Provided by: findutils_4.2.32-1ubuntu2_i386 bug

NAME

       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS

       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [path...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION

       This  manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find searches
       the directory tree rooted at each given file  name  by  evaluating  the
       given  expression  from  left  to  right,  according  to  the  rules of
       precedence (see section OPERATORS), until the  outcome  is  known  (the
       left  hand  side  is  false  for and operations, true for or), at which
       point find moves on to the next file name.

       If you are using find in an environment  where  security  is  important
       (for example if you are using it to seach directories that are writable
       by other users), you should read the "Security Considerations"  chapter
       of the findutils documentation, which is called Finding Files and comes
       with findutils.   That document also includes a  lot  more  detail  and
       discussion  than  this  manual  page,  so you may find it a more useful
       source of information.

OPTIONS

       The ‘-H’, ‘-L’ and ‘-P’  options  control  the  treatment  of  symbolic
       links.  Command-line arguments following these are taken to be names of
       files or directories to be examined, up  to  the  first  argument  that
       begins  with  ‘-’,  ‘(’,  ‘)’,  ‘,’,  or  ‘!’.   That  argument and any
       following arguments are taken to be the expression describing  what  is
       to  be  searched  for.  If no paths are given, the current directory is
       used.  If no expression is given, the expression ‘-print’ is used  (but
       you should probably consider using ‘-print0’ instead, anyway).

       This  manual  page  talks  about  ‘options’ within the expression list.
       These  options  control  the  behaviour  of  find  but  are   specified
       immediately  after  the last path name.  The three ‘real’ options ‘-H’,
       ‘-L’ and ‘-P’ must appear before the first path name, if at all.

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This  is  the  default  behaviour.
              When find examines or prints information a file, and the file is
              a symbolic link, the information used shall be  taken  from  the
              properties of the symbolic link itself.

       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find examines or prints information
              about files, the  information  used  shall  be  taken  from  the
              properties  of  the  file to which the link points, not from the
              link itself (unless it is a broken  symbolic  link  or  find  is
              unable  to  examine  the file to which the link points).  Use of
              this option implies -noleaf.  If you later use  the  -P  option,
              -noleaf  will  still  be in effect.  If -L is in effect and find
              discovers a symbolic link to a subdirectory during  its  search,
              the  subdirectory  pointed  to  by  the  symbolic  link  will be
              searched.

              When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will always
              match  against  the type of the file that a symbolic link points
              to rather than the link itself  (unless  the  symbolic  link  is
              broken).   Using  -L  causes  the  -lname and -ilname predicates
              always to return false.

       -H     Do not  follow  symbolic  links,  except  while  processing  the
              command   line   arguments.    When   find  examines  or  prints
              information about files, the information  used  shall  be  taken
              from  the  properties  of  the  symbolic link itself.   The only
              exception to this behaviour is when  a  file  specified  on  the
              command  line  is a symbolic link, and the link can be resolved.
              For that situation, the information used is taken from  whatever
              the  link  points  to  (that  is,  the  link  is followed).  The
              information about the link itself is used as a fallback  if  the
              file  pointed to by the symbolic link cannot be examined.  If -H
              is in effect and one of the paths specified on the command  line
              is  a  symbolic  link  to  a  directory,  the  contents  of that
              directory will be examined (though of course -maxdepth  0  would
              prevent this).

       If  more  than  one  of  -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the
       others; the last one appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since
       it  is  the default, the -P option should be considered to be in effect
       unless either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU find frequently stats files during the processing  of  the  command
       line itself, before any searching has begun.  These options also affect
       how those arguments are processed.  Specifically, there are a number of
       tests  that  compare files listed on the command line against a file we
       are currently considering.  In each case, the  file  specified  on  the
       command  line  will  have been examined and some of its properties will
       have been saved.  If the named file is in fact a symbolic link, and the
       -P  option  is  in effect (or if neither -H nor -L were specified), the
       information used for the comparison will be taken from  the  properties
       of  the symbolic link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from the properties
       of the file the link points to.  If find cannot follow  the  link  (for
       example  because it has insufficient privileges or the link points to a
       nonexistent file) the properties of the link itself will be used.

       When the -H or -L options are in effect, any symbolic links  listed  as
       the  argument of -newer will be dereferenced, and the timestamp will be
       taken from the file to  which  the  symbolic  link  points.   The  same
       consideration applies to -anewer and -cnewer.

       The  -follow  option has a similar effect to -L, though it takes effect
       at the point where it appears (that is, if -L is not used  but  -follow
       is, any symbolic links appearing after -follow on the command line will
       be dereferenced, and those before it will not).

EXPRESSIONS

       The expression is made up of options (which  affect  overall  operation
       rather than the processing of a specific file, and always return true),
       tests (which return a true or false value),  and  actions  (which  have
       side  effects  and  return  a  true  or  false value), all separated by
       operators.  -and is assumed where the operator is omitted.

       If the expression contains no actions  other  than  -prune,  -print  is
       performed on all files for which the expression is true.

   OPTIONS
       All  options always return true.  Except for -follow and -daystart, the
       options affect all tests, including tests specified before the  option.
       This  is  because  the  options  are processed when the command line is
       parsed, while the tests don’t do anything  until  files  are  examined.
       The  -follow  and  -daystart options are different in this respect, and
       have an effect only on tests which appear later in  the  command  line.
       Therefore,  for  clarity,  it is best to place them at the beginning of
       the expression.  A warning is issued if you don’t do this.

       -daystart
              Measure times (for -amin,  -atime,  -cmin,  -ctime,  -mmin,  and
              -mtime)  from  the  beginning of today rather than from 24 hours
              ago.  This option only affects tests which appear later  on  the
              command line.

       -depth Process each directory’s contents before the directory itself.

       -d     A  synonym  for  -depth, for compatibility with FreeBSD, NetBSD,
              MacOS X and OpenBSD.

       -follow
              Deprecated; use the -L  option  instead.   Dereference  symbolic
              links.   Implies -noleaf.  The -follow option affects only those
              tests which appear after it on the command line.  Unless the  -H
              or  -L  option  has  been specified, the position of the -follow
              option changes the behaviour of the -newer predicate; any  files
              listed  as  the  argument of -newer will be dereferenced if they
              are symbolic links.  The same consideration applies  to  -anewer
              and  -cnewer.   Similarly, the -type predicate will always match
              against the type of the file that  a  symbolic  link  points  to
              rather  than  the  link itself.  Using -follow causes the -lname
              and -ilname predicates always to return false.

       -help, --help
              Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.

       -ignore_readdir_race
              Normally, find will emit an error message when it fails to  stat
              a  file.   If you give this option and a file is deleted between
              the time find reads the name of the file from the directory  and
              the  time  it  tries  to stat the file, no error message will be
              issued.    This also applies to files or directories whose names
              are  given on the command line.  This option takes effect at the
              time the command line is  read,  which  means  that  you  cannot
              search  one  part of the filesystem with this option on and part
              of it with this option off (if you need to  do  that,  you  will
              need to issue two find commands instead, one with the option and
              one without it).

       -maxdepth levels
              Descend at  most  levels  (a  non-negative  integer)  levels  of
              directories  below  the  command  line arguments.  ‘-maxdepth 0’
              means only apply the tests  and  actions  to  the  command  line
              arguments.

       -mindepth levels
              Do  not apply any tests or actions at levels less than levels (a
              non-negative integer).  ‘-mindepth 1’ means  process  all  files
              except the command line arguments.

       -mount Don’t  descend  directories  on other filesystems.  An alternate
              name for -xdev, for compatibility with some  other  versions  of
              find.

       -noignore_readdir_race
              Turns off the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.

       -noleaf
              Do  not  optimize  by  assuming that directories contain 2 fewer
              subdirectories than their  hard  link  count.   This  option  is
              needed  when  searching  filesystems that do not follow the Unix
              directory-link convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS  filesystems
              or  AFS  volume  mount  points.  Each directory on a normal Unix
              filesystem has at least 2 hard  links:  its  name  and  its  ‘.’
              entry.   Additionally,  its  subdirectories (if any) each have a
              ‘..’  entry linked to that directory.  When find is examining  a
              directory,  after it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than the
              directory’s link count, it knows that the rest of the entries in
              the directory are non-directories (‘leaf’ files in the directory
              tree).  If only the files’ names need to be examined,  there  is
              no  need  to  stat  them;  this  gives a significant increase in
              search speed.

       -regextype type
              Changes the regular expression syntax understood by  -regex  and
              -iregex tests which occur later on the command line.  Currently-
              implemented types are emacs (this is  the  default),  posix-awk,
              posix-basic, posix-egrep and posix-extended.

       -version, --version
              Print the find version number and exit.

       -warn, -nowarn
              Turn  warning  messages on or off.  These warnings apply only to
              the command line usage, not to any conditions  that  find  might
              encounter  when  it searches directories.  The default behaviour
              corresponds to -warn if standard input is a tty, and to  -nowarn
              otherwise.

       -xdev  Don’t descend directories on other filesystems.

   TESTS
       Numeric arguments can be specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
              File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -anewer file
              File was last accessed more recently than file was modified.  If
              file is a symbolic link and the -H option or the -L option is in
              effect, the access time of the file it points to is always used.

       -atime n
              File was last accessed n*24 hours ago.  When  find  figures  out
              how  many  24-hour  periods  ago the file was last accessed, any
              fractional part is ignored, so to match -atime +1, a file has to
              have been accessed at least two days ago.

       -cmin n
              File’s status was last changed n minutes ago.

       -cnewer file
              File’s  status  was  last  changed  more  recently than file was
              modified.  If file is a symbolic link and the -H option  or  the
              -L  option  is  in effect, the status-change time of the file it
              points to is always used.

       -ctime n
              File’s status was last changed n*24 hours ago.  See the comments
              for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
              of file status change times.

       -empty File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.

       -false Always false.

       -fstype type
              File is on a filesystem of  type  type.   The  valid  filesystem
              types  vary among different versions of Unix; an incomplete list
              of filesystem types that are accepted on some version of Unix or
              another  is:  ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp, mfs, S51K, S52K.  You can
              use -printf with the %F directive  to  see  the  types  of  your
              filesystems.

       -gid n File’s numeric group ID is n.

       -group gname
              File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
              Like  -lname,  but  the  match  is  case insensitive.  If the -L
              option or the -follow option is in  effect,  this  test  returns
              false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -iname pattern
              Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the
              patterns ‘fo*’ and ‘F??’ match  the  file  names  ‘Foo’,  ‘FOO’,
              ‘foo’,   ‘fOo’,   etc.    In  these  patterns,  unlike  filename
              expansion by the shell, an initial ’.’ can be  matched  by  ’*’.
              That is, find -name *bar will match the file ‘.foobar’.   Please
              note that you should quote  patterns  as  a  matter  of  course,
              otherwise the shell will expand any wildcard characters in them.

       -inum n
              File has inode number n.  It  is  normally  easier  to  use  the
              -samefile test instead.

       -ipath pattern
              Behaves  in  the  same  way  as  -iwholename.   This  option  is
              deprecated, so please do not use it.

       -iregex pattern
              Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iwholename pattern
              Like -wholename, but the match is case insensitive.

       -links n
              File has n links.

       -lname pattern
              File is a symbolic  link  whose  contents  match  shell  pattern
              pattern.   The metacharacters do not treat ‘/’ or ‘.’ specially.
              If the -L option or the -follow option is in effect,  this  test
              returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -mmin n
              File’s data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
              File’s  data was last modified n*24 hours ago.  See the comments
              for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
              of file modification times.

       -name pattern
              Base  of  file  name  (the  path  with  the  leading directories
              removed) matches  shell  pattern  pattern.   The  metacharacters
              (‘*’,  ‘?’,  and ‘[]’) match a ‘.’ at the start of the base name
              (this is a change  in  findutils-4.2.2;  see  section  STANDARDS
              CONFORMANCE  below).   To ignore a directory and the files under
              it, use -prune; see an example in the description of -wholename.
              Braces  are  not  recognised  as being special, despite the fact
              that some shells including Bash  imbue  braces  with  a  special
              meaning  in  shell patterns.  The filename matching is performed
              with the use of the fnmatch(3) library function.   Don’t  forget
              to  enclose  the  pattern  in quotes in order to protect it from
              expansion by the shell.

       -newer file
              File was modified  more  recently  than  file.   If  file  is  a
              symbolic  link  and the -H option or the -L option is in effect,
              the modification time of the file it points to is always used.

       -nouser
              No user corresponds to file’s numeric user ID.

       -nogroup
              No group corresponds to file’s numeric group ID.

       -path pattern
              See -wholename.   The predicate -path is also supported by HP-UX
              find.

       -perm mode
              File’s  permission  bits  are  exactly mode (octal or symbolic).
              Since an exact match is required, if you want to use  this  form
              for  symbolic  modes,  you  may have to specify a rather complex
              mode string.  For example ’-perm  g=w’  will  only  match  files
              which  have  mode  0020  (that  is,  ones  for which group write
              permission is the only permission set).  It is more likely  that
              you  will  want  to use the ’/’ or ’-’ forms, for example ’-perm
              -g=w’, which matches any file with group write permission.   See
              the EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.

       -perm -mode
              All  of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic
              modes are accepted in this form, and this is usually the way  in
              which  would want to use them.  You must specify ’u’, ’g’ or ’o’
              if you use a symbolic mode.   See the EXAMPLES section for  some
              illustrative examples.

       -perm /mode
              Any  of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic
              modes are accepted in this form.  You must specify ’u’,  ’g’  or
              ’o’  if  you  use a symbolic mode.  See the EXAMPLES section for
              some illustrative examples.  If no permission bits in  mode  are
              set,  this  test  currently  matches no files.  However, it will
              soon be changed to match any  file  (the  idea  is  to  be  more
              consistent with the behaviour of perm -000).

       -perm +mode
              Deprecated,  old  way  of  searching  for  files with any of the
              permission bits  in  mode  set.   You  should  use  -perm  /mode
              instead.  Trying  to use the ’+’ syntax with symbolic modes will
              yield surprising  results.   For  example,  ’+u+x’  is  a  valid
              symbolic   mode  (equivalent  to  +u,+x,  i.e.  0111)  and  will
              therefore not be evaluated as -perm +mode  but  instead  as  the
              exact  mode  specifier  -perm  mode and so it matches files with
              exact permissions 0111 instead of files  with  any  execute  bit
              set.   If you found this paragraph confusing, you’re not alone -
              just use -perm /mode.  This form of the -perm test is deprecated
              because the POSIX specification requires the interpretation of a
              leading ’+’ as being part of a symbolic mode, and so we switched
              to using ’/’ instead.

       -regex pattern
              File  name  matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match
              on the whole path, not a search.  For example, to match  a  file
              named ‘./fubar3’, you can use the regular expression ‘.*bar.’ or
              ‘.*b.*3’, but not ‘f.*r3’.  The regular  expressions  understood
              by  find  are by default Emacs Regular Expressions, but this can
              be changed with the -regextype option.

       -samefile name
              File refers to the same inode as name.   When -L is  in  effect,
              this can include symbolic links.

       -size n[cwbkMG]
              File uses n units of space.  The following suffixes can be used:

              ‘b’    for 512-byte blocks (this is the default if no suffix  is
                     used)

              ‘c’    for bytes

              ‘w’    for two-byte words

              ‘k’    for Kilobytes (units of 1024 bytes)

              ‘M’    for Megabytes (units of 1048576 bytes)

              ‘G’    for Gigabytes (units of 1073741824 bytes)

              The  size  does  not  count  indirect  blocks, but it does count
              blocks in sparse files that are not actually allocated.  Bear in
              mind  that the ‘%k’ and ‘%b’ format specifiers of -printf handle
              sparse  files  differently.   The  ‘b’  suffix  always   denotes
              512-byte  blocks and never 1 Kilobyte blocks, which is different
              to the behaviour of -ls.

       -true  Always true.

       -type c
              File is of type c:

              b      block (buffered) special

              c      character (unbuffered) special

              d      directory

              p      named pipe (FIFO)

              f      regular file

              l      symbolic link; this is never true if the -L option or the
                     -follow  option is in effect, unless the symbolic link is
                     broken.  If you want to search for symbolic links when -L
                     is in effect, use -xtype.

              s      socket

              D      door (Solaris)

       -uid n File’s numeric user ID is n.

       -used n
              File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.

       -user uname
              File is owned by user uname (numeric user ID allowed).

       -wholename pattern
              File name matches shell pattern pattern.  The metacharacters  do
              not treat ‘/’ or ‘.’ specially; so, for example,
                        find . -wholename ’./sr*sc’
              will  print an entry for a directory called ’./src/misc’ (if one
              exists).  To ignore a whole directory tree,  use  -prune  rather
              than  checking every file in the tree.  For example, to skip the
              directory ‘src/emacs’ and all files and  directories  under  it,
              and  print the names of the other files found, do something like
              this:
                        find . -wholename ’./src/emacs’ -prune -o -print

       -xtype c
              The same as -type unless the  file  is  a  symbolic  link.   For
              symbolic  links:  if  the -H or -P option was specified, true if
              the file is a link to a file of type c; if  the  -L  option  has
              been  given,  true  if  c  is ‘l’.  In other words, for symbolic
              links, -xtype checks the type of the file that  -type  does  not
              check.

   ACTIONS
       -delete
              Delete files; true if removal succeeded.  If the removal failed,
              an error message is issued.  Use of  this  action  automatically
              turns on the ’-depth’ option.

       -exec command ;
              Execute  command;  true  if 0 status is returned.  All following
              arguments to find are taken to be arguments to the command until
              an  argument  consisting of ‘;’ is encountered.  The string ‘{}’
              is replaced by the current file name being processed  everywhere
              it occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in arguments
              where it is alone, as in some versions of find.  Both  of  these
              constructions might need to be escaped (with a ‘\’) or quoted to
              protect them from expansion by  the  shell.   See  the  EXAMPLES
              section  for  examples  of  the  use of the ‘-exec’ option.  The
              specified command is  run  once  for  each  matched  file.   The
              command  is  executed  in  the  starting  directory.   There are
              unavoidable security  problems  surrounding  use  of  the  -exec
              option; you should use the -execdir option instead.

       -exec command {} +
              This  variant  of the -exec option runs the specified command on
              the selected files, but the command line is built  by  appending
              each  selected  file  name  at  the  end;  the  total  number of
              invocations of the command will be much less than the number  of
              matched  files.   The command line is built in much the same way
              that xargs builds its command lines.  Only one instance of  ’{}’
              is  allowed  within the command.  The command is executed in the
              starting directory.

       -execdir command ;

       -execdir command {} +
              Like  -exec,  but  the  specified  command  is  run   from   the
              subdirectory  containing the matched file, which is not normally
              the directory in which you  started  find.   This  a  much  more
              secure   method   for  invoking  commands,  as  it  avoids  race
              conditions during resolution of the paths to the matched  files.
              As  with the -exec option, the ’+’ form of -execdir will build a
              command line to process more than  one  matched  file,  but  any
              given  invocation  of command will only list files that exist in
              the same subdirectory.  If you use this option, you must  ensure
              that  your  $PATH  environment  variable  does not reference the
              current directory; otherwise, an attacker can run  any  commands
              they  like by leaving an appropriately-named file in a directory
              in which you will run -execdir.

       -fls file
              True; like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output  file
              is  always created, even if the predicate is never matched.  See
              the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how  unusual
              characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint file
              True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not
              exist when find is run, it is created; if it does exist,  it  is
              truncated.   The  file names ‘‘/dev/stdout’’ and ‘‘/dev/stderr’’
              are handled specially; they refer to  the  standard  output  and
              standard  error output, respectively.  The output file is always
              created, even if  the  predicate  is  never  matched.   See  the
              UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section  for  information  about how unusual
              characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint0 file
              True; like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.   The  output
              file  is always created, even if the predicate is never matched.
              See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES  section  for  information  about  how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprintf file format
              True;  like  -printf but write to file like -fprint.  The output
              file is always created, even if the predicate is never  matched.
              See  the  UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section  for information about how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ok command ;
              Like -exec but ask the user first (on the  standard  input);  if
              the  response  does  not  start  with ‘y’ or ‘Y’, do not run the
              command, and return false.  If the command is run, its  standard
              input is redirected from /dev/null.

       -print True;  print the full file name on the standard output, followed
              by a newline.   If you  are  piping  the  output  of  find  into
              another  program  and there is the faintest possibility that the
              files which you are searching for might contain a newline,  then
              you should seriously consider using the ‘-print0’ option instead
              of ‘-print’.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for  information
              about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -okdir command ;
              Like -execdir but ask the user first (on the standard input); if
              the response does not start with ‘y’ or  ‘Y’,  do  not  run  the
              command,  and return false.  If the command is run, its standard
              input is redirected from /dev/null.

       -print0
              True; print the full file name on the standard output,  followed
              by  a  null  character  (instead  of  the newline character that
              ‘-print’ uses).  This allows file names that contain newlines or
              other  types  of  white  space  to  be  correctly interpreted by
              programs that process the find output.  This option  corresponds
              to the ‘-0’ option of xargs.

       -printf format
              True;  print  format  on  the  standard output, interpreting ‘\’
              escapes and ‘%’ directives.  Field widths and precisions can  be
              specified  as  with  the  ‘printf’ C function.  Please note that
              many of the fields are printed as %s rather than  %d,  and  this
              may  mean  that flags don’t work as you might expect.  This also
              means that the ‘-’ flag does work (it forces fields to be  left-
              aligned).   Unlike -print, -printf does not add a newline at the
              end of the string.  The escapes and directives are:

              \a     Alarm bell.

              \b     Backspace.

              \c     Stop printing from this format immediately and flush  the
                     output.

              \f     Form feed.

              \n     Newline.

              \r     Carriage return.

              \t     Horizontal tab.

              \v     Vertical tab.

              \      ASCII NUL.

              \\     A literal backslash (‘\’).

              \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

              A ‘\’ character followed by any other character is treated as an
              ordinary character, so they both are printed.

              %%     A literal percent sign.

              %a     File’s last access time in the format returned by  the  C
                     ‘ctime’ function.

              %Ak    File’s  last  access  time  in the format specified by k,
                     which is either ‘@’ or a directive for the  C  ‘strftime’
                     function.   The  possible  values for k are listed below;
                     some of them might not be available on all  systems,  due
                     to differences in ‘strftime’ between systems.

                      @      seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT.

                     Time fields:

                      H      hour (00..23)

                      I      hour (01..12)

                      k      hour ( 0..23)

                      l      hour ( 1..12)

                      M      minute (00..59)

                      p      locale’s AM or PM

                      r      time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

                      S      second (00..61)

                      T      time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)

                      +      Date  and  time,  separated  by  ’+’, for example
                             ‘2004-04-28+22:22:05’.  The time is given in  the
                             current   timezone  (which  may  be  affected  by
                             setting the TZ environment variable).  This is  a
                             GNU extension.

                      X      locale’s time representation (H:M:S)

                      Z      time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone
                             is determinable

                     Date fields:

                      a      locale’s abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

                      A      locale’s  full  weekday  name,  variable   length
                             (Sunday..Saturday)

                      b      locale’s abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

                      B      locale’s   full   month   name,  variable  length
                             (January..December)

                      c      locale’s date and time (Sat Nov 04  12:02:33  EST
                             1989)

                      d      day of month (01..31)

                      D      date (mm/dd/yy)

                      h      same as b

                      j      day of year (001..366)

                      m      month (01..12)

                      U      week  number  of year with Sunday as first day of
                             week (00..53)

                      w      day of week (0..6)

                      W      week number of year with Monday as first  day  of
                             week (00..53)

                      x      locale’s date representation (mm/dd/yy)

                      y      last two digits of year (00..99)

                      Y      year (1970...)

              %b     The  amount  of disk space used for this file in 512-byte
                     blocks. Since disk space is allocated in multiples of the
                     filesystem  block  size  this  is  usually  greater  than
                     %s/512, but it can also be  smaller  if  the  file  is  a
                     sparse file.

              %c     File’s  last status change time in the format returned by
                     the C ‘ctime’ function.

              %Ck    File’s last status change time in the format specified by
                     k, which is the same as for %A.

              %d     File’s depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a
                     command line argument.

              %D     The device number on which the file  exists  (the  st_dev
                     field of struct stat), in decimal.

              %f     File’s  name  with  any leading directories removed (only
                     the last element).

              %F     Type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can  be
                     used for -fstype.

              %g     File’s  group  name, or numeric group ID if the group has
                     no name.

              %G     File’s numeric group ID.

              %h     Leading directories of file’s  name  (all  but  the  last
                     element).  If the file name contains no slashes (since it
                     is in the current directory) the %h specifier expands  to
                     ".".

              %H     Command line argument under which file was found.

              %i     File’s inode number (in decimal).

              %k     The amount of disk space used for this file in 1K blocks.
                     Since  disk  space  is  allocated  in  multiples  of  the
                     filesystem  block  size  this  is  usually  greater  than
                     %s/1024, but it can also be smaller  if  the  file  is  a
                     sparse file.

              %l     Object  of  symbolic  link (empty string if file is not a
                     symbolic link).

              %m     File’s permission bits (in octal).  This option uses  the
                     ’traditional’  numbers  which  most  Unix implementations
                     use,  but  if  your  particular  implementation  uses  an
                     unusual  ordering of octal permissions bits, you will see
                     a difference between the actual value of the file’s  mode
                     and  the output of %m.   Normally you will want to have a
                     leading zero on this number, and to do this,  you  should
                     use the # flag (as in, for example, ’%#m’).

              %M     File’s  permissions  (in symbolic form, as for ls).  This
                     directive is supported in findutils 4.2.5 and later.

              %n     Number of hard links to file.

              %p     File’s name.

              %P     File’s name with the name of the  command  line  argument
                     under which it was found removed.

              %s     File’s size in bytes.

              %t     File’s  last  modification time in the format returned by
                     the C ‘ctime’ function.

              %Tk    File’s last modification time in the format specified  by
                     k, which is the same as for %A.

              %u     File’s  user  name, or numeric user ID if the user has no
                     name.

              %U     File’s numeric user ID.

              %y     File’s type (like in ls -l),  U=unknown  type  (shouldn’t
                     happen)

              %Y     File’s  type  (like  %y),  plus  follow symlinks: L=loop,
                     N=nonexistent

              A ‘%’ character followed by any other  character  is  discarded,
              but  the  other  character  is  printed  (don’t rely on this, as
              further format characters may be introduced).  A ‘%’ at the  end
              of the format argument causes undefined behaviour since there is
              no following character.  In some locales, it may hide your  door
              keys,  while  in  others  it  may remove the final page from the
              novel you are reading.

              The %m and %d directives support the # , 0 and + flags, but  the
              other  directives  do  not, even if they print numbers.  Numeric
              directives that do not support these flags include G, U, b, D, k
              and  n.   The  ‘-’  format  flag  is  supported  and changes the
              alignment of a field from right-justified (which is the default)
              to left-justified.

              See  the  UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section  for information about how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -prune If -depth is not given, true; if the file is a directory, do not
              descend into it.
              If -depth is given, false; no effect.

       -quit  Exit  immediately.  No child processes will be left running, but
              no more paths specified on the command line will  be  processed.
              For example, find /tmp/foo /tmp/bar -print -quit will print only
              /tmp/foo.  Any command lines  which  have  been  built  up  with
              -execdir  ... {} + will be invoked before find exits.   The exit
              status may or may not be zero, depending on whether an error has
              already occurred.

       -ls    True; list current file in ‘ls -dils’ format on standard output.
              The block counts  are  of  1K  blocks,  unless  the  environment
              variable  POSIXLY_CORRECT  is set, in which case 512-byte blocks
              are used.  See the UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section  for  information
              about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

   UNUSUAL FILENAMES
       Many  of  the  actions  of find result in the printing of data which is
       under the control of other users.  This  includes  file  names,  sizes,
       modification  times  and  so forth.  File names are a potential problem
       since they can contain any character  except  ’\0’  and  ’/’.   Unusual
       characters in file names can do unexpected and often undesirable things
       to your terminal (for example, changing the settings of  your  function
       keys on some terminals).  Unusual characters are handled differently by
       various actions, as described below.

       -print0, -fprint0
              Always print the exact filename, unchanged, even if  the  output
              is going to a terminal.

       -ls, -fls
              Unusual  characters are always escaped.  White space, backslash,
              and double quote characters are printed using  C-style  escaping
              (for  example ’\f’, ’\"’).  Other unusual characters are printed
              using an octal escape.  Other printable characters (for -ls  and
              -fls  these  are  the characters between octal 041 and 0176) are
              printed as-is.

       -printf, -fprintf
              If the output is not going to a terminal, it is  printed  as-is.
              Otherwise, the result depends on which directive is in use.  The
              directives %D, %F, %g, %G, %H, %Y, and %y expand to values which
              are  not  under control of files’ owners, and so are printed as-
              is.  The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s,  %t,
              %u  and  %U  have  values  which are under the control of files’
              owners but which cannot be used to send arbitrary  data  to  the
              terminal,  and  so  these are printed as-is.  The directives %f,
              %h, %l, %p and %P are quoted.  This quoting is performed in  the
              same  way as for GNU ls.  This is not the same quoting mechanism
              as the one used for  -ls and -fls.   If you are able  to  decide
              what  format  to  use for the output of find then it is normally
              better to use ’\0’ as a terminator than to use newline, as  file
              names can contain white space and newline characters.

       -print, -fprint
              Quoting  is handled in the same way as for -printf and -fprintf.
              If you are using find in a script or in a  situation  where  the
              matched  files  might  have arbitrary names, you should consider
              using -print0 instead of -print.

       The -ok and -okdir actions print the current filename as-is.  This  may
       change in a future release.

   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
              Force precedence.

       ! expr True if expr is false.

       -not expr
              Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 expr2
              Two  expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an implied
              "and"; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is false.

       expr1 -a expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 -o expr2
              Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
              Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 , expr2
              List; both expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.  The  value  of
              expr1  is  discarded;  the  value  of  the  list is the value of
              expr2.      The comma operator can be useful for  searching  for
              several  different types of thing, but traversing the filesystem
              hierarchy only once.   The -fprintf action can be used  to  list
              the various matched items into several different output files.

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE

       The  following  options  are  specified in the POSIX standard (IEEE Std
       1003.1, 2003 Edition):

       -H     This option is supported.

       -L     This option is supported.

       -name  This option is supported, but POSIX conformance depends  on  the
              POSIX  conformance  of the system’s fnmatch(3) library function.
              As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (’*’.  ’?’  or  ’[]’
              for  example)  will  match  a  leading  ’.’,  because  IEEE PASC
              interpretation 126  requires  this.    This  is  a  change  from
              previous versions of findutils.

       -type  Supported.    POSIX  specifies  ‘b’, ‘c’, ‘d’, ‘l’, ‘p’, ‘f’ and
              ‘s’.  GNU find also supports ‘D’, representing a Door, where the
              OS provides these.

       -ok    Supported.    Interpretation  of  the  response  is  not locale-
              dependent (see ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES).

       -newer Supported.  If the file specified is  a  symbolic  link,  it  is
              always  dereferenced.  This is a change from previous behaviour,
              which used to take the relevant time from the symbolic link; see
              the HISTORY section below.

       Other predicates
              The predicates ‘-atime’, ‘-ctime’, ‘-depth’, ‘-group’, ‘-links’,
              ‘-mtime’, ‘-nogroup’, ‘-nouser’,  ‘-perm’,  ‘-print’,  ‘-prune’,
              ‘-size’, ‘-user’ and ‘-xdev’, are all supported.

       The POSIX standard specifies parentheses ‘(’, ‘)’, negation ‘!’ and the
       ‘and’ and ‘or’ operators (‘-a’, ‘-o’).

       All other options, predicates, expressions and so forth are  extensions
       beyond  the POSIX standard.  Many of these extensions are not unique to
       GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that

              The find utility shall detect infinite loops; that is,  entering
              a  previously  visited directory that is an ancestor of the last
              file encountered. When it detects an infinite loop,  find  shall
              write  a  diagnostic  message to standard error and shall either
              recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       The link count of directories which  contain  entries  which  are  hard
       links to an ancestor will often be lower than they otherwise should be.
       This can mean that GNU find will sometimes optimise away  the  visiting
       of  a subdirectory which is actually a link to an ancestor.  Since find
       does not actually enter such a subdirectory, it  is  allowed  to  avoid
       emitting a diagnostic message.  Although this behaviour may be somewhat
       confusing, it  is  unlikely  that  anybody  actually  depends  on  this
       behaviour.   If the leaf optimisation has been turned off with -noleaf,
       the directory entry will always be examined and the diagnostic  message
       will  be issued where it is appropriate.  Symbolic links cannot be used
       to create filesystem cycles as such,  but  if  the  -L  option  or  the
       -follow  option  is  in  use,  a diagnostic message is issued when find
       encounters a loop of symbolic links.  As  with  loops  containing  hard
       links,  the  leaf  optimisation will often mean that find knows that it
       doesn’t need to call stat() or chdir() on the symbolic  link,  so  this
       diagnostic is frequently not necessary.

       The  -d option is supported for compatibility with various BSD systems,
       but you should use the POSIX-compliant option -depth instead.

       The POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable does not affect the  behaviour
       of  the -regex or -iregex tests because those tests aren’t specified in
       the POSIX standard.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       LANG   Provides a default value for the internationalization  variables
              that are unset or null.

       LC_ALL If  set  to a non-empty string value, override the values of all
              the other internationalization variables.

       LC_COLLATE
              The POSIX standard specifies  that  this  variable  affects  the
              pattern  matching  to be used for the ‘-name’ option.   GNU find
              uses  the  fnmatch(3)  library  function,  and  so  support  for
              ‘LC_COLLATE’ depends on the system library.

              POSIX  also specifies that the ‘LC_COLLATE’ environment variable
              affects the interpretation of the user’s response to  the  query
              issued by ‘-ok’, but this is not the case for GNU find.

       LC_CTYPE
              This  variable  affects  the treatment of character classes used
              with the  ‘-name’  test,  if  the  system’s  fnmatch(3)  library
              function  supports  this.   It has no effect on the behaviour of
              the ‘-ok’ expression.

       LC_MESSAGES
              Determines the locale to be used for internationalised messages.

       NLSPATH
              Determines  the  location  of  the  internationalisation message
              catalogues.

       PATH   Affects  the  directories  which  are  searched  to   find   the
              executables  invoked by ‘-exec’, ‘-execdir’, ‘-ok’ and ‘-okdir’.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
              Determines  the  block  size  used  by  ‘-ls’  and  ‘-fls’.   If
              ‘POSIXLY_CORRECT’  is  set,  blocks  are  units  of  512  bytes.
              Otherwise they are units of 1024 bytes.

       TZ     Affects the time zone used for some of the  time-related  format
              directives of -printf and -fprintf.

EXAMPLES

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.
       Note that this  will  work  incorrectly  if  there  are  any  filenames
       containing newlines, single or double quotes, or spaces.

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them,
       processing filenames in  such  a  way  that  file  or  directory  names
       containing  single  or  double quotes, spaces or newlines are correctly
       handled.  The -name test comes before the -type test in order to  avoid
       having to call stat(2) on every file.

       find . -type f -exec file{}\;

       Runs  ‘file’  on  every file in or below the current directory.  Notice
       that the braces are enclosed in single quote marks to protect them from
       interpretation   as   shell  script  punctuation.    The  semicolon  is
       similarly protected by the use of a backslash, though  ’;’  could  have
       been used in that case also.

       find /    \( -perm -4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt%#m %u %p\n\) , \
                 \( -size +100M -fprintf /root/big.txt%-10s %p\n\)

       Traverse the filesystem just once, listing setuid files and directories
       into /root/suid.txt and large files into /root/big.txt.

       find $HOME -mtime 0

       Search for files in your home directory which have been modified in the
       last  twenty-four  hours.  This command works this way because the time
       since each file was last modified  is  divided  by  24  hours  and  any
       remainder is discarded.  That means that to match -mtime 0, a file will
       have to have a modification in the past which is  less  than  24  hours
       ago.

       find . -perm 664

       Search  for files which have read and write permission for their owner,
       and group, but which other users can read  but  not  write  to.   Files
       which  meet  these  criteria  but  have other permissions bits set (for
       example if someone can execute the file) will not be matched.

       find . -perm -664

       Search for files which have read and write permission for  their  owner
       and  group,  and  which  other  users  can  read, without regard to the
       presence of any extra permission bits (for example the executable bit).
       This will match a file which has mode 0777, for example.

       find . -perm /222

       Search  for files which are writable by somebody (their owner, or their
       group, or anybody else).

       find . -perm /220
       find . -perm /u+w,g+w
       find . -perm /u=w,g=w

       All three of these commands do the same thing, but the first  one  uses
       the  octal  representation  of the file mode, and the other two use the
       symbolic form.  These commands all search for files which are  writable
       by  either  their  owner  or  their  group.  The files don’t have to be
       writable by both the owner and group to be matched; either will do.

       find . -perm -220
       find . -perm -g+w,u+w

       Both these commands do the same  thing;  search  for  files  which  are
       writable by both their owner and their group.

       find . -perm -444 -perm /222 ! -perm /111
       find . -perm -a+r -perm /a+w ! -perm /a+x

       These  two  commands  both  search  for  files  that  are  readable for
       everybody (-perm -444 or -perm -a+r), have at least on  write  bit  set
       (-perm /222 or -perm /a+w) but are not executable for anybody (!  -perm
       /111 and ! -perm /a+x respectively)

EXIT STATUS

       find exits with status 0  if  all  files  are  processed  successfully,
       greater  than  0  if  errors occur.   This is deliberately a very broad
       description, but if the return value is non-zero, you should  not  rely
       on the correctness of the results of find.

SEE ALSO

       locate(1),  locatedb(5),  updatedb(1),  xargs(1), chmod(1), fnmatch(3),
       regex(7), stat(2), lstat(2), ls(1), printf(3),  strftime(3),  ctime(3),
       Finding Files (on-line in Info, or printed).

HISTORY

       As  of  findutils-4.2.2,  shell  metacharacters  (’*’.  ’?’ or ’[]’ for
       example) used in filename patterns will match a  leading  ’.’,  because
       IEEE POSIX interpretation 126 requires this.

NON-BUGS

       $ find . -name *.c -print
       find: paths must precede expression
       Usage: find [-H] [-L] [-P] [path...] [expression]

       This  happens  because  *.c has been expanded by the shell resulting in
       find actually receiving a command line like this:

       find . -name bigram.c code.c frcode.c locate.c -print

       That command is of course not going to work.  Instead of  doing  things
       this way, you should enclose the pattern in quotes:
       $ find . -name ´*.c´ -print

BUGS

       The  test  -perm  /000  currently  matches  no  files,  but for greater
       consistency with -perm -000, this will be changed to match  all  files;
       this  change will probably be made in early 2006.  Meanwhile, a warning
       message is given if you do this.

       There are security problems inherent in the behaviour  that  the  POSIX
       standard  specifies  for  find,  which  therefore cannot be fixed.  For
       example, the -exec action is inherently insecure, and  -execdir  should
       be used instead.  Please see Finding Files for more information.

       The   best   way   to   report   a   bug   is   to   use  the  form  at
       http://savannah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.  The reason for this  is
       that  you  will  then  be able to track progress in fixing the problem.
       Other comments about find(1) and about the findutils package in general
       can  be sent to the bug-findutils mailing list.  To join the list, send
       email to bug-findutils-request@gnu.org.

                                                                       FIND(1)