Provided by: postgresql-client-8.2_8.2.7-1_i386 bug


       CREATE TABLE - define a new table


       CREATE [ [ GLOBAL | LOCAL ] { TEMPORARY | TEMP } ] TABLE table_name ( [
         { column_name data_type [ DEFAULT default_expr ] [ column_constraint [ ... ] ]
           | table_constraint
           | LIKE parent_table [ { INCLUDING | EXCLUDING } { DEFAULTS | CONSTRAINTS } ] ... }
           [, ... ]
       ] )
       [ INHERITS ( parent_table [, ... ] ) ]
       [ WITH ( storage_parameter [= value] [, ... ] ) | WITH OIDS | WITHOUT OIDS ]
       [ TABLESPACE tablespace ]

       where column_constraint is:

       [ CONSTRAINT constraint_name ]
       { NOT NULL |
         NULL |
         UNIQUE index_parameters |
         PRIMARY KEY index_parameters |
         CHECK ( expression ) |
         REFERENCES reftable [ ( refcolumn ) ] [ MATCH FULL | MATCH PARTIAL | MATCH SIMPLE ]
           [ ON DELETE action ] [ ON UPDATE action ] }

       and table_constraint is:

       [ CONSTRAINT constraint_name ]
       { UNIQUE ( column_name [, ... ] ) index_parameters |
         PRIMARY KEY ( column_name [, ... ] ) index_parameters |
         CHECK ( expression ) |
         FOREIGN KEY ( column_name [, ... ] ) REFERENCES reftable [ ( refcolumn [, ... ] ) ]
           [ MATCH FULL | MATCH PARTIAL | MATCH SIMPLE ] [ ON DELETE action ] [ ON UPDATE action ] }

       index_parameters in UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY constraints are:

       [ WITH ( storage_parameter [= value] [, ... ] ) ]
       [ USING INDEX TABLESPACE tablespace ]


       CREATE  TABLE  will  create a new, initially empty table in the current
       database. The table will be owned by the user issuing the command.

       If a schema name is given (for example, CREATE  TABLE  myschema.mytable
       ...) then the table is created in the specified schema. Otherwise it is
       created in the current schema. Temporary  tables  exist  in  a  special
       schema,  so  a  schema  name may not be given when creating a temporary
       table. The name of the table must be distinct  from  the  name  of  any
       other table, sequence, index, or view in the same schema.

       CREATE TABLE also automatically creates a data type that represents the
       composite type corresponding to one row of the table. Therefore, tables
       cannot have the same name as any existing data type in the same schema.

       The optional constraint clauses specify constraints (tests) that new or
       updated rows must satisfy for an insert or update operation to succeed.
       A constraint is an SQL object that helps define the set of valid values
       in the table in various ways.

       There  are two ways to define constraints: table constraints and column
       constraints. A column  constraint  is  defined  as  part  of  a  column
       definition.  A  table constraint definition is not tied to a particular
       column, and it can  encompass  more  than  one  column.   Every  column
       constraint  can  also  be  written  as  a  table  constraint;  a column
       constraint is only a notational convenience for use when the constraint
       only affects one column.


              If  specified,  the  table  is  created  as  a  temporary table.
              Temporary tables are automatically  dropped  at  the  end  of  a
              session,  or  optionally  at  the end of the current transaction
              (see ON COMMIT below). Existing permanent tables with  the  same
              name  are not visible to the current session while the temporary
              table exists, unless they are referenced  with  schema-qualified
              names.   Any   indexes   created   on   a  temporary  table  are
              automatically temporary as well.

              Optionally, GLOBAL or LOCAL can be written before  TEMPORARY  or
              TEMP.    This   makes  no  difference  in  PostgreSQL,  but  see
              Compatibility [create_table(7)].

              The name  (optionally  schema-qualified)  of  the  table  to  be

              The name of a column to be created in the new table.

              The  data type of the column. This may include array specifiers.
              For more information on the data types supported by  PostgreSQL,
              refer to in the documentation.

              The  DEFAULT  clause assigns a default data value for the column
              whose column definition it appears  within.  The  value  is  any
              variable-free  expression  (subqueries  and  cross-references to
              other columns in the current table are not  allowed).  The  data
              type  of  the default expression must match the data type of the

              The default expression will be used in any insert operation that
              does  not specify a value for the column. If there is no default
              for a column, then the default is null.

       INHERITS ( parent_table [, ... ] )
              The optional INHERITS clause specifies a  list  of  tables  from
              which the new table automatically inherits all columns.

              Use  of  INHERITS  creates a persistent relationship between the
              new child table and its parent table(s). Schema modifications to
              the  parent(s)  normally  propagate  to children as well, and by
              default the data of the child table is included in scans of  the

              If the same column name exists in more than one parent table, an
              error is reported unless the data types of the columns match  in
              each  of  the  parent  tables. If there is no conflict, then the
              duplicate columns are merged to form a single column in the  new
              table.  If  the  column  name  list  of the new table contains a
              column name that is also inherited, the data type must  likewise
              match  the  inherited  column(s), and the column definitions are
              merged into one. However, inherited and new column  declarations
              of  the  same  name  need not specify identical constraints: all
              constraints provided from any declaration  are  merged  together
              and  all  are  applied  to  the  new  table.  If  the  new table
              explicitly specifies  a  default  value  for  the  column,  this
              default  overrides  any  defaults from inherited declarations of
              the column. Otherwise, any parents that specify  default  values
              for  the  column  must all specify the same default, or an error
              will be reported.

       } ]
              The LIKE clause specifies a  table  from  which  the  new  table
              automatically  copies  all  column  names, their data types, and
              their not-null constraints.

              Unlike INHERITS, the new table and original table are completely
              decoupled  after  creation  is complete. Changes to the original
              table will not be applied to  the  new  table,  and  it  is  not
              possible  to  include  data  of  the  new  table in scans of the
              original table.

              Default expressions for the copied column definitions will  only
              be  copied  if  INCLUDING  DEFAULTS  is  specified.  The default
              behavior is to exclude default  expressions,  resulting  in  the
              copied columns in the new table having null defaults.

              Not-null  constraints are always copied to the new table.  CHECK
              constraints will only be  copied  if  INCLUDING  CONSTRAINTS  is
              specified;  other  types  of  constraints  will never be copied.
              Also, no distinction is  made  between  column  constraints  and
              table  constraints  —  when constraints are requested, all check
              constraints are copied.

              Note also that unlike INHERITS, copied columns  and  constraints
              are not merged with similarly named columns and constraints.  If
              the same name is specified explicitly or in another LIKE  clause
              an error is signalled.

       CONSTRAINT constraint_name
              An  optional  name  for  a  column  or  table constraint. If the
              constraint is violated, the constraint name is present in  error
              messages,  so  constraint names like col must be positive can be
              used to communicate helpful  constraint  information  to  client
              applications.   (Double-quotes  are needed to specify constraint
              names that  contain  spaces.)   If  a  constraint  name  is  not
              specified, the system generates a name.

       NOT NULL
              The column is not allowed to contain null values.

       NULL   The  column  is  allowed  to  contain  null  values. This is the

              This clause is only provided for compatibility with non-standard
              SQL databases. Its use is discouraged in new applications.

       UNIQUE (column constraint)

       UNIQUE ( column_name [, ... ] ) (table constraint)
              The  UNIQUE  constraint  specifies  that  a group of one or more
              columns of a table may contain only unique values. The  behavior
              of  the  unique  table constraint is the same as that for column
              constraints, with the additional  capability  to  span  multiple

              For  the  purpose  of  a  unique constraint, null values are not
              considered equal.

              Each unique table constraint must name a set of columns that  is
              different  from  the set of columns named by any other unique or
              primary key constraint defined  for  the  table.  (Otherwise  it
              would just be the same constraint listed twice.)

       PRIMARY KEY (column constraint)

       PRIMARY KEY ( column_name [, ... ] ) (table constraint)
              The primary key constraint specifies that a column or columns of
              a table may contain only unique (non-duplicate), nonnull values.
              Technically,  PRIMARY  KEY is merely a combination of UNIQUE and
              NOT NULL, but identifying a set of columns as primary  key  also
              provides  metadata  about the design of the schema, as a primary
              key implies that other tables may rely on this set of columns as
              a unique identifier for rows.

              Only  one primary key can be specified for a table, whether as a
              column constraint or a table constraint.

              The primary key constraint should name a set of columns that  is
              different  from  other  sets  of  columns  named  by  any unique
              constraint defined for the same table.

       CHECK ( expression )
              The CHECK clause specifies an  expression  producing  a  Boolean
              result  which  new or updated rows must satisfy for an insert or
              update operation to succeed. Expressions evaluating to  TRUE  or
              UNKNOWN succeed. Should any row of an insert or update operation
              produce a FALSE result an error  exception  is  raised  and  the
              insert or update does not alter the database. A check constraint
              specified as a column constraint should reference that  column’s
              value  only, while an expression appearing in a table constraint
              may reference multiple columns.

              Currently, CHECK expressions cannot contain subqueries nor refer
              to variables other than columns of the current row.

       REFERENCES  reftable  [ ( refcolumn ) ] [ MATCH matchtype ] [ ON DELETE
       action ] [ ON UPDATE action ] (column constraint)

       FOREIGN KEY ( column [, ... ] )
              These  clauses  specify a foreign key constraint, which requires
              that a group of one or more columns of the new table  must  only
              contain  values that match values in the referenced column(s) of
              some row of the referenced table. If refcolumn is  omitted,  the
              primary key of the reftable is used. The referenced columns must
              be the columns of a unique or  primary  key  constraint  in  the
              referenced  table.  Note that foreign key constraints may not be
              defined between temporary tables and permanent tables.

              A value inserted  into  the  referencing  column(s)  is  matched
              against  the  values  of  the  referenced  table  and referenced
              columns using the given match type. There are three match types:
              MATCH  FULL,  MATCH PARTIAL, and MATCH SIMPLE, which is also the
              default. MATCH FULL will not allow one column of  a  multicolumn
              foreign  key to be null unless all foreign key columns are null.
              MATCH SIMPLE allows some foreign key columns to  be  null  while
              other  parts  of  the foreign key are not null. MATCH PARTIAL is
              not yet implemented.

              In addition, when the data in the referenced columns is changed,
              certain  actions  are  performed  on  the  data  in this table’s
              columns. The ON DELETE clause specifies the  action  to  perform
              when  a referenced row in the referenced table is being deleted.
              Likewise, the ON UPDATE clause specifies the action  to  perform
              when  a  referenced  column  in  the  referenced  table is being
              updated to  a  new  value.  If  the  row  is  updated,  but  the
              referenced  column  is  not actually changed, no action is done.
              Referential actions other than the NO  ACTION  check  cannot  be
              deferred,  even  if the constraint is declared deferrable. There
              are the following possible actions for each clause:

              NO ACTION
                     Produce an error indicating that the deletion  or  update
                     would  create a foreign key constraint violation.  If the
                     constraint is deferred, this error will  be  produced  at
                     constraint   check   time   if   there  still  exist  any
                     referencing rows. This is the default action.

                     Produce an error indicating that the deletion  or  update
                     would create a foreign key constraint violation.  This is
                     the same as NO  ACTION  except  that  the  check  is  not

                     Delete  any  rows  referencing the deleted row, or update
                     the value of the referencing column to the new  value  of
                     the referenced column, respectively.

              SET NULL
                     Set the referencing column(s) to null.

              SET DEFAULT
                     Set the referencing column(s) to their default values.

       If  the  referenced column(s) are changed frequently, it may be wise to
       add an index to the foreign key  column  so  that  referential  actions
       associated   with   the  foreign  key  column  can  be  performed  more


              This  controls  whether  the  constraint  can  be  deferred.   A
              constraint  that  is  not deferrable will be checked immediately
              after every command. Checking of constraints that are deferrable
              may be postponed until the end of the transaction (using the SET
              CONSTRAINTS [set_constraints(7)] command).   NOT  DEFERRABLE  is
              the  default. Only foreign key constraints currently accept this
              clause. All other constraint types are not deferrable.


              If a constraint is deferrable, this clause specifies the default
              time  to  check  the  constraint. If the constraint is INITIALLY
              IMMEDIATE, it is checked  after  each  statement.  This  is  the
              default.  If the constraint is INITIALLY DEFERRED, it is checked
              only at the end of the transaction. The  constraint  check  time
              can  be  altered  with  the SET CONSTRAINTS [set_constraints(7)]

       WITH ( storage_parameter [= value] [, ... ] )
              This clause specifies optional storage parameters for a table or
              index;   see   Storage  Parameters  [create_table(7)]  for  more
              information. The WITH  clause  for  a  table  can  also  include
              OIDS=TRUE  (or  just OIDS) to specify that rows of the new table
              should have OIDs  (object  identifiers)  assigned  to  them,  or
              OIDS=FALSE  to  specify  that the rows should not have OIDs.  If
              OIDS is not specified, the  default  setting  depends  upon  the
              default_with_oids  configuration  parameter.   (If the new table
              inherits from any tables  that  have  OIDs,  then  OIDS=TRUE  is
              forced even if the command says OIDS=FALSE.)

              If  OIDS=FALSE  is  specified or implied, the new table does not
              store OIDs and no OID will be assigned for a row  inserted  into
              it.  This  is  generally  considered  worthwhile,  since it will
              reduce OID consumption and thereby postpone  the  wraparound  of
              the  32-bit OID counter. Once the counter wraps around, OIDs can
              no longer be assumed to be unique, which makes them considerably
              less  useful.  In  addition, excluding OIDs from a table reduces
              the space required to store the table on disk by 4 bytes per row
              (on most machines), slightly improving performance.

              To remove OIDs from a table after it has been created, use ALTER
              TABLE [alter_table(7)].

       WITH OIDS

              These are obsolescent syntaxes equivalent  to  WITH  (OIDS)  and
              WITH  (OIDS=FALSE),  respectively.  If  you wish to give both an
              OIDS setting and storage parameters, you must use the WITH ( ...
              ) syntax; see above.

       ON COMMIT
              The  behavior  of  temporary  tables at the end of a transaction
              block can be controlled using ON COMMIT.  The three options are:

              PRESERVE ROWS
                     No  special  action is taken at the ends of transactions.
                     This is the default behavior.

              DELETE ROWS
                     All rows in the temporary table will be  deleted  at  the
                     end  of each transaction block. Essentially, an automatic
                     TRUNCATE [truncate(7)] is done at each commit.

              DROP   The temporary table will be dropped at  the  end  of  the
                     current transaction block.

       TABLESPACE tablespace
              The  tablespace  is  the name of the tablespace in which the new
              table is to be created.  If not specified, default_tablespace is
              used, or the database’s default tablespace if default_tablespace
              is an empty string.

       USING INDEX TABLESPACE tablespace
              This clause allows selection of  the  tablespace  in  which  the
              index associated with a UNIQUE or PRIMARY KEY constraint will be
              created.  If not specified, default_tablespace is used,  or  the
              database’s  default tablespace if default_tablespace is an empty

       The WITH clause can specify storage  parameters  for  tables,  and  for
       indexes  associated  with  a  UNIQUE or PRIMARY KEY constraint. Storage
       parameters   for   indexes   are    documented    in    CREATE    INDEX
       [create_index(7)].  The  only storage parameter currently available for
       tables is:

              The fillfactor for a table is a percentage between 10  and  100.
              100 (complete packing) is the default. When a smaller fillfactor
              is specified, INSERT operations pack table  pages  only  to  the
              indicated  percentage;  the  remaining  space  on  each  page is
              reserved for updating rows on that page.  This  gives  UPDATE  a
              chance  to  place  the updated copy of a row on the same page as
              the original, which is more  efficient  than  placing  it  on  a
              different  page.   For  a table whose entries are never updated,
              complete packing is the best  choice,  but  in  heavily  updated
              tables smaller fillfactors are appropriate.


       Using  OIDs  in  new  applications  is not recommended: where possible,
       using a SERIAL or other sequence generator as the table’s  primary  key
       is  preferred.  However,  if  your application does make use of OIDs to
       identify specific rows of a table, it is recommended to create a unique
       constraint  on the oid column of that table, to ensure that OIDs in the
       table will indeed uniquely identify rows even after counter wraparound.
       Avoid  assuming  that  OIDs  are  unique  across  tables; if you need a
       database-wide unique identifier, use the combination  of  tableoid  and
       row OID for the purpose.

              Tip: The use of OIDS=FALSE is not recommended for tables with no
              primary key, since without either an OID or a unique  data  key,
              it is difficult to identify specific rows.

       PostgreSQL  automatically  creates  an index for each unique constraint
       and primary key constraint to  enforce  uniqueness.  Thus,  it  is  not
       necessary  to  create an index explicitly for primary key columns. (See
       CREATE INDEX [create_index(7)] for more information.)

       Unique constraints and primary keys are not inherited  in  the  current
       implementation.  This  makes  the combination of inheritance and unique
       constraints rather dysfunctional.

       A table cannot have more than 1600 columns. (In practice, the effective
       limit is usually lower because of tuple-length constraints.)


       Create table films and table distributors:

       CREATE TABLE films (
           code        char(5) CONSTRAINT firstkey PRIMARY KEY,
           title       varchar(40) NOT NULL,
           did         integer NOT NULL,
           date_prod   date,
           kind        varchar(10),
           len         interval hour to minute

       CREATE TABLE distributors (
            did    integer PRIMARY KEY DEFAULT nextval(’serial’),
            name   varchar(40) NOT NULL CHECK (name <> ’’)

       Create a table with a 2-dimensional array:

       CREATE TABLE array_int (
           vector  int[][]

       Define  a  unique  table  constraint  for the table films. Unique table
       constraints can be defined on one or more columns of the table.

       CREATE TABLE films (
           code        char(5),
           title       varchar(40),
           did         integer,
           date_prod   date,
           kind        varchar(10),
           len         interval hour to minute,
           CONSTRAINT production UNIQUE(date_prod)

       Define a check column constraint:

       CREATE TABLE distributors (
           did     integer CHECK (did > 100),
           name    varchar(40)

       Define a check table constraint:

       CREATE TABLE distributors (
           did     integer,
           name    varchar(40)
           CONSTRAINT con1 CHECK (did > 100 AND name <> ’’)

       Define a primary key table constraint for the table films:

       CREATE TABLE films (
           code        char(5),
           title       varchar(40),
           did         integer,
           date_prod   date,
           kind        varchar(10),
           len         interval hour to minute,
           CONSTRAINT code_title PRIMARY KEY(code,title)

       Define a primary key constraint for table distributors.  The  following
       two  examples  are  equivalent,  the  first  using the table constraint
       syntax, the second the column constraint syntax:

       CREATE TABLE distributors (
           did     integer,
           name    varchar(40),
           PRIMARY KEY(did)

       CREATE TABLE distributors (
           did     integer PRIMARY KEY,
           name    varchar(40)

       Assign a literal constant default value for the  column  name,  arrange
       for  the  default  value of column did to be generated by selecting the
       next value of a sequence object, and make the default value of  modtime
       be the time at which the row is inserted:

       CREATE TABLE distributors (
           name      varchar(40) DEFAULT ’Luso Films’,
           did       integer DEFAULT nextval(’distributors_serial’),
           modtime   timestamp DEFAULT current_timestamp

       Define  two  NOT NULL column constraints on the table distributors, one
       of which is explicitly given a name:

       CREATE TABLE distributors (
           did     integer CONSTRAINT no_null NOT NULL,
           name    varchar(40) NOT NULL

       Define a unique constraint for the name column:

       CREATE TABLE distributors (
           did     integer,
           name    varchar(40) UNIQUE

       The same, specified as a table constraint:

       CREATE TABLE distributors (
           did     integer,
           name    varchar(40),

       Create the same table, specifying 70% fill factor for  both  the  table
       and its unique index:

       CREATE TABLE distributors (
           did     integer,
           name    varchar(40),
           UNIQUE(name) WITH (fillfactor=70)
       WITH (fillfactor=70);

       Create table cinemas in tablespace diskvol1:

       CREATE TABLE cinemas (
               id serial,
               name text,
               location text
       ) TABLESPACE diskvol1;


       The  CREATE TABLE command conforms to the SQL standard, with exceptions
       listed below.

       Although the syntax of CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE resembles that of the SQL
       standard, the effect is not the same. In the standard, temporary tables
       are defined just once and  automatically  exist  (starting  with  empty
       contents)  in  every  session  that  needs  them.   PostgreSQL  instead
       requires each session to issue its own CREATE TEMPORARY  TABLE  command
       for  each temporary table to be used. This allows different sessions to
       use the same temporary table name for different purposes,  whereas  the
       standard’s approach constrains all instances of a given temporary table
       name to have the same table structure.

       The standard’s definition of the behavior of temporary tables is widely
       ignored.  PostgreSQL’s  behavior  on  this  point is similar to that of
       several other SQL databases.

       The standard’s distinction between global and local temporary tables is
       not  in  PostgreSQL,  since  that distinction depends on the concept of
       modules, which PostgreSQL does not  have.   For  compatibility’s  sake,
       PostgreSQL  will  accept  the  GLOBAL and LOCAL keywords in a temporary
       table declaration, but they have no effect.

       The ON COMMIT clause  for  temporary  tables  also  resembles  the  SQL
       standard,  but  has  some  differences.   If  the  ON  COMMIT clause is
       omitted, SQL specifies that the default behavior is  ON  COMMIT  DELETE
       ROWS. However, the default behavior in PostgreSQL is ON COMMIT PRESERVE
       ROWS. The ON COMMIT DROP option does not exist in SQL.

       The SQL standard says that CHECK column constraints may only  refer  to
       the  column  they  apply  to; only CHECK table constraints may refer to
       multiple columns.  PostgreSQL does not  enforce  this  restriction;  it
       treats column and table check constraints alike.

       The  NULL  ‘‘constraint’’  (actually  a non-constraint) is a PostgreSQL
       extension to the SQL standard that is included for  compatibility  with
       some  other  database  systems  (and  for  symmetry  with  the NOT NULL
       constraint). Since it is the default for any column,  its  presence  is
       simply noise.

       Multiple  inheritance  via the INHERITS clause is a PostgreSQL language
       extension.  SQL:1999  and  later  define  single  inheritance  using  a
       different syntax and different semantics. SQL:1999-style inheritance is
       not yet supported by PostgreSQL.

       PostgreSQL allows a table of no columns to  be  created  (for  example,
       CREATE TABLE foo();). This is an extension from the SQL standard, which
       does not allow  zero-column  tables.  Zero-column  tables  are  not  in
       themselves  very useful, but disallowing them creates odd special cases
       for ALTER TABLE DROP COLUMN, so it seems cleaner to  ignore  this  spec

       The  WITH  clause is a PostgreSQL extension; neither storage parameters
       nor OIDs are in the standard.

       The PostgreSQL concept of tablespaces is  not  part  of  the  standard.
       Hence,   the   clauses   TABLESPACE  and  USING  INDEX  TABLESPACE  are


       ALTER  TABLE  [alter_table(7)],  DROP  TABLE  [drop_table(l)],   CREATE
       TABLESPACE [create_tablespace(l)]