Provided by: postgresql-client-8.2_8.2.7-1_i386 bug


       GRANT - define access privileges


           [,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
           ON [ TABLE ] tablename [, ...]
           TO { username | GROUP groupname | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

           [,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
           ON SEQUENCE sequencename [, ...]
           TO { username | GROUP groupname | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

           ON DATABASE dbname [, ...]
           TO { username | GROUP groupname | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

           ON FUNCTION funcname ( [ [ argmode ] [ argname ] argtype [, ...] ] ) [, ...]
           TO { username | GROUP groupname | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

           ON LANGUAGE langname [, ...]
           TO { username | GROUP groupname | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

       GRANT { { CREATE | USAGE } [,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
           ON SCHEMA schemaname [, ...]
           TO { username | GROUP groupname | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

           ON TABLESPACE tablespacename [, ...]
           TO { username | GROUP groupname | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

       GRANT role [, ...] TO username [, ...] [ WITH ADMIN OPTION ]


       The GRANT command has two basic variants: one that grants privileges on
       a  database  object  (table,  view,   sequence,   database,   function,
       procedural  language,  schema,  or  tablespace),  and  one  that grants
       membership in a role. These variants are similar in many ways, but they
       are different enough to be described separately.

       As  of  PostgreSQL  8.1,  the  concepts  of  users and groups have been
       unified into a single kind of entity called a role.  It is therefore no
       longer necessary to use the keyword GROUP to identify whether a grantee
       is a user or a group. GROUP is still allowed in the command, but it  is
       a noise word.

       This  variant  of  the  GRANT  command  gives  specific privileges on a
       database object to one or more roles. These  privileges  are  added  to
       those already granted, if any.

       The  key word PUBLIC indicates that the privileges are to be granted to
       all roles, including those that may be created  later.  PUBLIC  may  be
       thought  of  as  an  implicitly  defined group that always includes all
       roles.  Any particular role will have the  sum  of  privileges  granted
       directly to it, privileges granted to any role it is presently a member
       of, and privileges granted to PUBLIC.

       If WITH GRANT OPTION is specified, the recipient of the  privilege  may
       in  turn  grant  it  to  others.  Without a grant option, the recipient
       cannot do that. Grant options cannot be granted to PUBLIC.

       There is no need to grant privileges to the owner of an object (usually
       the  user that created it), as the owner has all privileges by default.
       (The owner could, however, choose to revoke some of his own  privileges
       for  safety.)   The right to drop an object, or to alter its definition
       in any way is not described by a grantable privilege; it is inherent in
       the  owner,  and cannot be granted or revoked. The owner implicitly has
       all grant options for the object, too.

       Depending on the type of object, the  initial  default  privileges  may
       include  granting  some privileges to PUBLIC.  The default is no public
       access for tables, schemas, and tablespaces; CONNECT privilege and TEMP
       table   creation   privilege   for  databases;  EXECUTE  privilege  for
       functions; and USAGE privilege for languages.  The object owner may  of
       course revoke these privileges. (For maximum security, issue the REVOKE
       in the same transaction that creates  the  object;  then  there  is  no
       window in which another user may use the object.)

       The possible privileges are:

       SELECT Allows  SELECT  [select(7)]  from  any  column  of the specified
              table, view, or sequence. Also allows the use of COPY  [copy(7)]
              TO.  For  sequences,  this  privilege also allows the use of the
              currval function.

       INSERT Allows INSERT [insert(7)] of a new row into the specified table.
              Also allows COPY [copy(7)] FROM.

       UPDATE Allows  UPDATE [update(7)] of any column of the specified table.
              SELECT ... FOR UPDATE and SELECT ... FOR SHARE also require this
              privilege  (besides  the  SELECT privilege). For sequences, this
              privilege allows the use of the nextval and setval functions.

       DELETE Allows DELETE [delete(7)] of a row from the specified table.

              To create a foreign key constraint, it is necessary to have this
              privilege on both the referencing and referenced tables.

              Allows  the  creation  of a trigger on the specified table. (See
              the CREATE TRIGGER [create_trigger(7)] statement.)

       CREATE For databases, allows new  schemas  to  be  created  within  the

              For schemas, allows new objects to be created within the schema.
              To rename an existing object, you must own the object  and  have
              this privilege for the containing schema.

              For  tablespaces, allows tables and indexes to be created within
              the tablespace, and allows databases to be created that have the
              tablespace as their default tablespace. (Note that revoking this
              privilege will not alter the placement of existing objects.)

              Allows the user to  connect  to  the  specified  database.  This
              privilege  is  checked  at  connection  startup  (in addition to
              checking any restrictions imposed by pg_hba.conf).


       TEMP   Allows temporary tables to be created while using the  database.

              Allows  the  use  of  the  specified function and the use of any
              operators that are implemented on top of the function.  This  is
              the  only  type  of  privilege  that is applicable to functions.
              (This syntax works for aggregate functions, as well.)

       USAGE  For procedural  languages,  allows  the  use  of  the  specified
              language for the creation of functions in that language. This is
              the only type of privilege  that  is  applicable  to  procedural

              For schemas, allows access to objects contained in the specified
              schema (assuming that the objects’  own  privilege  requirements
              are  also  met).  Essentially  this allows the grantee to ‘‘look
              up’’ objects within the schema. Without this permission,  it  is
              still  possible  to  see  the object names, e.g. by querying the
              system tables.  Also, after revoking this  permission,  existing
              backends  might  have  statements that have previously performed
              this lookup, so this is not a completely secure way  to  prevent
              object access.

              For  sequences, this privilege allows the use of the currval and
              nextval functions.

              Grant all of the available privileges at once.   The  PRIVILEGES
              key  word  is  optional  in PostgreSQL, though it is required by
              strict SQL.

       The privileges required by other commands are listed on  the  reference
       page of the respective command.

       This variant of the GRANT command grants membership in a role to one or
       more other roles. Membership  in  a  role  is  significant  because  it
       conveys the privileges granted to a role to each of its members.

       If  WITH  ADMIN  OPTION  is  specified,  the  member  may in turn grant
       membership in the role to others, and revoke membership in the role  as
       well. Without the admin option, ordinary users cannot do that. However,
       database superusers can grant or  revoke  membership  in  any  role  to
       anyone.    Roles  having  CREATEROLE  privilege  can  grant  or  revoke
       membership in any role that is not a superuser.

       Unlike the case with privileges, membership in a role cannot be granted
       to  PUBLIC.  Note also that this form of the command does not allow the
       noise word GROUP.


       The REVOKE [revoke(7)] command is used to revoke access privileges.

       When a non-owner of an object  attempts  to  GRANT  privileges  on  the
       object,  the  command  will fail outright if the user has no privileges
       whatsoever on the object. As long as some privilege is  available,  the
       command will proceed, but it will grant only those privileges for which
       the user has grant options. The GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES forms will issue a
       warning  message  if  no  grant options are held, while the other forms
       will issue a warning  if  grant  options  for  any  of  the  privileges
       specifically  named  in  the command are not held.  (In principle these
       statements apply to the object owner as well, but since  the  owner  is
       always  treated  as  holding  all  grant  options,  the cases can never

       It should be noted that database  superusers  can  access  all  objects
       regardless  of  object  privilege  settings.  This is comparable to the
       rights of root in a Unix system.  As with root, it’s unwise to  operate
       as a superuser except when absolutely necessary.

       If  a superuser chooses to issue a GRANT or REVOKE command, the command
       is performed as though it were issued by  the  owner  of  the  affected
       object.  In  particular,  privileges  granted  via  such a command will
       appear to have been granted by the object owner.  (For role membership,
       the  membership  appears  to  have  been granted by the containing role

       GRANT and REVOKE can also be done by a role that is not  the  owner  of
       the  affected object, but is a member of the role that owns the object,
       or is a member of a role that holds privileges WITH GRANT OPTION on the
       object.  In  this  case  the privileges will be recorded as having been
       granted by the  role  that  actually  owns  the  object  or  holds  the
       privileges WITH GRANT OPTION. For example, if table t1 is owned by role
       g1, of which role u1 is a member, then u1 can grant privileges on t1 to
       u2,  but  those privileges will appear to have been granted directly by
       g1. Any other member of role g1 could revoke them later.

       If the role executing GRANT holds the  required  privileges  indirectly
       via  more  than  one  role  membership  path,  it  is unspecified which
       containing role will be recorded as having  done  the  grant.  In  such
       cases  it  is best practice to use SET ROLE to become the specific role
       you want to do the GRANT as.

       Granting  permission  on  a  table  does   not   automatically   extend
       permissions  to  any  sequences  used by the table, including sequences
       tied to SERIAL columns. Permissions on sequence must be set separately.

       Currently,  PostgreSQL does not support granting or revoking privileges
       for individual columns of a  table.   One  possible  workaround  is  to
       create a view having just the desired columns and then grant privileges
       to that view.

       Use  psql(1)’s  \z  command  to  obtain  information   about   existing
       privileges, for example:

       => \z mytable

                               Access privileges for database "lusitania"
        Schema |  Name   | Type  |                     Access privileges
        public | mytable | table | {miriam=arwdxt/miriam,=r/miriam,"group todos=arw/miriam"}
       (1 row)

       The entries shown by \z are interpreted thus:

                     =xxxx -- privileges granted to PUBLIC
                uname=xxxx -- privileges granted to a user
          group gname=xxxx -- privileges granted to a group

                         r -- SELECT ("read")
                         w -- UPDATE ("write")
                         a -- INSERT ("append")
                         d -- DELETE
                         x -- REFERENCES
                         t -- TRIGGER
                         X -- EXECUTE
                         U -- USAGE
                         C -- CREATE
                         c -- CONNECT
                         T -- TEMPORARY
                    arwdxt -- ALL PRIVILEGES (for tables)
                         * -- grant option for preceding privilege

                     /yyyy -- user who granted this privilege

       The  above  example display would be seen by user miriam after creating
       table mytable and doing


       If the ‘‘Access privileges’’ column is empty for  a  given  object,  it
       means the object has default privileges (that is, its privileges column
       is null). Default privileges always  include  all  privileges  for  the
       owner,  and  may  include  some  privileges for PUBLIC depending on the
       object type, as explained above. The first GRANT or REVOKE on an object
       will  instantiate  the  default  privileges  (producing,  for  example,
       {miriam=arwdxt/miriam}) and then modify them per the specified request.

       Notice  that  the  owner’s implicit grant options are not marked in the
       access privileges display. A * will appear only when grant options have
       been explicitly granted to someone.


       Grant insert privilege to all users on table films:


       Grant all available privileges to user manuel on view kinds:

       GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON kinds TO manuel;

       Note  that while the above will indeed grant all privileges if executed
       by a superuser or the owner of kinds, when executed by someone else  it
       will  only grant those permissions for which the someone else has grant

       Grant membership in role admins to user joe:

       GRANT admins TO joe;


       According  to  the  SQL  standard,  the  PRIVILEGES  key  word  in  ALL
       PRIVILEGES  is  required. The SQL standard does not support setting the
       privileges on more than one object per command.

       PostgreSQL  allows  an  object  owner  to  revoke  his   own   ordinary
       privileges:  for example, a table owner can make the table read-only to
       himself by revoking his own INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE privileges. This
       is  not  possible  according  to  the  SQL standard. The reason is that
       PostgreSQL treats the owner’s privileges as having been granted by  the
       owner  to  himself;  therefore  he  can  revoke  them  too.  In the SQL
       standard, the owner’s privileges  are  granted  by  an  assumed  entity
       ‘‘_SYSTEM’’.  Not  being  ‘‘_SYSTEM’’,  the  owner  cannot revoke these

       The SQL standard  allows  setting  privileges  for  individual  columns
       within a table:

       GRANT privileges
           ON table [ ( column [, ...] ) ] [, ...]
           TO { PUBLIC | username [, ...] } [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

       The  SQL  standard  provides  for  a  USAGE privilege on other kinds of
       objects: character sets, collations, translations, domains.

       Privileges  on  databases,  tablespaces,  schemas,  and  languages  are
       PostgreSQL extensions.


       REVOKE [revoke(7)]