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       upsmon.conf - Configuration for Network UPS Tools upsmon


       This  file’s  primary  job is to define the systems that upsmon(8) will
       monitor and to tell it how to shut down the system when necessary.   It
       will  contain  passwords,  so  keep it secure.  Ideally,only the upsmon
       process should be able to read it.

       Additionally, other optional configuration values can be  set  in  this


       DEADTIME seconds

              upsmon  allows  a UPS to go missing for this many seconds before
              declaring it "dead".  The default is 15 seconds.

              upsmon requires a UPS to provide status  information  every  few
              seconds (see POLLFREQ and POLLFREQALERT) to keep things updated.
              If the status fetch fails, the UPS is marked stale.  If it stays
              stale for more than DEADTIME seconds, the UPS is marked dead.

              A  dead  UPS  that was last known to be on battery is assumed to
              have changed to a low  battery  condition.   This  may  force  a
              shutdown  if  it is providing a critical amount of power to your
              system.  This seems disruptive, but the alternative is barreling
              ahead into oblivion and crashing when you run out of power.

              Note:   DEADTIME   should   be   a   multiple  of  POLLFREQ  and
              POLLFREQALERT.  Otherwise,   you’ll  have  "dead"  UPSes  simply
              because  upsmon  isn’t  polling  them  quickly  enough.  Rule of
              thumb: take the larger of the two POLLFREQ values, and  multiply
              by 3.

       FINALDELAY seconds

              When  running  in  master  mode,  upsmon  waits  this long after
              sending the NOTIFY_SHUTDOWN to warn the users.  After the  timer
              elapses,  it then runs your SHUTDOWNCMD.  By default this is set
              to 5 seconds.

              If you need to let your users  do  something  in  between  those
              events,  increase this number.  Remember, at this point your UPS
              battery is almost depleted, so don’t make this too big.

              Alternatively, you can set this  very  low  so  you  don’t  wait
              around  when it’s time to shut down.  Some UPSes don’t give much
              warning for low battery and will require a value of 0 here for a
              safe shutdown.

              Note: If FINALDELAY on the slave is greater than HOSTSYNC on the
              master, the master  will  give  up  waiting  for  the  slave  to

       HOSTSYNC seconds

              upsmon  will wait up to this many seconds in master mode for the
              slaves to disconnect during a shutdown situation.   By  default,
              this is 15 seconds.

              When  a  UPS goes critical (on battery + low battery, or "FSD" ‐
              forced shutdown), the slaves are supposed to disconnect and shut
              down  right  away.   The  HOSTSYNC timer keeps the master upsmon
              from sitting there forever if one of the slaves gets stuck.

              This value is also used to keep slave systems from getting stuck
              if  the  master  fails  to respond in time.  After a UPS becomes
              critical, the slave will wait up to  HOSTSYNC  seconds  for  the
              master  to  set  the FSD flag.  If that timer expires, the slave
              will assume that the master is broken and will shut down anyway.

              This  keeps  the  slaves from shutting down during a short‐lived
              status change to "OB LB" that the  slaves  see  but  the  master

       MINSUPPLIES num

              Set the number of power supplies that must be receiving power to
              keep this system running.  Normal computers have just one  power
              supply, so the default value of 1 is acceptable.

              Large/expensive  server  type systems usually have more, and can
              run with a few missing.  The HP NetServer LH4 can run with 2 out
              of  4,  for  example, so you’d set it to 2.  The idea is to keep
              the box running as long as possible, right?

              Obviously you have to put the redundant  supplies  on  different
              UPS circuits for this to make sense!  See big‐servers.txt in the
              docs subdirectory for more information and ideas on how  to  use
              this feature.

              Also see the section on "power values" in upsmon(8).

       MONITOR system powervalue username password type

              Each UPS that you need to be monitor should have a MONITOR line.
              Not all of these need supply power to the system that is running
              upsmon.  You may monitor other systems if you want to be able to
              send notifications about status changes on them.

              You must have at least one MONITOR directive in this file.

              system is a UPS identifier.  It is in this form:


              The default hostname is "localhost".  Some examples:

               ‐ "su700@mybox" means a UPS called "su700" on a  system  called
              "mybox".  This is the normal form.

               ‐  "fenton@bigbox:5678"  is  a  UPS called "fenton" on a system
              called "bigbox" which runs upsd(8) on port "5678".

              powervalue is  an  integer  representing  the  number  of  power
              supplies  that  the  UPS  feeds  on  this  system.   Most normal
              computers have one power supply, and the UPS feeds it,  so  this
              value  will  be  1.   You need a very large or special system to
              have anything higher here.

              You can set the powervalue to 0 if you want  to  monitor  a  UPS
              that  doesn’t  actually  supply  power  to this system.  This is
              useful when you want  to  have  upsmon  do  notifications  about
              status  changes  on  a  UPS  without  shutting down when it goes

              The username and password on this line must match  an  entry  in
              that  system’s  upsd.users(5).   If your username is "monmaster"
              and your password is "blah", the MONITOR line  might  look  like

              MONITOR myups@bigserver 1 monmaster blah master

              Meanwhile, the upsd.users on ’bigserver’ would look like this:


                        password  = blah

                        allowfrom = (ACLs from upsd.conf(5))

                        upsmon master   (or slave)

              The  type  refers  to  the relationship with upsd(8).  It can be
              either "master" or "slave".  See upsmon(8) for more  information
              on the meaning of these modes.  The mode you pick here also goes
              in the upsd.users file, as seen in the example above.

       NOCOMMWARNTIME seconds

              upsmon will trigger a NOTIFY_NOCOMM after this many  seconds  if
              it  can’t  reach  any  of  the UPS entries in this configuration
              file.  It keeps warning you until the situation  is  fixed.   By
              default this is 300 seconds.

       NOTIFYCMD command

              upsmon calls this to send messages when things happen.

              This  command is called with the full text of the message as one
              argument.  The environment string NOTIFYTYPE  will  contain  the
              type string of whatever caused this event to happen.

              If  you  need  to  use  upssched(8),  then you must make it your
              NOTIFYCMD by listing it here.

              Note that this is only called for NOTIFY events that  have  EXEC
              set with NOTIFYFLAG.  See NOTIFYFLAG below for more details.

              Making  this  some sort of shell script might not be a bad idea.
              For more information  and  ideas,  see  pager.txt  in  the  docs

              Remember, this also needs to be one element in the configuration
              file, so if your command has spaces, then wrap it in quotes.

                   NOTIFYCMD "/path/to/script --foo --bar"

              This script is run in the background ‐  that  is,  upsmon  forks
              before it calls out to start it.  This means that your NOTIFYCMD
              may have multiple instances running simultaneously if a  lot  of
              stuff  happens  all  at  once.  Keep this in mind when designing
              complicated notifiers.

       NOTIFYMSG type message

              upsmon comes with a set of stock messages  for  various  events.
              You can change them if you like.

                   NOTIFYMSG ONLINE "UPS %s is getting line power"

                   NOTIFYMSG ONBATT "Someone pulled the plug on %s"

              Note  that  %s  is  replaced  with  the identifier of the UPS in

              Possible values for type:

                   ONLINE ‐ UPS is back online

                   ONBATT ‐ UPS is on battery

                   LOWBATT ‐ UPS is on battery  and  has  a  low  battery  (is

                   FSD  ‐  UPS  is being shutdown by the master (FSD = "Forced

                   COMMOK ‐ Communications established with the UPS

                   COMMBAD ‐ Communications lost to the UPS

                   SHUTDOWN ‐ The system is being shutdown

                   REPLBATT ‐ The UPS battery is bad and needs to be replaced

                   NOCOMM ‐ A UPS  is  unavailable  (can’t  be  contacted  for

              The message must be one element in the configuration file, so if
              it contains spaces, you must wrap it in quotes.

                   NOTIFYMSG NOCOMM "Someone stole UPS %s"

       NOTIFYFLAG type flag[+flag][+flag]...

              By default, upsmon sends walls global messages to all logged  in
              users)  via  /bin/wall  and  writes  to  the  syslog when things
              happen.  You can change this.




              Possible values for the flags:

                   SYSLOG ‐ Write the message to the syslog

                   WALL ‐ Write the message to all users with /bin/wall

                   EXEC ‐ Execute NOTIFYCMD (see above) with the message

                   IGNORE ‐ Don’t do anything

              If you use IGNORE, don’t use any other flags on the same line.

       POLLFREQ seconds

              Normally upsmon polls the upsd(8) server every  5  seconds.   If
              this  is  flooding  your  network with activity, you can make it
              higher.  You can also make it lower to  get  faster  updates  in
              some cases.

              There  are  some  catches.   First,  if you set the POLLFREQ too
              high, you may miss short‐lived power events entirely.  You  also
              risk triggering the DEADTIME (see above) if you use a very large

              Second, there is a point of diminishing returns if  you  set  it
              too  low.   While upsd normally has all of the data available to
              it instantly, most drivers only  refresh  the  UPS  status  once
              every 2 seconds.  Polling any more than that usually doesn’t get
              you the information any faster.

       POLLFREQALERT seconds

              This is the interval that upsmon waits between polls if  any  of
              its  UPSes are on battery.  You can use this along with POLLFREQ
              above to slow down polls during normal behavior, but get quicker
              updates when something bad happens.

              This should always be equal to or lower than the POLLFREQ value.
              By default it is also set 5 seconds.

              The warnings from the POLLFREQ entry about too‐high and  too‐low
              values also apply here.

       POWERDOWNFLAG filename

              upsmon  creates  this  file when running in master mode when the
              UPS needs to be powered off.  You should check for this file  in
              your  shutdown scripts and call upsdrvctl shutdown if it exists.

              This is done to forcibly reset the slaves,  so  they  don’t  get
              stuck at the "halted" stage even if the power returns during the
              shutdown  process.   This  usually  does  not   work   well   on
              contact‐closure UPSes that use the genericups driver.

              See  the  shutdown.txt  file  in  the docs subdirectory for more

       RBWARNTIME seconds

              When a UPS says that it needs  to  have  its  battery  replaced,
              upsmon  will  generate a NOTIFY_REPLBATT event.  By default this
              happens every 43200 seconds ‐ 12 hours.

              If you need another value, set it here.

       RUN_AS_USER username

              upsmon normally runs the bulk of  the  monitoring  duties  under
              another user ID after dropping root privileges.  On most systems
              this means it runs as "nobody", since that’s  the  default  from

              The catch is that "nobody" can’t read your upsmon.conf, since by
              default it is installed so that only root  can  open  it.   This
              means  you won’t be able to reload the configuration file, since
              it will be unavailable.

              The solution is to create a new user just for upsmon, then  make
              it  run  as  that  user.   I  suggest  "nutmon", but you can use
              anything that isn’t already taken on your system.  Just create a
              regular  user  with  no  special  privileges  and  an impossible

              Then, tell upsmon to run as  that  user,  and  make  upsmon.conf
              readable  by  it.   Your reloads will work, and your config file
              will stay secure.

              This file should not be writable by the upsmon user, as it would
              be  possible  to  exploit  a  hole,  change  the  SHUTDOWNCMD to
              something malicious, then wait for upsmon to be restarted.

       SHUTDOWNCMD command

              upsmon runs this command when the system  needs  to  be  brought
              down.   If  it  is a slave, it will do that immediately whenever
              the current overall power  value  drops  below  the  MINSUPPLIES
              value above.

              When  upsmon  is  a  master, it will allow any slaves to log out
              before starting the local shutdown procedure.

              Note that the command needs to be  one  element  in  the  config
              file.   If your shutdown command includes spaces, then put it in
              quotes to keep it together, i.e.:

                   SHUTDOWNCMD "/sbin/shutdown -h +0"


       upsmon(8), upsd(8), nutupsdrv(8).

   Internet resources:
       The NUT (Network UPS Tools) home page:

                                Mon Jan 22 2007                 UPSMON.CONF(5)