to all hosts, you can
define a host name ".default." and put the tags on that host. Note that
per-host definitions will override the default ones.
NOTE: The ".default." host entry will only accept the following tags -
others are silently ignored: NOCOLUMNS, COMMENT, DESCR, CLASS, dialup,
testip, nobb2, nodisp, noinfo, notrends, TRENDS, NOPROPRED,
NOPROPYELLOW, NOPROPPURPLE, NOPROPACK, REPORTTIME, WARNPCT, NET,
noclear, nosslcert, ssldays, DOWNTIME, depends, noping, noconn, trace,
notrace, HIDEHTTP, browser, pulldata. Specifically, note that network
tests, "badTEST" settings, and alternate pageset relations cannot be
listed on the ".default." host.
SENDING SUMMARIES TO REMOTE HOBBIT SERVERS
summary ROW.COLUMN IP URL
If you have multiple Hobbit servers, the "summary" directive
lets you form a hierarchy of servers by sending the overall
status of this server to a remote Hobbit server, which then
displays this in a special summary section. E.g. if your offices
are spread over three locations, you can have a Hobbit server at
each office. These branch-office Hobbits have a "summary"
definition in their bb-hosts file that makes them report the
overall status of their branch Hobbit to the central Hobbit
server you maintain at the corporate headquarters.
Multiple "summary" definitions are allowed.
The ROW.COLUMN setting defines how this summary is presented on
the server that receives the summary. The ROW text will be used
as the heading for a summary line, and the COLUMN defines the
name of the column where this summary is shown - like the
hostname and testname used in the normal displays. The IP is the
IP-address of the remote (upstream) Hobbit server, where this
summary is sent). The URL is the URL of your local Hobbit
The URL need not be that of your Hobbit server’s main page - it
could be the URL of a subpage on the local Hobbit server. Hobbit
will report the summary using the color of the page found at the
URL you specify. E.g. on your corporate Hobbit server you want
a summary from the Las Vegas office - but you would like to know
both what the overall status is, and what is the status of the
servers on the critical Sales department back-office servers in
Las Vegas. So you configure the Las Vegas Hobbit server to send
summary Vegas.All 10.0.1.1 http://vegas.foo.com/hobbit/
summary Vegas.Sales 10.0.1.1
This gives you one summary line for Baltimore, with two columns:
An "All" column showing the overall status, and a "Sales" column
showing the status of the "sales" page on the Baltimore Hobbit
Note: Pages defined using alternate pageset definitions cannot
be used, the URL must point to a webpage from the default set of
This option is recognized by the hobbitfetch(8) utility, and
causes it to poll the host for client data. The optional IP-
address and port-number can be used if the client-side
msgcache(8) daemon is listening on a non-standard IP-address or
bbgen(1), bbtest-net(1), bbdigest(1), hobbitserver.cfg(5), hobbit(7)