Provided by: binutils_2.18.1~cvs20080103-0ubuntu1_i386 bug

NAME

       objcopy - copy and translate object files

SYNOPSIS

       objcopy [-F bfdname|--target=bfdname]
               [-I bfdname|--input-target=bfdname]
               [-O bfdname|--output-target=bfdname]
               [-B bfdarch|--binary-architecture=bfdarch]
               [-S|--strip-all]
               [-g|--strip-debug]
               [-K symbolname|--keep-symbol=symbolname]
               [-N symbolname|--strip-symbol=symbolname]
               [--strip-unneeded-symbol=symbolname]
               [-G symbolname|--keep-global-symbol=symbolname]
               [--localize-hidden]
               [-L symbolname|--localize-symbol=symbolname]
               [--globalize-symbol=symbolname]
               [-W symbolname|--weaken-symbol=symbolname]
               [-w|--wildcard]
               [-x|--discard-all]
               [-X|--discard-locals]
               [-b byte|--byte=byte]
               [-i interleave|--interleave=interleave]
               [-j sectionname|--only-section=sectionname]
               [-R sectionname|--remove-section=sectionname]
               [-p|--preserve-dates]
               [--debugging]
               [--gap-fill=val]
               [--pad-to=address]
               [--set-start=val]
               [--adjust-start=incr]
               [--change-addresses=incr]
               [--change-section-address section{=,+,-}val]
               [--change-section-lma section{=,+,-}val]
               [--change-section-vma section{=,+,-}val]
               [--change-warnings] [--no-change-warnings]
               [--set-section-flags section=flags]
               [--add-section sectionname=filename]
               [--rename-section oldname=newname[,flags]]
               [--change-leading-char] [--remove-leading-char]
               [--reverse-bytes=num]
               [--srec-len=ival] [--srec-forceS3]
               [--redefine-sym old=new]
               [--redefine-syms=filename]
               [--weaken]
               [--keep-symbols=filename]
               [--strip-symbols=filename]
               [--strip-unneeded-symbols=filename]
               [--keep-global-symbols=filename]
               [--localize-symbols=filename]
               [--globalize-symbols=filename]
               [--weaken-symbols=filename]
               [--alt-machine-code=index]
               [--prefix-symbols=string]
               [--prefix-sections=string]
               [--prefix-alloc-sections=string]
               [--add-gnu-debuglink=path-to-file]
               [--keep-file-symbols]
               [--only-keep-debug]
               [--extract-symbol]
               [--writable-text]
               [--readonly-text]
               [--pure]
               [--impure]
               [-v|--verbose]
               [-V|--version]
               [--help] [--info]
               infile [outfile]

DESCRIPTION

       The  GNU  objcopy  utility  copies  the  contents  of an object file to
       another.  objcopy uses the GNU BFD Library to read and write the object
       files.   It can write the destination object file in a format different
       from that of the source object file.  The exact behavior of objcopy  is
       controlled  by  command-line options.  Note that objcopy should be able
       to copy a fully linked file between any two formats. However, copying a
       relocatable  object  file  between  any  two  formats  may  not work as
       expected.

       objcopy creates temporary files to do its translations and deletes them
       afterward.   objcopy  uses  BFD  to do all its translation work; it has
       access to all the  formats  described  in  BFD  and  thus  is  able  to
       recognize most formats without being told explicitly.

       objcopy  can be used to generate S-records by using an output target of
       srec (e.g., use -O srec).

       objcopy can be used to generate a raw binary file by  using  an  output
       target  of  binary (e.g., use -O binary).  When objcopy generates a raw
       binary file, it will essentially produce a memory dump of the  contents
       of  the input object file.  All symbols and relocation information will
       be discarded.  The memory dump will start at the load  address  of  the
       lowest section copied into the output file.

       When  generating an S-record or a raw binary file, it may be helpful to
       use -S to remove sections containing debugging  information.   In  some
       cases  -R  will  be useful to remove sections which contain information
       that is not needed by the binary file.

       Note---objcopy is not able to change the endianness of its input files.
       If  the  input  format has an endianness (some formats do not), objcopy
       can only  copy  the  inputs  into  file  formats  that  have  the  same
       endianness or which have no endianness (e.g., srec).  (However, see the
       --reverse-bytes option.)

OPTIONS

       infile
       outfile
           The input and output files, respectively.  If you  do  not  specify
           outfile, objcopy creates a temporary file and destructively renames
           the result with the name of infile.

       -I bfdname
       --input-target=bfdname
           Consider the source file’s object format to be bfdname, rather than
           attempting to deduce it.

       -O bfdname
       --output-target=bfdname
           Write the output file using the object format bfdname.

       -F bfdname
       --target=bfdname
           Use  bfdname as the object format for both the input and the output
           file; i.e., simply transfer data from source to destination with no
           translation.

       -B bfdarch
       --binary-architecture=bfdarch
           Useful  when  transforming  a  raw binary input file into an object
           file.  In this case the output architecture can be set to  bfdarch.
           This  option will be ignored if the input file has a known bfdarch.
           You can access this binary data inside a program by referencing the
           special  symbols that are created by the conversion process.  These
           symbols are called _binary_objfile_start,  _binary_objfile_end  and
           _binary_objfile_size.   e.g.  you can transform a picture file into
           an object file and then access it in your code using these symbols.

       -j sectionname
       --only-section=sectionname
           Copy only the named section from the input file to the output file.
           This option may be given more than  once.   Note  that  using  this
           option inappropriately may make the output file unusable.

       -R sectionname
       --remove-section=sectionname
           Remove  any  section  named sectionname from the output file.  This
           option may be given more than once.  Note that  using  this  option
           inappropriately may make the output file unusable.

       -S
       --strip-all
           Do not copy relocation and symbol information from the source file.

       -g
       --strip-debug
           Do not copy debugging symbols or sections from the source file.

       --strip-unneeded
           Strip all symbols that are not needed for relocation processing.

       -K symbolname
       --keep-symbol=symbolname
           When stripping symbols, keep symbol symbolname  even  if  it  would
           normally be stripped.  This option may be given more than once.

       -N symbolname
       --strip-symbol=symbolname
           Do  not  copy  symbol symbolname from the source file.  This option
           may be given more than once.

       --strip-unneeded-symbol=symbolname
           Do not copy symbol symbolname from the source  file  unless  it  is
           needed by a relocation.  This option may be given more than once.

       -G symbolname
       --keep-global-symbol=symbolname
           Keep  only  symbol symbolname global.  Make all other symbols local
           to the file, so that they are not visible externally.  This  option
           may be given more than once.

       --localize-hidden
           In  an  ELF  object,  mark all symbols that have hidden or internal
           visibility as local.  This option applies on top of symbol-specific
           localization options such as -L.

       -L symbolname
       --localize-symbol=symbolname
           Make symbol symbolname local to the file, so that it is not visible
           externally.  This option may be given more than once.

       -W symbolname
       --weaken-symbol=symbolname
           Make symbol symbolname weak. This option may  be  given  more  than
           once.

       --globalize-symbol=symbolname
           Give symbol symbolname global scoping so that it is visible outside
           of the file in which it is defined.  This option may be given  more
           than once.

       -w
       --wildcard
           Permit  regular  expressions  in  symbolnames used in other command
           line options.  The question mark (?), asterisk (*),  backslash  (\)
           and  square  brackets  ([])  operators  can be used anywhere in the
           symbol name.  If the first character of  the  symbol  name  is  the
           exclamation  point (!) then the sense of the switch is reversed for
           that symbol.  For example:

                     -w -W !foo -W fo*

           would cause objcopy to weaken all  symbols  that  start  with  "fo"
           except for the symbol "foo".

       -x
       --discard-all
           Do not copy non-global symbols from the source file.

       -X
       --discard-locals
           Do not copy compiler-generated local symbols.  (These usually start
           with L or ..)

       -b byte
       --byte=byte
           Keep only every byteth byte of the input file (header data  is  not
           affected).   byte can be in the range from 0 to interleave-1, where
           interleave is given by  the  -i  or  --interleave  option,  or  the
           default  of 4.  This option is useful for creating files to program
           ROM.  It is typically used with an "srec" output target.

       -i interleave
       --interleave=interleave
           Only copy one out of every interleave bytes.  Select which byte  to
           copy  with  the  -b  or  --byte option.  The default is 4.  objcopy
           ignores this option if you do not specify either -b or --byte.

       -p
       --preserve-dates
           Set the access and modification dates of the output file to be  the
           same as those of the input file.

       --debugging
           Convert  debugging  information,  if  possible.   This  is  not the
           default because only certain debugging formats are  supported,  and
           the conversion process can be time consuming.

       --gap-fill val
           Fill gaps between sections with val.  This operation applies to the
           load address (LMA) of the sections.  It is done by  increasing  the
           size  of  the  section  with  the lower address, and filling in the
           extra space created with val.

       --pad-to address
           Pad the output file up to the load address address.  This  is  done
           by  increasing  the  size  of the last section.  The extra space is
           filled in with the value specified by --gap-fill (default zero).

       --set-start val
           Set the start address of the new file to val.  Not all object  file
           formats support setting the start address.

       --change-start incr
       --adjust-start incr
           Change  the  start  address  by  adding  incr.  Not all object file
           formats support setting the start address.

       --change-addresses incr
       --adjust-vma incr
           Change the VMA and LMA addresses of all sections, as  well  as  the
           start  address,  by  adding  incr.  Some object file formats do not
           permit section addresses to be changed arbitrarily.  Note that this
           does  not relocate the sections; if the program expects sections to
           be loaded at a certain address, and this option is used  to  change
           the  sections such that they are loaded at a different address, the
           program may fail.

       --change-section-address section{=,+,-}val
       --adjust-section-vma section{=,+,-}val
           Set or change both the VMA address and the LMA address of the named
           section.   If  =  is  used,  the  section  address  is  set to val.
           Otherwise, val is added to or subtracted from the section  address.
           See  the  comments under --change-addresses, above. If section does
           not exist in the input file,  a  warning  will  be  issued,  unless
           --no-change-warnings is used.

       --change-section-lma section{=,+,-}val
           Set  or  change  the  LMA  address  of  the named section.  The LMA
           address is the address where the section will be loaded into memory
           at  program  load  time.   Normally  this  is  the  same as the VMA
           address, which is the address of the section at program  run  time,
           but  on  some  systems, especially those where a program is held in
           ROM, the two can be different.  If = is used, the  section  address
           is  set  to val.  Otherwise, val is added to or subtracted from the
           section address.  See the comments under --change-addresses, above.
           If  section  does  not  exist  in the input file, a warning will be
           issued, unless --no-change-warnings is used.

       --change-section-vma section{=,+,-}val
           Set or change the VMA  address  of  the  named  section.   The  VMA
           address  is  the address where the section will be located once the
           program has started executing.  Normally this is the  same  as  the
           LMA  address, which is the address where the section will be loaded
           into memory, but on some systems, especially those where a  program
           is  held  in  ROM,  the  two  can  be different.  If = is used, the
           section address is set to val.   Otherwise,  val  is  added  to  or
           subtracted  from  the  section  address.   See  the  comments under
           --change-addresses, above.  If section does not exist in the  input
           file,  a  warning  will  be  issued, unless --no-change-warnings is
           used.

       --change-warnings
       --adjust-warnings
           If    --change-section-address    or    --change-section-lma     or
           --change-section-vma is used, and the named section does not exist,
           issue a warning.  This is the default.

       --no-change-warnings
       --no-adjust-warnings
           Do   not   issue   a   warning   if   --change-section-address   or
           --adjust-section-lma  or  --adjust-section-vma is used, even if the
           named section does not exist.

       --set-section-flags section=flags
           Set the flags for the named section.  The flags argument is a comma
           separated  string  of  flag names.  The recognized names are alloc,
           contents, load, noload,  readonly,  code,  data,  rom,  share,  and
           debug.   You can set the contents flag for a section which does not
           have contents, but it is not meaningful to clear the contents  flag
           of  a  section  which  does  have contents--just remove the section
           instead.  Not all flags are meaningful for all object file formats.

       --add-section sectionname=filename
           Add  a  new  section named sectionname while copying the file.  The
           contents of the new section are taken from the file filename.   The
           size of the section will be the size of the file.  This option only
           works on file formats which can  support  sections  with  arbitrary
           names.

       --rename-section oldname=newname[,flags]
           Rename  a  section from oldname to newname, optionally changing the
           section’s flags to flags in the process.  This  has  the  advantage
           over  usng a linker script to perform the rename in that the output
           stays as an object file and does not become a linked executable.

           This option is  particularly  helpful  when  the  input  format  is
           binary,  since  this will always create a section called .data.  If
           for example, you wanted instead to create a section called  .rodata
           containing  binary data you could use the following command line to
           achieve it:

                     objcopy -I binary -O <output_format> -B <architecture> \
                      --rename-section .data=.rodata,alloc,load,readonly,data,contents \
                      <input_binary_file> <output_object_file>

       --change-leading-char
           Some object file formats use special characters  at  the  start  of
           symbols.   The  most  common  such  character  is underscore, which
           compilers often add before every symbol.  This option tells objcopy
           to  change  the  leading character of every symbol when it converts
           between object file formats.  If the object file  formats  use  the
           same  leading  character, this option has no effect.  Otherwise, it
           will add a character, or remove a character, or change a character,
           as appropriate.

       --remove-leading-char
           If  the  first  character  of  a  global symbol is a special symbol
           leading character used  by  the  object  file  format,  remove  the
           character.  The most common symbol leading character is underscore.
           This option will  remove  a  leading  underscore  from  all  global
           symbols.   This  can be useful if you want to link together objects
           of different file formats with  different  conventions  for  symbol
           names.   This  is  different  from --change-leading-char because it
           always changes the symbol name when appropriate, regardless of  the
           object file format of the output file.

       --reverse-bytes=num
           Reverse  the  bytes  in  a section with output contents.  A section
           length must be evenly divisible by the value given in order for the
           swap  to  be  able  to take place. Reversing takes place before the
           interleaving is performed.

           This  option  is  used  typically  in  generating  ROM  images  for
           problematic  target  systems.   For example, on some target boards,
           the 32-bit words  fetched  from  8-bit  ROMs  are  re-assembled  in
           little-endian   byte  order  regardless  of  the  CPU  byte  order.
           Depending on the programming model, the endianness of the  ROM  may
           need to be modified.

           Consider  a  simple  file  with  a section containing the following
           eight bytes:  12345678.

           Using --reverse-bytes=2 for the above example,  the  bytes  in  the
           output file would be ordered 21436587.

           Using  --reverse-bytes=4  for  the  above example, the bytes in the
           output file would be ordered 43218765.

           By using --reverse-bytes=2  for  the  above  example,  followed  by
           --reverse-bytes=4  on  the  output  file,  the  bytes in the second
           output file would be ordered 34127856.

       --srec-len=ival
           Meaningful only for srec output.  Set the  maximum  length  of  the
           Srecords  being produced to ival.  This length covers both address,
           data and crc fields.

       --srec-forceS3
           Meaningful  only  for  srec  output.   Avoid  generation  of  S1/S2
           records, creating S3-only record format.

       --redefine-sym old=new
           Change  the  name of a symbol old, to new.  This can be useful when
           one is trying link two  things  together  for  which  you  have  no
           source, and there are name collisions.

       --redefine-syms=filename
           Apply  --redefine-sym  to  each symbol pair "old new" listed in the
           file filename.  filename is simply a flat  file,  with  one  symbol
           pair  per  line.   Line  comments  may  be  introduced  by the hash
           character.  This option may be given more than once.

       --weaken
           Change all global symbols in the file to  be  weak.   This  can  be
           useful  when  building an object which will be linked against other
           objects using the -R option to the linker.   This  option  is  only
           effective  when  using  an  object  file format which supports weak
           symbols.

       --keep-symbols=filename
           Apply --keep-symbol option  to  each  symbol  listed  in  the  file
           filename.  filename is simply a flat file, with one symbol name per
           line.  Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.  This
           option may be given more than once.

       --strip-symbols=filename
           Apply  --strip-symbol  option  to  each  symbol  listed in the file
           filename.  filename is simply a flat file, with one symbol name per
           line.  Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.  This
           option may be given more than once.

       --strip-unneeded-symbols=filename
           Apply --strip-unneeded-symbol option to each symbol listed  in  the
           file  filename.   filename  is  simply a flat file, with one symbol
           name per line.   Line  comments  may  be  introduced  by  the  hash
           character.  This option may be given more than once.

       --keep-global-symbols=filename
           Apply --keep-global-symbol option to each symbol listed in the file
           filename.  filename is simply a flat file, with one symbol name per
           line.  Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.  This
           option may be given more than once.

       --localize-symbols=filename
           Apply --localize-symbol option to each symbol listed  in  the  file
           filename.  filename is simply a flat file, with one symbol name per
           line.  Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.  This
           option may be given more than once.

       --globalize-symbols=filename
           Apply  --globalize-symbol  option to each symbol listed in the file
           filename.  filename is simply a flat file, with one symbol name per
           line.  Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.  This
           option may be given more than once.

       --weaken-symbols=filename
           Apply --weaken-symbol option to each  symbol  listed  in  the  file
           filename.  filename is simply a flat file, with one symbol name per
           line.  Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.  This
           option may be given more than once.

       --alt-machine-code=index
           If  the  output  architecture  has alternate machine codes, use the
           indexth code instead of the default one.  This is useful in case  a
           machine  is assigned an official code and the tool-chain adopts the
           new code, but other applications still depend on the original  code
           being  used.   For ELF based architectures if the index alternative
           does not exist then the value is treated as an absolute  number  to
           be stored in the e_machine field of the ELF header.

       --writable-text
           Mark the output text as writable.  This option isn’t meaningful for
           all object file formats.

       --readonly-text
           Make the output text write protected.  This option isn’t meaningful
           for all object file formats.

       --pure
           Mark the output file as demand paged.  This option isn’t meaningful
           for all object file formats.

       --impure
           Mark the output file as impure.  This option isn’t  meaningful  for
           all object file formats.

       --prefix-symbols=string
           Prefix all symbols in the output file with string.

       --prefix-sections=string
           Prefix all section names in the output file with string.

       --prefix-alloc-sections=string
           Prefix  all  the names of all allocated sections in the output file
           with string.

       --add-gnu-debuglink=path-to-file
           Creates a .gnu_debuglink section  which  contains  a  reference  to
           path-to-file and adds it to the output file.

       --keep-file-symbols
           When    stripping   a   file,   perhaps   with   --strip-debug   or
           --strip-unneeded, retain any symbols specifying source file  names,
           which would otherwise get stripped.

       --only-keep-debug
           Strip  a  file, removing contents of any sections that would not be
           stripped  by  --strip-debug  and  leaving  the  debugging  sections
           intact.   In  ELF  files,  this  preserves all note sections in the
           output.

           The intention is that this option will be used in conjunction  with
           --add-gnu-debuglink  to  create  a  two  part  executable.   One  a
           stripped binary which will occupy  less  space  in  RAM  and  in  a
           distribution  and  the second a debugging information file which is
           only needed if debugging abilities  are  required.   The  suggested
           procedure to create these files is as follows:

           1.<Link the executable as normal.  Assuming that is is called>
               "foo" then...

           1.<Run "objcopy --only-keep-debug foo foo.dbg" to>
               create a file containing the debugging info.

           1.<Run "objcopy --strip-debug foo" to create a>
               stripped executable.

           1.<Run "objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink=foo.dbg foo">
               to  add  a  link  to  the  debugging  info  into  the  stripped
               executable.

           Note - the choice of ".dbg" as an extension for the debug info file
           is  arbitrary.  Also the "--only-keep-debug" step is optional.  You
           could instead do this:

           1.<Link the executable as normal.>
           1.<Copy "foo" to  "foo.full">
           1.<Run "objcopy --strip-debug foo">
           1.<Run "objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink=foo.full foo">

           i.e., the file pointed to by the  --add-gnu-debuglink  can  be  the
           full  executable.   It  does  not  have to be a file created by the
           --only-keep-debug switch.

           Note - this switch is only intended for use on fully linked  files.
           It  does  not  make  sense  to  use  it  on  object files where the
           debugging information may be incomplete.  Besides the gnu_debuglink
           feature  currently  only  supports  the  presence  of  one filename
           containing debugging information, not multiple filenames on a  one-
           per-object-file basis.

       --extract-symbol
           Keep  the  file’s  section flags and symbols but remove all section
           data.  Specifically, the option:

           *<sets the virtual and load addresses of every section to zero;>
           *<removes the contents of all sections;>
           *<sets the size of every section to zero; and>
           *<sets the file’s start address to zero.>

           This option is used to build a .sym file for a VxWorks kernel.   It
           can  also  be a useful way of reducing the size of a --just-symbols
           linker input file.

       -V
       --version
           Show the version number of objcopy.

       -v
       --verbose
           Verbose output: list all object files modified.   In  the  case  of
           archives, objcopy -V lists all members of the archive.

       --help
           Show a summary of the options to objcopy.

       --info
           Display  a  list  showing  all  architectures  and  object  formats
           available.

       @file
           Read command-line options from file.  The options read are inserted
           in  place of the original @file option.  If file does not exist, or
           cannot be read, then the option will be treated literally, and  not
           removed.

           Options   in  file  are  separated  by  whitespace.   A  whitespace
           character may be included in an option by  surrounding  the  entire
           option in either single or double quotes.  Any character (including
           a backslash) may be included  by  prefixing  the  character  to  be
           included  with a backslash.  The file may itself contain additional
           @file options; any such options will be processed recursively.

SEE ALSO

       ld(1), objdump(1), and the Info entries for binutils.

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright (c) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995,  1996,  1997,  1998,  1999,
       2000,   2001,   2002,  2003,  2004,  2005,  2006,  2007  Free  Software
       Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify  this  document
       under  the  terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or
       any later version published by the Free Software  Foundation;  with  no
       Invariant  Sections,  with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled  "GNU
       Free Documentation License".