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NAME

       Xserver - X Window System display server

SYNOPSIS

       X [option ...]

DESCRIPTION

       X  is  the  generic name for the X Window System display server.  It is
       frequently a link or a  copy  of  the  appropriate  server  binary  for
       driving the most frequently used server on a given machine.

STARTING THE SERVER

       The  X  server  is  usually  started from the X Display Manager program
       xdm(1) or a similar display manager program.  This utility is run  from
       the  system  boot  files  and takes care of keeping the server running,
       prompting for  usernames  and  passwords,  and  starting  up  the  user
       sessions.

       Installations  that run more than one window system may need to use the
       xinit(1) utility instead of a display manager.  However, xinit is to be
       considered  a tool for building startup scripts and is not intended for
       use by end users.  Site administrators are  strongly  urged  to  use  a
       display manager, or build other interfaces for novice users.

       The  X  server  may  also  be started directly by the user, though this
       method is usually reserved for  testing  and  is  not  recommended  for
       normal  operation.   On  some  platforms,  the  user  must have special
       permission to start the X  server,  often  because  access  to  certain
       devices (e.g. /dev/mouse) is restricted.

       When  the  X server starts up, it typically takes over the display.  If
       you are running on a workstation whose console is the display, you  may
       not be able to log into the console while the server is running.

OPTIONS

       Many  X  servers  have  device-specific  command line options.  See the
       manual pages for the individual servers for more  details;  a  list  of
       server-specific manual pages is provided in the SEE ALSO section below.

       All of the X servers accept the command line options  described  below.
       Some  X  servers  may have alternative ways of providing the parameters
       described here, but the values provided via the  command  line  options
       should override values specified via other mechanisms.

       :displaynumber
               The  X server runs as the given displaynumber, which by default
               is 0.  If multiple X servers are to  run  simultaneously  on  a
               host,  each must have a unique display number.  See the DISPLAY
               NAMES section of the X(7) manual page to learn how  to  specify
               which display number clients should try to use.

       -a number
               sets  pointer  acceleration  (i.e.  the  ratio  of  how much is
               reported to how much the user actually moved the pointer).

       -ac     disables host-based access control mechanisms.  Enables  access
               by  any host, and permits any host to modify the access control
               list.  Use with extreme caution.  This option exists  primarily
               for running test suites remotely.

       -audit level
               sets  the  audit  trail level.  The default level is 1, meaning
               only connection rejections are reported.  Level 2  additionally
               reports  all  successful  connections and disconnects.  Level 4
               enables messages  from  the  SECURITY  extension,  if  present,
               including  generation  and  revocation  of  authorizations  and
               violations of the security policy.  Level 0 turns off the audit
               trail.  Audit lines are sent as standard error output.

       -auth authorization-file
               specifies  a  file which contains a collection of authorization
               records used to authenticate access.  See also the  xdm(1)  and
               Xsecurity(7) manual pages.

       -bs     disables backing store support on all screens.

       -br     sets  the  default  root  window  to solid black instead of the
               standard root weave pattern.

       -c      turns off key-click.

       c volume
               sets key-click volume (allowable range: 0-100).

       -cc class
               sets the visual class for the root  window  of  color  screens.
               The  class  numbers  are  as  specified in the X protocol.  Not
               obeyed by all servers.

       -co filename
               sets  name   of   RGB   color   database.    The   default   is
               /usr/share/X11/rgb.

       -core   causes the server to generate a core dump on fatal errors.

       -deferglyphs whichfonts
               specifies  the  types  of  fonts  for  which  the server should
               attempt to use deferred glyph loading.  whichfonts can  be  all
               (all fonts), none (no fonts), or 16 (16 bit fonts only).

       -dpi resolution
               sets  the  resolution for all screens, in dots per inch.  To be
               used when the server cannot determine the screen  size(s)  from
               the hardware.

       dpms    enables   DPMS   (display  power  management  services),  where
               supported.  The default state  is  platform  and  configuration
               specific.

       -dpms   disables DPMS (display power management services).  The default
               state is platform and configuration specific.

       -extensionextensionName
               disables named extension.   If an  unknown  extension  name  is
               specified, a list of accepted extension names is printed.

       +extensionextensionName
               enables  named  extension.    If  an  unknown extension name is
               specified, a list of accepted extension names is printed.

       -f volume
               sets feep (bell) volume (allowable range: 0-100).

       -fc cursorFont
               sets default cursor font.

       -fn font
               sets the default font.

       -fp fontPath
               sets the search path for fonts.  This path is a comma separated
               list  of  directories  which  the  X  server  searches for font
               databases.  See the FONTS section of this manual page for  more
               information and the default list.

       -help   prints a usage message.

       -I      causes all remaining command line arguments to be ignored.

       -maxbigreqsize size
               sets the maximum big request to size MB.

       -nolisten trans-type
               disables a transport type.  For example, TCP/IP connections can
               be disabled with -nolisten tcp.   This  option  may  be  issued
               multiple  times  to  disable  listening  to different transport
               types.

       -noreset
               prevents a server reset when  the  last  client  connection  is
               closed.   This  overrides  a  previous  -terminate command line
               option.

       -p minutes
               sets screen-saver pattern cycle time in minutes.

       -pn     permits the server to continue running if it fails to establish
               all  of its well-known sockets (connection points for clients),
               but establishes at least one.  This option is set by default.

       -nopn   causes the server to exit if it fails to establish all  of  its
               well-known sockets (connection points for clients).

       -r      turns off auto-repeat.

       r       turns on auto-repeat.

       -s minutes
               sets screen-saver timeout time in minutes.

       -su     disables save under support on all screens.

       -t number
               sets  pointer  acceleration threshold in pixels (i.e. after how
               many pixels pointer acceleration should take effect).

       -terminate
               causes the server to terminate  at  server  reset,  instead  of
               continuing  to run.  This overrides a previous -noreset command
               line option.

       -to seconds
               sets default connection timeout in seconds.

       -tst    disables  all   testing   extensions   (e.g.,   XTEST,   XTrap,
               XTestExtension1, RECORD).

       ttyxx   ignored, for servers started the ancient way (from init).

       v       sets video-off screen-saver preference.

       -v      sets video-on screen-saver preference.

       -wm     forces   the   default  backing-store  of  all  windows  to  be
               WhenMapped.  This is a backdoor way of getting backing-store to
               apply  to  all  windows.  Although all mapped windows will have
               backing store, the backing store attribute  value  reported  by
               the server for a window will be the last value established by a
               client.  If it has never been set by a client, the server  will
               report the default value, NotUseful.  This behavior is required
               by the X protocol,  which  allows  the  server  to  exceed  the
               client’s  backing store expectations but does not provide a way
               to tell the client that it is doing so.

       -wr     sets the default root window to  solid  white  instead  of  the
               standard root weave pattern.

       -x extension
               loads  the  specified  extension  at init.  This is a no-op for
               most implementations.

       [+-]xinerama
               enables(+) or disables(-) the XINERAMA extension.  The  default
               state is platform and configuration specific.

SERVER DEPENDENT OPTIONS

       Some X servers accept the following options:

       -ld kilobytes
               sets the data space limit of the server to the specified number
               of kilobytes.  A value of zero makes the data size as large  as
               possible.   The default value of -1 leaves the data space limit
               unchanged.

       -lf files
               sets the  number-of-open-files  limit  of  the  server  to  the
               specified  number.  A value of zero makes the limit as large as
               possible.  The default value of -1 leaves the limit  unchanged.

       -ls kilobytes
               sets  the  stack  space  limit  of  the server to the specified
               number of kilobytes.  A value of zero makes the stack  size  as
               large  as  possible.   The default value of -1 leaves the stack
               space limit unchanged.

       -logo   turns on the X Window System logo display in the  screen-saver.
               There is currently no way to change this from a client.

       nologo  turns off the X Window System logo display in the screen-saver.
               There is currently no way to change this from a client.

       -render default|mono|gray|color sets the color allocation  policy  that
               will be used by the render extension.

               default selects  the  default  policy  defined  for the display
                       depth of the X server.

               mono    don’t use any color cell.

               gray    use a gray map of 13  color  cells  for  the  X  render
                       extension.

               color   use  a  color  cube of at most 4*4*4 colors (that is 64
                       color cells).

       -dumbSched
               disables smart scheduling on platforms that support  the  smart
               scheduler.

       -schedInterval interval
               sets  the  smart  scheduler’s  scheduling  interval to interval
               milliseconds.

XDMCP OPTIONS

       X servers that support XDMCP have the following  options.   See  the  X
       Display Manager Control Protocol specification for more information.

       -query hostname
               enables   XDMCP  and  sends  Query  packets  to  the  specified
               hostname.

       -broadcast
               enable XDMCP  and  broadcasts  BroadcastQuery  packets  to  the
               network.   The  first responding display manager will be chosen
               for the session.

       -multicast [address [hop count]]
               Enable  XDMCP  and  multicast  BroadcastQuery  packets  to  the
               network.   The  first  responding display manager is chosen for
               the session.  If an address is specified, the multicast is sent
               to  that address.  If no address is specified, the multicast is
               sent to the default XDMCP IPv6 multicast group.  If a hop count
               is  specified,  it  is  used  as  the maximum hop count for the
               multicast.  If no hop count is specified, the multicast is  set
               to  a  maximum  of  1  hop, to prevent the multicast from being
               routed beyond the local network.

       -indirect hostname
               enables XDMCP and send IndirectQuery packets to  the  specified
               hostname.

       -port port-number
               uses  the  specified  port-number for XDMCP packets, instead of
               the default.  This option must be specified before any  -query,
               -broadcast, -multicast, or -indirect options.

       -from local-address
               specifies  the  local  address  to  connect from (useful if the
               connecting host has multiple network interfaces).   The  local-
               address  may  be  expressed  in any form acceptable to the host
               platform’s gethostbyname(3) implementation.

       -once   causes the server to terminate (rather  than  reset)  when  the
               XDMCP session ends.

       -class display-class
               XDMCP  has  an  additional  display  qualifier used in resource
               lookup for display-specific options.   This  option  sets  that
               value,  by  default  it is "MIT-Unspecified" (not a very useful
               value).

       -cookie xdm-auth-bits
               When testing XDM-AUTHENTICATION-1,  a  private  key  is  shared
               between the server and the manager.  This option sets the value
               of that private data (not that it is very private, being on the
               command line!).

       -displayID display-id
               Yet  another  XDMCP specific value, this one allows the display
               manager to identify each display so  that  it  can  locate  the
               shared key.

XKEYBOARD OPTIONS

       X  servers  that  support the XKEYBOARD (a.k.a. "XKB") extension accept
       the following options.  All layout files specified on the command  line
       must  be  located  in  the  XKB  base  directory or a subdirectory, and
       specified as the relative  path  from  the  XKB  base  directory.   The
       default XKB base directory is /usr/lib/X11/xkb.

       [+-]kb  enables(+) or disables(-) the XKEYBOARD extension.

       [+-]accessx [ timeout [ timeout_mask [ feedback [ options_mask ] ] ] ]
               enables(+) or disables(-) AccessX key sequences.

       -xkbdir directory
               base  directory  for keyboard layout files.  This option is not
               available for setuid X servers (i.e., when the X server’s  real
               and effective uids are different).

       -ardelay milliseconds
               sets  the autorepeat delay (length of time in milliseconds that
               a key must be depressed before autorepeat starts).

       -arinterval milliseconds
               sets the autorepeat interval (length of  time  in  milliseconds
               that should elapse between autorepeat-generated keystrokes).

       -xkbmap filename
               loads keyboard description in filename on server startup.

SECURITY EXTENSION OPTIONS

       X  servers  that  support  the  SECURITY extension accept the following
       option:

       -sp filename
               causes the server to attempt to read and interpret filename  as
               a  security  policy  file with the format described below.  The
               file is read at server startup and reread at each server reset.
               The  syntax  of  the  security  policy  file  is  described  in
               SecurityPolicy(5).

NETWORK CONNECTIONS

       The X server  supports  client  connections  via  a  platform-dependent
       subset  of  the  following transport types: TCPIP, Unix Domain sockets,
       DECnet, and several varieties  of  SVR4  local  connections.   See  the
       DISPLAY  NAMES  section of the X(7) manual page to learn how to specify
       which transport type clients should try to use.

GRANTING ACCESS

       The X server implements a platform-dependent subset  of  the  following
       authorization  protocols: MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1, XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1, XDM-
       AUTHORIZATION-2, SUN-DES-1, and MIT-KERBEROS-5.  See  the  Xsecurity(7)
       manual page for information on the operation of these protocols.

       Authorization  data  required  by  the above protocols is passed to the
       server in a private file named with  the  -auth  command  line  option.
       Each  time  the  server is about to accept the first connection after a
       reset (or when the server is starting), it reads this  file.   If  this
       file  contains  any  authorization  records,  the  local  host  is  not
       automatically allowed access to the server, and only clients which send
       one  of  the  authorization  records  contained  in  the  file  in  the
       connection setup information will  be  allowed  access.   See  the  Xau
       manual  page  for a description of the binary format of this file.  See
       xauth(1) for maintenance of this file, and distribution of its contents
       to remote hosts.

       The  X  server  also uses a host-based access control list for deciding
       whether or not to accept  connections  from  clients  on  a  particular
       machine.   If no other authorization mechanism is being used, this list
       initially consists of the host on which the server is running  as  well
       as  any  machines  listed  in  the  file  /etc/Xn.hosts, where n is the
       display number of the server.  Each line of  the  file  should  contain
       either  an  Internet  hostname  (e.g.  expo.lcs.mit.edu)  or  a  DECnet
       hostname in double colon format (e.g. hydra::) or a  complete  name  in
       the format family:name as described in the xhost(1) manual page.  There
       should be no leading or trailing spaces on any lines.  For example:

               joesworkstation
               corporate.company.com
               star::
               inet:bigcpu
               local:

       Users can add or remove hosts from this  list  and  enable  or  disable
       access  control  using  the  xhost command from the same machine as the
       server.

       If the X FireWall Proxy (xfwp) is  being  used  without  a  sitepolicy,
       host-based  authorization  must  be turned on for clients to be able to
       connect to the X server via  the  xfwp.   If  xfwp  is  run  without  a
       configuration  file and thus no sitepolicy is defined, if xfwp is using
       an X server  where  xhost  +  has  been  run  to  turn  off  host-based
       authorization  checks,  when a client tries to connect to this X server
       via xfwp, the X server will deny the connection.  See xfwp(1) for  more
       information about this proxy.

       The  X  protocol  intrinsically  does  not  have  any  notion of window
       operation permissions or place any restrictions on what  a  client  can
       do;  if  a  program  can  connect  to a display, it has full run of the
       screen.  X servers that support  the  SECURITY  extension  fare  better
       because  clients can be designated untrusted via the authorization they
       use to connect; see the xauth(1) manual page for details.  Restrictions
       are imposed on untrusted clients that curtail the mischief they can do.
       See the SECURITY extension specification for a complete list  of  these
       restrictions.

       Sites  that  have better authentication and authorization systems might
       wish to make use of the hooks  in  the  libraries  and  the  server  to
       provide additional security models.

SIGNALS

       The X server attaches special meaning to the following signals:

       SIGHUP  This   signal   causes   the   server  to  close  all  existing
               connections, free all resources, and restore all defaults.   It
               is  sent  by  the display manager whenever the main user’s main
               application (usually an xterm or window manager) exits to force
               the server to clean up and prepare for the next user.

       SIGTERM This signal causes the server to exit cleanly.

       SIGUSR1 This signal is used quite differently from either of the above.
               When the server starts, it checks to see if  it  has  inherited
               SIGUSR1 as SIG_IGN instead of the usual SIG_DFL.  In this case,
               the server sends a SIGUSR1 to its parent process after  it  has
               set  up  the various connection schemes.  Xdm uses this feature
               to recognize when connecting to the server is possible.

FONTS

       The X server  can  obtain  fonts  from  directories  and/or  from  font
       servers.   The  list  of directories and font servers the X server uses
       when trying to open a font is controlled by the font path.

       The     default     font     path     is     /usr/share/fonts/X11/misc,
       /usr/share/fonts/X11/cyrillic,   /usr/share/fonts/X11/100dpi/:unscaled,
       /usr/share/fonts/X11/75dpi/:unscaled,       /usr/share/fonts/X11/Type1,
       /usr/share/fonts/X11/100dpi,                /usr/share/fonts/X11/75dpi,
       /var/lib/defoma/x-ttcidfont-conf.d/dirs/TrueType .

       The font path can be set with the -fp option or by  xset(1)  after  the
       server has started.

FILES

       /etc/Xn.hosts                 Initial  access  control list for display
                                     number n

       /usr/lib/X11/fonts/misc,/usr/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi,/usr/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi
                                     Bitmap font directories

       /usr/lib/X11/fonts/TTF,/usr/lib/X11/fonts/Type1
                                     Outline font directories

       /usr/share/X11/rgb.txt        Color database

       /tmp/.X11-unix/Xn             Unix domain socket for display number n

       /tmp/rcXn                     Kerberos  5  replay  cache  for   display
                                     number n

       /usr/adm/Xnmsgs               Error  log  file  for display number n if
                                     run from init(8)

       /usr/lib/X11/xdm/xdm-errors   Default error log file if the  server  is
                                     run from xdm(1)

       /usr/lib/xserver/SecurityPolicy
                                     Default X server security policy

SEE ALSO

       General information: X(7)

       Protocols:  X  Window  System  Protocol, The X Font Service Protocol, X
       Display Manager Control Protocol

       Fonts: bdftopcf(1), mkfontdir(1), mkfontscale(1), xfs(1),  xlsfonts(1),
       xfontsel(1), xfd(1), X Logical Font Description Conventions

       Security:  Xsecurity(7),  xauth(1),  Xau(1), xdm(1), xhost(1), xfwp(1),
       SecurityPolicy(5), Security Extension Specification

       Starting the server: xdm(1), xinit(1)

       Controlling the server once started: xset(1), xsetroot(1), xhost(1)

       Server-specific  man  pages:  Xorg(1),  Xdmx(1),   Xnest(1),   Xvfb(1),
       XDarwin(1), XWin(1).

       Server  internal documentation: Definition of the Porting Layer for the
       X v11 Sample Server

AUTHORS

       The sample server was originally written by Susan Angebranndt,  Raymond
       Drewry,  Philip  Karlton,  and  Todd  Newman,  from  Digital  Equipment
       Corporation, with support  from  a  large  cast.   It  has  since  been
       extensively  rewritten  by  Keith  Packard and Bob Scheifler, from MIT.
       Dave Wiggins took over post-R5 and made substantial improvements.