Provided by: rsync_2.6.9-6ubuntu2_i386 bug


       rsync - faster, flexible replacement for rcp


       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST::DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC

       rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST:SRC [DEST]

       rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST::SRC [DEST]

       rsync [OPTION]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC [DEST]


       rsync is a program that behaves in much the same way that rcp does, but
       has many more options and uses  the  rsync  remote-update  protocol  to
       greatly  speed  up  file  transfers  when the destination file is being

       The rsync remote-update protocol allows  rsync  to  transfer  just  the
       differences  between  two  sets of files across the network connection,
       using an efficient checksum-search algorithm described in the technical
       report that accompanies this package.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support   for   copying  links,  devices,  owners,  groups,  and

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS  would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support  for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for


       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally  on  the
       current  host  (it  does  not  support copying files between two remote

       There are two different ways for rsync  to  contact  a  remote  system:
       using  a  remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or
       contacting  an  rsync  daemon  directly  via  TCP.   The   remote-shell
       transport  is  used  whenever the source or destination path contains a
       single colon (:) separator after a host specification.   Contacting  an
       rsync  daemon  directly  happens  when  the  source or destination path
       contains a double colon (::) separator after a host  specification,  OR
       when  an  rsync://  URL  is specified (see also the “USING RSYNC-DAEMON
       FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION” section  for  an  exception  to
       this latter rule).

       As  a  special  case,  if  a  single  source arg is specified without a
       destination, the files are listed in an output format  similar  to  “ls

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).


       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that  you  can  access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
       daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync  uses  ssh
       for  its  communications,  but  it  may  have  been configured to use a
       different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the  -e
       command  line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

       Note that rsync must be installed on both the  source  and  destination


       You  use  rsync  in the same way you use rcp. You must specify a source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

              rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory  to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the files
       already exist  on  the  remote  system  then  the  rsync  remote-update
       protocol  is  used  to update the file by sending only the differences.
       See the tech report for details.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the  machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine.
       The files  are  transferred  in  “archive”  mode,  which  ensures  that
       symbolic  links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are
       preserved in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be  used  to
       reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A  trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid creating
       an additional directory level at the destination.  You can think  of  a
       trailing / on a source as meaning “copy the contents of this directory”
       as opposed to “copy the directory by  name”,  but  in  both  cases  the
       attributes   of   the  containing  directory  are  transferred  to  the
       containing directory on the destination.  In other words, each  of  the
       following  commands  copies  the files in the same way, including their
       setting of the attributes of /dest/foo:

              rsync -av /src/foo /dest
              rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note also that host and module  references  don’t  require  a  trailing
       slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these copy the remote directory’s contents into “/dest”:

              rsync -av host: /dest
              rsync -av host::module /dest

       You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both  the  source  and
       destination  don’t have a ’:’ in the name. In this case it behaves like
       an improved copy command.

       Finally, you can list all  the  (listable)  modules  available  from  a
       particular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.


       The  syntax  for  requesting multiple files from a remote host involves
       using quoted spaces in the SRC.  Some examples:

              rsync host::’modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2’ /dest

       This would copy file1 and file2 into /dest from an rsync daemon.   Each
       additional  arg  must  include  the same “modname/” prefix as the first
       one, and must be preceded by a single  space.   All  other  spaces  are
       assumed to be a part of the filenames.

              rsync -av host:’dir1/file1 dir2/file2’ /dest

       This  would copy file1 and file2 into /dest using a remote shell.  This
       word-splitting is done by the remote shell, so if it  doesn’t  work  it
       means that the remote shell isn’t configured to split its args based on
       whitespace (a very rare setting, but not  unknown).   If  you  need  to
       transfer  a  filename  that  contains whitespace, you’ll need to either
       escape the whitespace in a way that the remote shell  will  understand,
       or use wildcards in place of the spaces.  Two examples of this are:

              rsync -av host:’file\ name\ with\ spaces’ /dest
              rsync -av host:file?name?with?spaces /dest

       This  latter  example  assumes that your shell passes through unmatched
       wildcards.  If it complains about “no match”, put the name in quotes.


       It is also possible  to  use  rsync  without  a  remote  shell  as  the
       transport.   In  this  case you will directly connect to a remote rsync
       daemon, typically using TCP port 873.   (This  obviously  requires  the
       daemon  to be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN
       RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section  below  for  information  on

       Using  rsync  in  this  way is the same as using it with a remote shell
       except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a  single  colon  to
              separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the “path” is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print  a  message  of  the  day  when  you

       o      if  you  specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
              of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no  local  destination  then  a  listing  of  the
              specified files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named “src”:

           rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on  the remote daemon may require authentication. If so,
       you will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid  the
       password  prompt  by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
       the password you want to use or using the --password-file option.  This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:  On  some  systems  environment  variables  are visible to all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You may establish the  connection  via  a  web  proxy  by  setting  the
       environment  variable  RSYNC_PROXY  to a hostname:port pair pointing to
       your web proxy.  Note that your web proxy’s configuration must  support
       proxy connections to port 873.


       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as named modules) without actually allowing any new socket  connections
       into  a  system  (other  than what is already required to allow remote-
       shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to  a  host  using  a  remote
       shell  and  then  spawning a single-use “daemon” server that expects to
       read its config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This  can  be
       useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer’s data, but since
       the daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be  able
       to  use  features  such as chroot or change the uid used by the daemon.
       (For another way to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider  using  ssh  to
       tunnel  a  local  port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync
       daemon on that remote host to only allow connections from “localhost”.)

       From  the  user’s  perspective,  a  daemon  transfer via a remote-shell
       connection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal  rsync-
       daemon transfer, with the only exception being that you must explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.   (Setting  the  RSYNC_RSH  in the environment will not turn on
       this functionality.)  For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the  user@  prefix  in  front  of the host is specifying the rsync-user
       value (for a module that  requires  user-based  authentication).   This
       means  that  you  must give the ’-l user’ option to ssh when specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
       --rsh option:

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The  “ssh-user” will be used at the ssh level; the “rsync-user” will be
       used to log-in to the “module”.


       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
       inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).   For  full  information  on  how  to  start  a daemon that will
       handling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page —
       that  is  the  config  file  for  the  daemon, and it contains the full
       details for how to run the  daemon  (including  stand-alone  and  inetd

       If  you’re  using  one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
       there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.


       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wife’s home directory, which consists  of  large  MS  Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

              rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine

       To synchronize my samba source  trees  I  use  the  following  Makefile

                   rsync -avuzb --exclude ’*~’ samba:samba/ .
                   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
           sync: get put

       this  allows  me  to  sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn’t very efficient.

       I  mirror  a  directory  between  my “old” and “new” ftp sites with the

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.


       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete description.

        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
            --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
        -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
        -a, --archive               archive mode; same as -rlptgoD (no -H, -A)
            --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
        -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
        -R, --relative              use relative path names
            --no-implied-dirs       don’t send implied dirs with --relative
        -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
            --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
            --suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
        -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver
            --inplace               update destination files in-place
            --append                append data onto shorter files
        -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
        -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
        -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir
            --copy-unsafe-links     only “unsafe” symlinks are transformed
            --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
        -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to dir into referent dir
        -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
        -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
        -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
        -E, --executability         preserve executability
            --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
        -A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies -p) [non-standard]
        -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
        -g, --group                 preserve group
            --devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
            --specials              preserve special files
        -D                          same as --devices --specials
        -t, --times                 preserve times
        -O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories when preserving times
            --super                 receiver attempts super-user activities
        -S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently
        -n, --dry-run               show what would have been transferred
        -W, --whole-file            copy files whole (without rsync algorithm)
        -x, --one-file-system       don’t cross filesystem boundaries
        -B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
        -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
            --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
            --existing              skip creating new files on receiver
            --ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
            --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
            --del                   an alias for --delete-during
            --delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
            --delete-before         receiver deletes before transfer (default)
            --delete-during         receiver deletes during xfer, not before
            --delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not before
            --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
            --ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
            --force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
            --max-delete=NUM        don’t delete more than NUM files
            --max-size=SIZE         don’t transfer any file larger than SIZE
            --min-size=SIZE         don’t transfer any file smaller than SIZE
            --partial               keep partially transferred files
            --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
            --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
        -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
            --numeric-ids           don’t map uid/gid values by user/group name
            --timeout=TIME          set I/O timeout in seconds
        -I, --ignore-times          don’t skip files that match size and time
            --size-only             skip files that match in size
            --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
        -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
        -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
            --compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
            --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
            --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
        -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
            --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
        -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
        -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
        -F                          same as --filter=’dir-merge /.rsync-filter’
                                    repeated: --filter=’- .rsync-filter’
            --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
            --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
            --include=PATTERN       don’t exclude files matching PATTERN
            --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
            --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
        -0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
            --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
            --port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
            --blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
            --stats                 give some file-transfer stats
        -8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
        -h, --human-readable        output numbers in a human-readable format
            --progress              show progress during transfer
        -P                          same as --partial --progress
        -i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
            --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
            --log-file=FILE         log what we’re doing to the specified FILE
            --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
            --password-file=FILE    read password from FILE
            --list-only             list the files instead of copying them
            --bwlimit=KBPS          limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
            --write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
            --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
            --read-batch=FILE       read a batched update from FILE
            --protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
            --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
            --version               print version number
       (-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync  can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options
       are accepted:

            --daemon                run as an rsync daemon
            --address=ADDRESS       bind to the specified address
            --bwlimit=KBPS          limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
            --config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
            --no-detach             do not detach from the parent
            --port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
            --log-file=FILE         override the “log file” setting
            --log-file-format=FMT   override the “log format” setting
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
        -h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)


       rsync uses the GNU long options  package.  Many  of  the  command  line
       options  have  two  variants,  one short and one long.  These are shown
       below, separated by commas. Some options only have a long variant.  The
       ’=’  for  options  that take a parameter is optional; whitespace can be
       used instead.

       --help Print a short help page  describing  the  options  available  in
              rsync  and exit.  For backward-compatibility with older versions
              of rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h  option
              without any other args.

              print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
              This  option  increases  the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently. A single
              -v  will  give  you  information  about  what  files  are  being
              transferred and a brief summary at the end. Two  -v  flags  will
              give  you  information  on  what  files  are  being  skipped and
              slightly more information at the end. More  than  two  -v  flags
              should only be used if you are debugging rsync.

              Note that the names of the transferred files that are output are
              done using a default --out-format of  "%n%L",  which  tells  you
              just  the  name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it
              points.  At the single -v level  of  verbosity,  this  does  not
              mention when a file gets its attributes changed.  If you ask for
              an itemized list of changed attributes (either --itemize-changes
              or  adding "%i" to the --out-format setting), the output (on the
              client) increases to mention all items that are changed  in  any
              way.  See the --out-format option for more details.

       -q, --quiet
              This  option  decreases  the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer, notably  suppressing  information  messages
              from  the remote server. This flag is useful when invoking rsync
              from cron.

              This option affects the information that is output by the client
              at the start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
              of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of  modules
              that  the daemon sends in response to the “rsync host::” request
              (due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option
              if you want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

       -I, --ignore-times
              Normally  rsync  will  skip  any files that are already the same
              size and have the same  modification  time-stamp.   This  option
              turns  off  this “quick check” behavior, causing all files to be

              Normally rsync will not transfer any files that are already  the
              same  size  and  have the same modification time-stamp. With the
              --size-only option, files will not be transferred if  they  have
              the  same  size,  regardless  of  timestamp. This is useful when
              starting to use rsync after using another mirroring system which
              may not preserve timestamps exactly.

              When  comparing  two  timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
              being equal if they differ by no  more  than  the  modify-window
              value.   This  is  normally  0 (for an exact match), but you may
              find it useful to set this to a larger value in some situations.
              In  particular,  when  transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT
              filesystem (which represents times with a 2-second  resolution),
              --modify-window=1 is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1

       -c, --checksum
              This forces the sender to checksum every regular  file  using  a
              128-bit  MD4  checksum.   It  does this during the initial file-
              system scan as it builds the list of all  available  files.  The
              receiver  then  checksums its version of each file (if it exists
              and it has the same size  as  its  sender-side  counterpart)  in
              order  to  decide  which  files  need  to be updated: files with
              either a changed size or a changed  checksum  are  selected  for
              transfer.   Since  this  whole-file checksumming of all files on
              both sides of the connection occurs in addition to the automatic
              checksum verifications that occur during a file’s transfer, this
              option can be quite slow.

              Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred  file  was
              correctly  reconstructed  on  the receiving side by checking its
              whole-file  checksum,  but  that  automatic   after-the-transfer
              verification  has  nothing  to do with this option’s before-the-
              transfer “Does this file need to be updated?” check.

       -a, --archive
              This is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying  you
              want  recursion  and want to preserve almost everything (with -H
              being a notable omission).  The  only  exception  to  the  above
              equivalence  is when --files-from is specified, in which case -r
              is not implied.

              Note that  -a  does  not  preserve  hardlinks,  because  finding
              multiply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify

              You may turn off one or more implied options  by  prefixing  the
              option  name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a
              "no-": only options that are  implied  by  other  options  (e.g.
              --no-D,  --no-perms)  or  have  different  defaults  in  various
              circumstances    (e.g.    --no-whole-file,     --no-blocking-io,
              --no-dirs).  You may specify either the short or the long option
              name after  the  "no-"  prefix  (e.g.  --no-R  is  the  same  as

              For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don’t want -o
              (--owner), instead of converting  -a  into  -rlptgD,  you  could
              specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The  order  of  the options is important:  if you specify --no-r
              -a, the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite  of
              -a  --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the --files-from
              option are NOT positional, as it affects the  default  state  of
              several  options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see the
              --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
              This tells rsync to  copy  directories  recursively.   See  also
              --dirs (-d).

       -R, --relative
              Use  relative  paths.  This  means  that  the  full  path  names
              specified on the command line are sent to the server rather than
              just  the  last  parts  of  the  filenames. This is particularly
              useful when you want to send several  different  directories  at
              the same time. For example, if you used this command:

                 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              ...  this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote
              machine. If instead you used

                 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would  be  created  on  the
              remote  machine — the full path name is preserved.  To limit the
              amount of path information that  is  sent,  you  have  a  couple
              options:  (1) With a modern rsync on the sending side (beginning
              with 2.6.7), you can insert a dot and a slash  into  the  source
              path, like this:

                 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              That  would  create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine.  (Note
              that the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would  not
              be  abbreviated.)   (2) For older rsync versions, you would need
              to use a chdir to limit the  source  path.   For  example,  when
              pushing files:

                 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

              (Note  that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so
              that the “cd”  command  doesn’t  remain  in  effect  for  future
              commands.)   If  you’re  pulling  files,  use  this idiom (which
              doesn’t work with an rsync daemon):

                 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

              This option affects  the  default  behavior  of  the  --relative
              option.   When  it  is  specified, the attributes of the implied
              directories from the  source  names  are  not  included  in  the
              transfer.   This  means  that the corresponding path elements on
              the destination system are left unchanged if they exist, and any
              missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
              This even  allows  these  implied  path  elements  to  have  big
              differences,  such as being a symlink to a directory on one side
              of the transfer, and a real directory on the other side.

              For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from  entry  told
              rsync  to  transfer  the  file  “path/foo/file”, the directories
              “path” and “path/foo” are implied when --relative is  used.   If
              “path/foo”  is a symlink to “bar” on the destination system, the
              receiving rsync would ordinarily delete “path/foo”, recreate  it
              as  a  directory,  and  receive the file into the new directory.
              With   --no-implied-dirs,   the    receiving    rsync    updates
              “path/foo/file”  using  the  existing path elements, which means
              that the file ends up being created in “path/bar”.  Another  way
              to   accomplish   this   link   preservation   is   to  use  the
              --keep-dirlinks option  (which  will  also  affect  symlinks  to
              directories in the rest of the transfer).

              In   a  similar  but  opposite  scenario,  if  the  transfer  of
              “path/foo/file” is requested and “path/foo” is a symlink on  the
              sending  side,  running  without  --no-implied-dirs  would cause
              rsync to transform “path/foo” on  the  receiving  side  into  an
              identical symlink, and then attempt to transfer “path/foo/file”,
              which might fail if the duplicated symlink did not  point  to  a
              directory  on  the  receiving  side.   Another way to avoid this
              sending  of  a  symlink  as  an  implied  directory  is  to  use
              --copy-unsafe-links,  or  --copy-dirlinks  (both  of  which also
              affect symlinks  in  the  rest  of  the  transfer  —  see  their
              descriptions for full details).

       -b, --backup
              With  this  option, preexisting destination files are renamed as
              each file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where  the
              backup  file  goes  and what (if any) suffix gets appended using
              the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

              Note  that  if  you  don’t   specify   --backup-dir,   (1)   the
              --omit-dir-times  option will be implied, and (2) if --delete is
              also in effect (without --delete-excluded),  rsync  will  add  a
              “protect”  filter-rule  for  the backup suffix to the end of all
              your existing excludes (e.g. -f  "P  *~").   This  will  prevent
              previously backed-up files from being deleted.  Note that if you
              are supplying your own filter rules, you may  need  to  manually
              insert  your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the
              list so that it has a  high  enough  priority  to  be  effective
              (e.g.,  if  your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of
              ’*’, the auto-added rule would never be reached).

              In combination with the --backup option,  this  tells  rsync  to
              store  all  backups  in the specified directory on the receiving
              side.  This can  be  used  for  incremental  backups.   You  can
              additionally  specify  a backup suffix using the --suffix option
              (otherwise the files backed up in the specified  directory  will
              keep their original filenames).

              This  option  allows  you  to override the default backup suffix
              used with the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if
              no  --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.

       -u, --update
              This  forces  rsync  to  skip  any  files  which  exist  on  the
              destination  and  have  a  modified  time that is newer than the
              source file.  (If an existing destination file has a modify time
              equal  to the source file’s, it will be updated if the sizes are

              In the current implementation of --update, a difference of  file
              format  between  the sender and receiver is always considered to
              be important enough for an update, no matter what date is on the
              objects.   In  other  words,  if the source has a directory or a
              symlink where the destination has a  file,  the  transfer  would
              occur  regardless  of  the timestamps.  This might change in the
              future (feel free to comment on this on the mailing list if  you
              have an opinion).

              This  causes rsync not to create a new copy of the file and then
              move it into place.  Instead rsync will overwrite  the  existing
              file, meaning that the rsync algorithm can’t accomplish the full
              amount of network reduction it might be able to otherwise (since
              it  does  not  yet  try to sort data matches).  One exception to
              this is if you combine the option with --backup, since rsync  is
              smart  enough  to  use the backup file as the basis file for the

              This option is useful for transfer of large  files  with  block-
              based  changes  or  appended  data, and also on systems that are
              disk bound, not network bound.

              The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
              not  delete  the  file),  but  conflicts  with --partial-dir and
              --delay-updates.   Prior  to  rsync  2.6.4  --inplace  was  also
              incompatible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              WARNING: The file’s data will be in an inconsistent state during
              the transfer  (and  possibly  afterward  if  the  transfer  gets
              interrupted),  so you should not use this option to update files
              that are in use.  Also note that rsync will be unable to  update
              a file in-place that is not writable by the receiving user.

              This  causes  rsync  to update a file by appending data onto the
              end of the file, which  presumes  that  the  data  that  already
              exists  on the receiving side is identical with the start of the
              file on the sending side.  If that is not true,  the  file  will
              fail  the  checksum  test,  and  the  resend  will  do  a normal
              --inplace update to correct the mismatched data.  Only files  on
              the  receiving side that are shorter than the corresponding file
              on the sending side (as well as new files)  are  sent.   Implies
              --inplace,  but  does  not  conflict  with  --sparse (though the
              --sparse option  will  be  auto-disabled  if  a  resend  of  the
              already-existing data is required).

       -d, --dirs
              Tell  the  sending  side  to  include  any  directories that are
              encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory’s contents are not
              copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
              trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without  this
              option   or   the   --recursive  option,  rsync  will  skip  all
              directories it encounters (and output a message to  that  effect
              for  each  one).   If  you  specify both --dirs and --recursive,
              --recursive takes precedence.

       -l, --links
              When symlinks are  encountered,  recreate  the  symlink  on  the

       -L, --copy-links
              When  symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to (the
              referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
              of  rsync,  this  option also had the side-effect of telling the
              receiving  side  to  follow  symlinks,  such  as   symlinks   to
              directories.  In a modern rsync such as this one, you’ll need to
              specify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this  extra  behavior.   The
              only exception is when sending files to an rsync that is too old
              to understand -K — in that case, the -L option will  still  have
              the side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

              This  tells  rsync  to  copy the referent of symbolic links that
              point outside the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks  are  also
              treated  like  ordinary  files,  and  so are any symlinks in the
              source path itself when --relative is used.  This option has  no
              additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

              This  tells  rsync  to  ignore  any  symbolic  links which point
              outside the copied tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored.
              Using  this  option  in  conjunction  with  --relative  may give
              unexpected results.

       -K, --copy-dirlinks
              This option causes the sending side to  treat  a  symlink  to  a
              directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
              you don’t want symlinks to non-directories to  be  affected,  as
              they would be using --copy-links.

              Without  this  option,  if  the  sending  side  has  replaced  a
              directory with a symlink to a directory, the receiving side will
              delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
              a directory hierarchy (as long as  --force  or  --delete  is  in

              See  also  --keep-dirlinks  for  an  analogous  option  for  the
              receiving side.

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
              This option causes the receiving side to treat a  symlink  to  a
              directory  as  though  it  were a real directory, but only if it
              matches a real directory from the sender.  Without this  option,
              the receiver’s symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real

              For  example,  suppose  you  transfer  a  directory  “foo”  that
              contains  a  file  “file”,  but  “foo” is a symlink to directory
              “bar” on the receiver.  Without  --keep-dirlinks,  the  receiver
              deletes symlink “foo”, recreates it as a directory, and receives
              the file into the  new  directory.   With  --keep-dirlinks,  the
              receiver keeps the symlink and “file” ends up in “bar”.

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending

       -H, --hard-links
              This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in  the  transfer
              and link together the corresponding files on the receiving side.
              Without this option,  hard-linked  files  in  the  transfer  are
              treated as though they were separate files.

              Note  that rsync can only detect hard links if both parts of the
              link are in the list of files being sent.

       -p, --perms
              This option causes the receiving rsync to  set  the  destination
              permissions to be the same as the source permissions.  (See also
              the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync  considers  to
              be the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

              o      Existing  files  (including  updated  files) retain their
                     existing permissions, though the  --executability  option
                     might change just the execute permission for the file.

              o      New  files  get their “normal” permission bits set to the
                     source  file’s  permissions  masked  with  the  receiving
                     directory’s  default  permissions  (either  the receiving
                     process’s umask, or the  permissions  specified  via  the
                     destination  directory’s  default ACL), and their special
                     permission bits disabled except in the case where  a  new
                     directory   inherits   a   setgid  bit  from  its  parent

              Thus,  when  --perms  and  --executability  are  both  disabled,
              rsync’s  behavior  is  the  same  as  that  of  other  file-copy
              utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In summary: to give destination files (both  old  and  new)  the
              source   permissions,  use  --perms.   To  give  new  files  the
              destination-default permissions (while  leaving  existing  files
              unchanged),  make  sure  that  the --perms option is off and use
              --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures  that  all  non-masked  bits  get
              enabled).   If you’d care to make this latter behavior easier to
              type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
              line  in  the  file  ~/.popt  (this  defines  the -s option, and
              includes --no-g to use the  default  group  of  the  destination

                 rsync alias -s --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

              You  could  then  use  this new option in a command such as this

                 rsync -asv src/ dest/

              (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -s, or  it  will  re-
              enable the "--no-*" options.)

              The  preservation  of  the  destination’s  setgid  bit on newly-
              created directories when --perms  is  off  was  added  in  rsync
              2.6.7.   Older  rsync  versions  erroneously preserved the three
              special permission bits for newly-created files when --perms was
              off,  while overriding the destination’s setgid bit setting on a
              newly-created directory.  Default ACL observance  was  added  to
              the  ACL  patch  for  rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled)
              rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in
              mind  that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
              these behaviors.)

       -E, --executability
              This option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or  non-
              executability)  of regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A
              regular file is considered to be executable if at least one  ’x’
              is  turned  on in its permissions.  When an existing destination
              file’s executability differs  from  that  of  the  corresponding
              source  file,  rsync modifies the destination file’s permissions
              as follows:

              o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns  off  all  its
                     ’x’ permissions.

              o      To  make  a  file  executable,  rsync  turns  on each ’x’
                     permission  that  has  a  corresponding  ’r’   permission

              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
              This  option  causes  rsync to update the destination ACLs to be
              the same as the source ACLs.  This nonstandard option only works
              if the remote rsync also supports it.  --acls implies --perms.

              Note  also that an optimization of the ACL-sending protocol used
              by this version makes it incompatible with sending files  to  an
              older  ACL-enabled  rsync  unless  you  double the --acls option
              (e.g. -AA).  This doubling is not needed when pulling files from
              an older rsync.

              This  option  tells  rsync  to apply one or more comma-separated
              “chmod” strings to the permission of the files in the  transfer.
              The  resulting value is treated as though it was the permissions
              that the sending side supplied for the file,  which  means  that
              this  option  can  seem  to  have no effect on existing files if
              --perms is not enabled.

              In addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in  the
              chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply
              to a directory by prefixing it with a ’D’, or  specify  an  item
              that  should  only  apply  to a file by prefixing it with a ’F’.
              For example:


              It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod  options,  as  each
              additional  option  is  just  appended to the list of changes to

              See  the  --perms  and  --executability  options  for  how   the
              resulting  permission  value  can be applied to the files in the

       -o, --owner
              This option causes rsync to set the  owner  of  the  destination
              file  to  be  the  same  as  the  source  file,  but only if the
              receiving rsync is being run as the  super-user  (see  also  the
              --super option to force rsync to attempt super-user activities).
              Without this option, the owner is set to the  invoking  user  on
              the receiving side.

              The  preservation  of ownership will associate matching names by
              default, but may fall back  to  using  the  ID  number  in  some
              circumstances  (see  also  the  --numeric-ids  option for a full

       -g, --group
              This option causes rsync to set the  group  of  the  destination
              file  to  be  the  same  as  the  source file.  If the receiving
              program is not running as the super-user (or if  --no-super  was
              specified),  only groups that the invoking user on the receiving
              side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
              group  is  set  to the default group of the invoking user on the
              receiving side.

              The preservation of group information  will  associate  matching
              names  by  default,  but may fall back to using the ID number in
              some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full

              This  option causes rsync to transfer character and block device
              files to the remote system  to  recreate  these  devices.   This
              option  has  no  effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the
              super-user and --super is not specified.

              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
              sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
              This  tells  rsync to transfer modification times along with the
              files and update them on the remote system.  Note that  if  this
              option  is  not  used, the optimization that excludes files that
              have not been modified cannot be effective; in  other  words,  a
              missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
              used -I, causing all files  to  be  updated  (though  the  rsync
              algorithm  will  make  the  update fairly efficient if the files
              haven’t actually changed, you’re much better off using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
              This tells rsync to  omit  directories  when  it  is  preserving
              modification  times  (see  --times).   If  NFS  is  sharing  the
              directories on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use  -O.
              This   option   is   inferred   if   you  use  --backup  without

              This tells the receiving side to attempt  super-user  activities
              even if the receiving rsync wasn’t run by the super-user.  These
              activities include: preserving users  via  the  --owner  option,
              preserving  all  groups (not just the current user’s groups) via
              the --groups option,  and  copying  devices  via  the  --devices
              option.   This  is useful for systems that allow such activities
              without being the super-user, and also  for  ensuring  that  you
              will get errors if the receiving side isn’t being running as the
              super-user.  To turn off super-user activities,  the  super-user
              can use --no-super.

       -S, --sparse
              Try  to  handle  sparse  files  efficiently so they take up less
              space on the destination.  Conflicts with --inplace because it’s
              not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

              NOTE:  Don’t  use  this option when the destination is a Solaris
              “tmpfs” filesystem. It doesn’t seem to handle  seeks  over  null
              regions correctly and ends up corrupting the files.

       -n, --dry-run
              This  tells  rsync to not do any file transfers, instead it will
              just report the actions it would have taken.

       -W, --whole-file
              With this option the incremental rsync algorithm is not used and
              the  whole  file  is  sent  as-is  instead.  The transfer may be
              faster if this option is used when  the  bandwidth  between  the
              source  and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
              disk  (especially  when  the  “disk”  is  actually  a  networked
              filesystem).   This  is  the  default  when  both the source and
              destination are specified as local paths.

       -x, --one-file-system
              This tells rsync to avoid crossing a  filesystem  boundary  when
              recursing.   This  does  not limit the user’s ability to specify
              items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync’s  recursion
              through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
              and also the analogous recursion on the  receiving  side  during
              deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a “bind” mount to
              the same device as being on the same filesystem.

              If  this  option  is  repeated,  rsync  omits  all   mount-point
              directories  from  the  copy.   Otherwise,  it includes an empty
              directory  at  each  mount-point  it   encounters   (using   the
              attributes  of  the  mounted  directory  because  those  of  the
              underlying mount-point directory are inaccessible).

              If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
              --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device
              is treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories  are
              unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This  tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories)
              that do not exist yet on the destination.   If  this  option  is
              combined  with  the  --ignore-existing  option, no files will be
              updated (which can be useful if all you want to do is to  delete
              extraneous files).

              This  tells  rsync  to skip updating files that already exist on
              the destination (this does not ignore existing  directories,  or
              nothing would get done).  See also --existing.

              This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the sending side the files
              (meaning non-directories) that are a part of  the  transfer  and
              have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

              This  tells  rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
              side (ones that aren’t on the sending side), but  only  for  the
              directories  that  are  being synchronized.  You must have asked
              rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
              using  a  wildcard  for  the directory’s contents (e.g. "dir/*")
              since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus  gets
              a  request  to  transfer individual files, not the files’ parent
              directory.  Files that  are  excluded  from  transfer  are  also
              excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
              option or mark the rules as only matching on  the  sending  side
              (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have  no  effect  unless
              --recursive was in effect.  Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will
              also  occur  when  --dirs  (-d)  is  in  effect,  but  only  for
              directories whose contents are being copied.

              This  option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a very
              good idea to run first using the --dry-run option  (-n)  to  see
              what  files would be deleted to make sure important files aren’t

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
              any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
              This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures  (such  as  NFS
              errors)  on the sending side causing a massive deletion of files
              on  the  destination.   You   can   override   this   with   the
              --ignore-errors option.

              The   --delete   option   may   be  combined  with  one  of  the
              --delete-WHEN   options   without   conflict,   as    well    as
              --delete-excluded.    However,  if  none  of  the  --delete-WHEN
              options  are  specified,  rsync  will   currently   choose   the
              --delete-before  algorithm.  A future version may change this to
              choose the --delete-during algorithm.  See also  --delete-after.

              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              before the transfer starts.  This is the default if --delete  or
              --delete-excluded  is specified without one of the --delete-WHEN
              options.  See --delete (which is implied) for  more  details  on

              Deleting  before  the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is
              tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
              the  transfer  possible.   However,  it  does  introduce a delay
              before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
              transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified).

       --delete-during, --del
              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              incrementally as the transfer happens.  This is a faster  method
              than choosing the before- or after-transfer algorithm, but it is
              only supported beginning with rsync version 2.6.4.  See --delete
              (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              after the transfer has completed.  This is  useful  if  you  are
              sending  new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer
              and you want their exclusions to  take  effect  for  the  delete
              phase  of the current transfer.  See --delete (which is implied)
              for more details on file-deletion.

              In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
              not  on  the  sending  side, this tells rsync to also delete any
              files on the receiving side that are excluded  (see  --exclude).
              See  the  FILTER  RULES  section  for  a  way to make individual
              exclusions behave this way on the receiver, and  for  a  way  to
              protect  files  from  --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is
              implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there  are
              I/O errors.

              This  option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
              is to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant  if
              deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

              Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
              when using --delete-after, and  it  used  to  be  non-functional
              unless the --recursive option was also enabled.

              This   tells  rsync  not  to  delete  more  than  NUM  files  or
              directories  (NUM  must  be  non-zero).   This  is  useful  when
              mirroring very large trees to prevent disasters.

              This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
              than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed  with  a
              string  to  indicate  a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
              value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

              The suffixes are as  follows:  “K”  (or  “KiB”)  is  a  kibibyte
              (1024),  “M”  (or  “MiB”) is a mebibyte (1024*1024), and “G” (or
              “GiB”)  is  a  gibibyte  (1024*1024*1024).   If  you  want   the
              multiplier  to be 1000 instead of 1024, use “KB”, “MB”, or “GB”.
              (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
              the suffix ends in either “+1” or “-1”, the value will be offset
              by one byte in the indicated direction.

              Examples:   --max-size=1.5mb-1    is    1499999    bytes,    and
              --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

              This  tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller
              than the specified SIZE, which  can  help  in  not  transferring
              small,  junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description
              of SIZE.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
              This forces the block size used in  the  rsync  algorithm  to  a
              fixed  value.  It is normally selected based on the size of each
              file being updated.  See the technical report for details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
              This option allows you to choose  an  alternative  remote  shell
              program  to  use  for communication between the local and remote
              copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to  use  ssh  by
              default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If  this  option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
              remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on  the
              remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be transmitted through that
              remote shell connection, rather than  through  a  direct  socket
              connection  to  a  running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See
              the section “USING  RSYNC-DAEMON  FEATURES  VIA  A  REMOTE-SHELL
              CONNECTION” above.

              Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
              COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single  argument.   You  must
              use  spaces  (not  tabs  or  other  whitespace)  to separate the
              command and args from each other, and you can use single- and/or
              double-quotes  to  preserve  spaces  in  an  argument  (but  not
              backslashes).   Note  that  doubling  a  single-quote  inside  a
              single-quoted  string  gives  you  a  single-quote; likewise for
              double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which  quotes
              your  shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some

                  -e ’ssh -p 2234’
                  -e ’ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"’

              (Note that ssh users  can  alternately  customize  site-specific
              connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

              You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
              environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as

              See  also  the  --blocking-io  option  which is affected by this

              Use this to specify what program is to  be  run  on  the  remote
              machine  to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
              default           remote-shell’s           path            (e.g.
              --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that  PROGRAM is run
              with the help of a shell, so it can be any program,  script,  or
              command  sequence  you’d  care  to  run,  so long as it does not
              corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync  is  using  to

              One  tricky  example  is to set a different default directory on
              the remote machine for use  with  the  --relative  option.   For

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" hst:c/d /e/

       -C, --cvs-exclude
              This  is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
              that you often don’t want to transfer between systems.  It  uses
              the  same  algorithm that CVS uses to determine if a file should
              be ignored.

              The exclude list is initialized to:

                     RCS  SCCS  CVS  CVS.adm   RCSLOG   cvslog.*   tags   TAGS
                     .make.state  .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak
                     *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so  *.exe
                     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/

              then  files  listed  in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
              and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable  (all
              cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

              Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
              .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed  therein.
              Unlike rsync’s filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
              whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

              If you’re combining -C with your own --filter rules, you  should
              note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own
              rules, regardless of where the -C was  placed  on  the  command-
              line.   This  makes  them  a  lower  priority than any rules you
              specified explicitly.  If you want to control  where  these  CVS
              excludes  get  inserted  into your filter rules, you should omit
              the -C as  a  command-line  option  and  use  a  combination  of
              --filter=:C  and  --filter=-C (either on your command-line or by
              putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a  filter  file  with  your
              other  rules).   The  first  option  turns  on the per-directory
              scanning for the .cvsignore file.  The second option does a one-
              time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
              This  option  allows  you  to  add  rules to selectively exclude
              certain files from the list of files to be transferred. This  is
              most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

              You  may use as many --filter options on the command line as you
              like to build up the list of files to exclude.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this

       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
              your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this

                 --filter=’dir-merge /.rsync-filter’

              This  tells  rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
              that have been sprinkled through the  hierarchy  and  use  their
              rules  to  filter the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
              it is a shorthand for this rule:

                 --filter=’exclude .rsync-filter’

              This filters out the .rsync-filter  files  themselves  from  the

              See  the  FILTER  RULES  section for detailed information on how
              these options work.

              This option is a simplified form of  the  --filter  option  that
              defaults  to  an  exclude rule and does not allow the full rule-
              parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this

              This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies
              a FILE that contains exclude patterns  (one  per  line).   Blank
              lines  in  the  file  and  lines  starting  with  ’;’ or ’#’ are
              ignored.  If FILE is -, the list  will  be  read  from  standard

              This  option  is  a  simplified form of the --filter option that
              defaults to an include rule and does not allow  the  full  rule-
              parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See  the  FILTER  RULES section for detailed information on this

              This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies
              a  FILE  that  contains  include patterns (one per line).  Blank
              lines in the file  and  lines  starting  with  ’;’  or  ’#’  are
              ignored.   If  FILE  is  -,  the list will be read from standard

              Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of  files
              to  transfer  (as read from the specified FILE or - for standard
              input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of  rsync  to  make
              transferring just the specified files and directories easier:

              o      The  --relative  (-R)  option is implied, which preserves
                     the path information that is specified for each  item  in
                     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
                     that off).

              o      The --dirs (-d) option  is  implied,  which  will  create
                     directories  specified  in  the  list  on the destination
                     rather than  noisily  skipping  them  (use  --no-dirs  or
                     --no-d if you want to turn that off).

              o      The  --archive  (-a)  option’s  behavior  does  not imply
                     --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if  you  want

              o      These  side-effects change the default state of rsync, so
                     the position of the --files-from option on  the  command-
                     line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g.
                     -a works the same before or after --files-from,  as  does
                     --no-R and all other options).

              The  file  names that are read from the FILE are all relative to
              the source dir — any leading slashes are  removed  and  no  ".."
              references  are  allowed  to go higher than the source dir.  For
              example, take this command:

                 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

              If /tmp/foo contains the string  “bin”  (or  even  “/bin”),  the
              /usr/bin  directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote
              host.  If it contains “bin/”  (note  the  trailing  slash),  the
              immediate  contents of the directory would also be sent (without
              needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file — this  began  in
              version  2.6.4).   In  both cases, if the -r option was enabled,
              that dir’s entire hierarchy would also be transferred  (keep  in
              mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
              since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that  the  effect  of
              the  (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only
              the path info that is read from the file — it does not force the
              duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

              In  addition,  the --files-from file can be read from the remote
              host instead of the local host if you specify a “host:” in front
              of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
              short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of “:” to mean “use the
              remote end of the transfer".  For example:

                 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

              This  would  copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list
              file that was located on the remote “src” host.

       -0, --from0
              This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from  a  file
              are  terminated  by  a  null  (’\0’) character, not a NL, CR, or
              CR+LF.     This    affects    --exclude-from,    --include-from,
              --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule.
              It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names  read  from  a
              .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
              This  option  instructs  rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory
              when creating temporary copies of the files transferred  on  the
              receiving   side.   The  default  behavior  is  to  create  each
              temporary  file  in  the  same  directory  as   the   associated
              destination file.

              This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
              does not have enough free space to hold a copy  of  the  largest
              file  in  the  transfer.   In  this  case (i.e. when the scratch
              directory in on a different disk partition), rsync will  not  be
              able  to rename each received temporary file over the top of the
              associated destination file,  but  instead  must  copy  it  into
              place.   Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the
              destination file, which means that  the  destination  file  will
              contain  truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done
              this way (even if the destination file were first  removed,  the
              data  locally  copied  to  a  temporary  file in the destination
              directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
              the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
              open), and thus there might not be enough room to  fit  the  new
              version on the disk at the same time.

              If  you  are using this option for reasons other than a shortage
              of  disk  space,  you  may  wish  to   combine   it   with   the
              --delay-updates  option, which will ensure that all copied files
              get  put  into  subdirectories  in  the  destination  hierarchy,
              awaiting the end of the transfer.  If you don’t have enough room
              to  duplicate  all  the  arriving  files  on   the   destination
              partition,  another  way  to  tell  rsync that you aren’t overly
              concerned about disk space is to use  the  --partial-dir  option
              with  a relative path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to
              stash off a copy of a single file in a subdir in the destination
              hierarchy,  rsync  will use the partial-dir as a staging area to
              bring over the copied file, and then rename it into  place  from
              there.  (Specifying  a  --partial-dir with an absolute path does
              not have this side-effect.)

       -y, --fuzzy
              This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
              any  destination  file  that  is missing.  The current algorithm
              looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
              file  that  has  an  identical  size  and  modified-time,  or  a
              similarly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file
              to try to speed up the transfer.

              Note  that  the  use of the --delete option might get rid of any
              potential fuzzy-match files, so  either  use  --delete-after  or
              specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

              This  option  instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  on the destination
              machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination  files
              against  doing  transfers  (if  the  files  are  missing  in the
              destination directory).  If a file  is  found  in  DIR  that  is
              identical to the sender’s file, the file will NOT be transferred
              to the destination directory.  This is  useful  for  creating  a
              sparse  backup  of  just files that have changed from an earlier

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest  directories
              may  be  provided,  which will cause rsync to search the list in
              the order specified for an exact match.  If  a  match  is  found
              that  differs  only  in attributes, a local copy is made and the
              attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file  from
              one  of  the  DIRs  will  be  selected  to  try  to speed up the

              If DIR is a relative path, it is  relative  to  the  destination
              directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

              This  option  behaves  like  --compare-dest, but rsync will also
              copy unchanged files found in DIR to the  destination  directory
              using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
              destination while leaving existing files intact, and then  doing
              a   flash-cutover   when   all   files  have  been  successfully

              Multiple --copy-dest directories may  be  provided,  which  will
              cause  rsync  to  search  the list in the order specified for an
              unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from  one
              of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This option behaves like --copy-dest, but  unchanged  files  are
              hard  linked  from  DIR to the destination directory.  The files
              must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
              possibly  ownership)  in  order  for  the  files  to  be  linked
              together.  An example:

                rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
              be  provided,  which  will cause rsync to search the list in the
              order specified for an exact match.  If a match  is  found  that
              differs  only  in  attributes,  a  local  copy  is  made and the
              attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file  from
              one  of  the  DIRs  will  be  selected  to  try  to speed up the

              Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times,  rsync
              will not link any files together because it only links identical
              files together as a substitute for transferring the file,  never
              as an additional check after the file is updated.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had  a  bug  that  could
              prevent  --link-dest  from working properly for a non-super-user
              when -o was specified (or implied by -a).  You  can  work-around
              this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

       -z, --compress
              With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it  is  sent
              to  the  destination  machine,  which reduces the amount of data
              being transmitted  —  something  that  is  useful  over  a  slow

              Note  that  this  option  typically  achieves better compression
              ratios than can be achieved by using a compressing remote  shell
              or  a  compressing  transport  because it takes advantage of the
              implicit information in the matching data blocks  that  are  not
              explicitly sent over the connection.

              Explicitly  set  the  compression  level to use (see --compress)
              instead  of  letting  it  default.   If  NUM  is  non-zero,  the
              --compress option is implied.

              With  this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs
              rather than using user and group names and mapping them at  both

              By  default  rsync  will  use  the  username  and  groupname  to
              determine what ownership to give files. The special  uid  0  and
              the  special  group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even
              if the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

              If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
              match  on  the  destination system, then the numeric ID from the
              source system is used instead.  See also  the  comments  on  the
              “use  chroot” setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information
              on how the chroot setting affects rsync’s ability to look up the
              names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

              This  option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds.
              If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
              exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.

              By  default  rsync  will  bind  to  the  wildcard  address  when
              connecting to an rsync daemon.  The --address option allows  you
              to  specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.  See
              also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use  rather  than
              the  default  of  873.  This is only needed if you are using the
              double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon  (since
              the  URL  syntax  has a way to specify the port as a part of the
              URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This option can provide endless fun for people who like to  tune
              their  systems  to  the  utmost degree. You can set all sorts of
              socket options which may make  transfers  faster  (or  slower!).
              Read  the  man page for the setsockopt() system call for details
              on some of the options you may be able to  set.  By  default  no
              special  socket options are set. This only affects direct socket
              connections to a remote rsync daemon.  This option  also  exists
              in the --daemon mode section.

              This  tells  rsync  to  use blocking I/O when launching a remote
              shell transport.  If the remote shell is either  rsh  or  remsh,
              rsync  defaults  to using blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to
              using non-blocking I/O.  (Note  that  ssh  prefers  non-blocking

       -i, --itemize-changes
              Requests  a  simple  itemized list of the changes that are being
              made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
              the  same  as  specifying --out-format=%i %n%L’.  If you repeat
              the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
              receiving  rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with
              older versions of rsync, but that also turns on  the  output  of
              other verbose messages).

              The  "%i"  escape  has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.
              The general format is like the string YXcstpoguax,  where  Y  is
              replaced  by the type of update being done, X is replaced by the
              file-type, and the other letters represent attributes  that  may
              be output if they are being modified.

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

              o      A  < means that a file is being transferred to the remote
                     host (sent).

              o      A > means that a file is being transferred to  the  local
                     host (received).

              o      A  c  means that a local change/creation is occurring for
                     the item (such as the creation  of  a  directory  or  the
                     changing of a symlink, etc.).

              o      A  h  means  that the item is a hard link to another item
                     (requires --hard-links).

              o      A . means that the item is not being updated  (though  it
                     might have attributes that are being modified).

              The  file-types  that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a
              directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S  for  a
              special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

              The  other  letters  in  the string above are the actual letters
              that will be output if the associated attribute for the item  is
              being  updated or a “.” for no change.  Three exceptions to this
              are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with  a  “+”,
              (2)  an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3) an
              unknown attribute replaces each letter  with  a  “?”  (this  can
              happen when talking to an older rsync).

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

              o      A c means the checksum of the file is different and  will
                     be updated by the file transfer (requires --checksum).

              o      A  s  means the size of the file is different and will be
                     updated by the file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is being
                     updated  to  the  sender’s  value (requires --times).  An
                     alternate value of T means that the time will be  set  to
                     the  transfer  time,  which  happens anytime a symlink is
                     transferred, or when a  file  or  device  is  transferred
                     without --times.

              o      A  p  means  the  permissions are different and are being
                     updated to the sender’s value (requires --perms).

              o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
                     the  sender’s  value  (requires  --owner  and  super-user

              o      A g means the group is different and is being updated  to
                     the sender’s value (requires --group and the authority to
                     set the group).

              o      The u slot is reserved for reporting update (access) time
                     changes (a feature that is not yet released).

              o      The a means that the ACL information changed.

              o      The  x  slot is reserved for reporting extended attribute
                     changes (a feature that is not yet released).

              One other output is possible:  when  deleting  files,  the  “%i”
              will  output  the string “*deleting” for each item that is being
              removed (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough  rsync
              that  it  logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose

              This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
              to  the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text string
              containing embedded single-character escape  sequences  prefixed
              with a percent (%) character.  For a list of the possible escape
              characters, see the “log  format”  setting  in  the  rsyncd.conf

              Specifying  this  option  will mention each file, dir, etc. that
              gets updated  in  a  significant  way  (a  transferred  file,  a
              recreated symlink/device, or a touched directory).  In addition,
              if the itemize-changes escape (%i) is included  in  the  string,
              the  logging  of  names  increases  to  mention any item that is
              changed in any way (as long as the receiving side  is  at  least
              2.6.4).   See  the --itemize-changes option for a description of
              the output of "%i".

              The --verbose option implies a format of "%n%L", but you can use
              --out-format  without --verbose if you like, or you can override
              the format of its per-file output using this option.

              Rsync will output  the  out-format  string  prior  to  a  file’s
              transfer   unless  one  of  the  transfer-statistic  escapes  is
              requested, in which case the logging is done at the end  of  the
              file’s  transfer.   When  this  late  logging  is  in effect and
              --progress is also specified, rsync will also output the name of
              the  file  being  transferred  prior to its progress information
              (followed, of course, by the out-format output).

              This option causes rsync to log what it  is  doing  to  a  file.
              This  is  similar  to the logging that a daemon does, but can be
              requested for the client side and/or the server side of  a  non-
              daemon  transfer.   If  specified  as  a client option, transfer
              logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
              the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

              Here’s  a  example  command that requests the remote side to log
              what is happening:

                rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --log-file=/tmp/rlog" src/ dest/

              This is very useful if you need to debug  why  a  connection  is
              closing unexpectedly.

              This  allows  you  to specify exactly what per-update logging is
              put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must
              also  be  specified for this option to have any effect).  If you
              specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned  in
              the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see
              the “log format” setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This tells rsync to print a verbose set  of  statistics  on  the
              file  transfer,  allowing  you  to  tell how effective the rsync
              algorithm is for your data.

              The current statistics are as follows:

              o      Number of files is the  count  of  all  “files”  (in  the
                     generic  sense),  which  includes  directories, symlinks,

              o      Number of files transferred is the count of normal  files
                     that were updated via the rsync algorithm, which does not
                     include created dirs, symlinks, etc.

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
                     transfer.   This  does not count any size for directories
                     or special files, but does include the size of  symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
                     sizes for just the transferred files.

              o      Literal data is how much unmatched  file-update  data  we
                     had  to  send  to  the  receiver  for  it to recreate the
                     updated files.

              o      Matched data is how much data the  receiver  got  locally
                     when recreating the updated files.

              o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
                     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
                     in-memory  size for the file list due to some compressing
                     of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

              o      File list generation time is the number of  seconds  that
                     the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
                     modern rsync on the sending side for this to be  present.

              o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
                     sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

              o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
                     sent from the client side to the server side.

              o      Total  bytes  received  is  the  count of all non-message
                     bytes that rsync received by the  client  side  from  the
                     server  side.   “Non-message”  bytes  means that we don’t
                     count the bytes for a verbose  message  that  the  server
                     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
              This  tells  rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in
              the output instead of trying to test  them  to  see  if  they’re
              valid  in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.  All
              control  characters  (but  never  tabs)  are   always   escaped,
              regardless of this option’s setting.

              The  escape  idiom  that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal
              backslash (\) and a  hash  (#),  followed  by  exactly  3  octal
              digits.   For  example,  a  newline  would output as “\#012”.  A
              literal backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it
              is followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
              Output  numbers in a more human-readable format.  This makes big
              numbers output using larger units, with a K, M, or G suffix.  If
              this  option  was  specified  once,  these units are K (1000), M
              (1000*1000), and G (1000*1000*1000); if the option is  repeated,
              the units are powers of 1024 instead of 1000.

              By  default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
              the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances  it  is  more
              desirable   to  keep  partially  transferred  files.  Using  the
              --partial option tells rsync to  keep  the  partial  file  which
              should  make  a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much

              A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option  is
              to  specify  a  DIR  that  will be used to hold the partial data
              (instead of writing it out to the  destination  file).   On  the
              next  transfer,  rsync will use a file found in this dir as data
              to speed up the resumption of the transfer and  then  delete  it
              after it has served its purpose.

              Note  that  if  --whole-file  is  specified  (or  implied),  any
              partial-dir file that is found for a file that is being  updated
              will  simply  be  removed  (since rsync is sending files without
              using the incremental rsync algorithm).

              Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir  —
              not  the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative path
              (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to  have  rsync  create
              the  partial-directory  in the destination file’s directory when
              needed, and then remove  it  again  when  the  partial  file  is

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
              an exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.   This
              will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
              on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
              of  partial-dir  items  on  the receiving side.  An example: the
              above  --partial-dir  option  would  add   the   equivalent   of
              "--exclude=.rsync-partial/"  at  the  end  of  any  other filter

              If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
              your  own  exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because
              (1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the  end  of  your
              other  rules,  or  (2)  you may wish to override rsync’s exclude
              choice.  For instance, if you want to make  rsync  clean-up  any
              left-over  partial-dirs  that  may  be  lying around, you should
              specify --delete-after and add a “risk” filter rule, e.g.  -fR
              .rsync-partial/’.      (Avoid     using    --delete-before    or
              --delete-during unless you don’t need rsync to use  any  of  the
              left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)

              IMPORTANT:  the  --partial-dir  should  not be writable by other
              users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID “/tmp”.

              You can also set the  partial-dir  value  the  RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
              environment  variable.  Setting this in the environment does not
              force --partial to be  enabled,  but  rather  it  affects  where
              partial  files  go  when  --partial is specified.  For instance,
              instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
              you  could  set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment
              and then just use the -P option  to  turn  on  the  use  of  the
              .rsync-tmp  dir  for partial transfers.  The only times that the
              --partial option does not look for this  environment  value  are
              (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with
              --partial-dir), and (2) when --delay-updates was specified  (see

              For   the  purposes  of  the  daemon-config’s  “refuse  options”
              setting, --partial-dir does not imply  --partial.   This  is  so
              that  a  refusal of the --partial option can be used to disallow
              the overwriting of destination files with  a  partial  transfer,
              while  still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

              This option puts the temporary file from each updated file  into
              a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
              all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.   This
              attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
              By default the files are placed into a directory named  “.~tmp~”
              in  each  file’s  destination directory, but if you’ve specified
              the --partial-dir option, that directory will be  used  instead.
              See  the  comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion
              of how this “.~tmp~” dir will be excluded from the transfer, and
              what  you  can do if you want rsync to cleanup old “.~tmp~” dirs
              that might  be  lying  around.   Conflicts  with  --inplace  and

              This  option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
              file transferred) and also requires enough free  disk  space  on
              the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
              files.  Note also that you should not use an  absolute  path  to
              --partial-dir  unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files
              in the transfer having the same  name  (since  all  the  updated
              files  will  be  put  into  a  single  directory  if the path is
              absolute) and (2) there are no mount  points  in  the  hierarchy
              (since  the  delayed  updates will fail if they can’t be renamed
              into place).

              See also the “atomic-rsync” perl script in the “support”  subdir
              for  an  update  algorithm  that  is  even  more atomic (it uses
              --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
              This option tells the  receiving  rsync  to  get  rid  of  empty
              directories  from  the  file-list,  including nested directories
              that  have  no  non-directory  children.   This  is  useful  for
              avoiding the creation of a bunch of useless directories when the
              sending rsync is recursively scanning a hierarchy of files using
              include/exclude/filter rules.

              Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
              affects what directories get deleted when a  delete  is  active.
              However,  keep  in  mind that excluded files and directories can
              prevent existing items from being deleted  (because  an  exclude
              hides source files and protects destination files).

              You  can  prevent  the pruning of certain empty directories from
              the file-list by using a global “protect” filter.  For instance,
              this  option would ensure that the directory “emptydir” was kept
              in the file-list:

              --filter ’protect emptydir/’

              Here’s an example that copies all .pdf  files  in  a  hierarchy,
              only  creating the necessary destination directories to hold the
              .pdf  files,  and  ensures  that  any  superfluous   files   and
              directories in the destination are removed (note the hide filter
              of non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

              rsync -avm --del --include=’*.pdf’ -f ’hide,! */’ src/ dest

              If you didn’t want to remove superfluous destination files,  the
              more  time-honored  options  of  "--include=’*/’  --exclude=’*’"
              would work fine in place of the hide-filter  (if  that  is  more
              natural to you).

              This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
              progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user  something  to
              watch.  Implies --verbose if it wasn’t already specified.

              While  rsync  is  transferring  a  regular  file,  it  updates a
              progress line that looks like this:

                    782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

              In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes  or
              63% of the sender’s file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
              of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish  in
              4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

              These  statistics  can be misleading if the incremental transfer
              algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender’s file consists
              of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
              will probably drop dramatically when the receiver  gets  to  the
              literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
              finish than the receiver  estimated  as  it  was  finishing  the
              matched part of the file.

              When  the  file  transfer  finishes, rsync replaces the progress
              line with a summary line that looks like this:

                   1238099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfer#5, to-check=169/396)

              In this example, the file was 1238099 bytes long in  total,  the
              average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
              per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete,  it  was
              the  5th  transfer  of  a  regular file during the current rsync
              session, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to  check
              (to  see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396
              total files in the file-list.

       -P     The -P  option  is  equivalent  to  --partial  --progress.   Its
              purpose  is  to make it much easier to specify these two options
              for a long transfer that may be interrupted.

              This option allows you to provide  a  password  in  a  file  for
              accessing  a  remote rsync daemon. Note that this option is only
              useful when  accessing  an  rsync  daemon  using  the  built  in
              transport,  not  when using a remote shell as the transport. The
              file must not be world readable.  It  should  contain  just  the
              password as a single line.

              This  option will cause the source files to be listed instead of
              transferred.  This option is  inferred  if  there  is  a  single
              source  arg  and no destination specified, so its main uses are:
              (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg  into
              a  file-listing command, (2) to be able to specify more than one
              local source arg (note: be sure to include the destination),  or
              (3)  to  avoid  the  automatically  added  "-r --exclude=/*/*’"
              options that rsync usually uses as a  compatibility  kluge  when
              generating  a non-recursive listing.  Caution: keep in mind that
              a source arg with a wild-card is  expanded  by  the  shell  into
              multiple  args,  so  it is never safe to try to list such an arg
              without using this option.  For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

              This option allows you to specify a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
              kilobytes  per  second. This option is most effective when using
              rsync with large files (several megabytes and up).  Due  to  the
              nature  of  rsync  transfers,  blocks  of data are sent, then if
              rsync determines the transfer was too fast, it will wait  before
              sending  the  next data block. The result is an average transfer
              rate equaling the specified limit. A value of zero specifies  no

              Record  a  file  that  can later be applied to another identical
              destination with --read-batch. See the “BATCH MODE” section  for
              details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

              Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the
              destination system when  creating  the  batch.   This  lets  you
              transport  the  changes to the destination system via some other
              means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to  some
              portable  media:  if this media fills to capacity before the end
              of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
              destination  and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the
              changes  (as  long  as  you  don’t  mind  a  partially   updated
              destination system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

              Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
              remote system  because  this  allows  the  batched  data  to  be
              diverted  from  the sender into the batch file without having to
              flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender  is
              remote, and thus can’t write the batch).

              Apply  all  of  the  changes  stored  in FILE, a file previously
              generated by --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch  data  will
              be  read  from standard input.  See the “BATCH MODE” section for

              Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful  for
              creating  a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
              of rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used  with  the
              --write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
              run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
              creating  the  batch file to force the older protocol version to
              be used in the batch file (assuming you can’t upgrade the  rsync
              on the reading system).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells  rsync  to  prefer  IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets.  This
              only affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as
              the  outgoing  socket  when directly contacting an rsync daemon.
              See also these options in the --daemon mode section.

              Set the MD4 checksum seed to  the  integer  NUM.   This  4  byte
              checksum  seed  is  included in each block and file MD4 checksum
              calculation.  By default the checksum seed is generated  by  the
              server and defaults to the current time() .  This option is used
              to  set  a  specific  checksum  seed,  which   is   useful   for
              applications  that  want repeatable block and file checksums, or
              in the case where the user wants a more  random  checksum  seed.
              Note  that  setting  NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default of
              time() for checksum seed.


       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

              This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon  you
              start  running  may  be accessed using an rsync client using the
              host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

              If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it  is
              being  run  via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
              terminal and become a background daemon.  The daemon  will  read
              the  config  file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client
              and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man
              page for more details.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
              daemon with the --daemon option.  The  --address  option  allows
              you  to  specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.
              This makes virtual hosting  possible  in  conjunction  with  the
              --config  option.   See  also the “address” global option in the
              rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option allows you to specify a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
              kilobytes  per second for the data the daemon sends.  The client
              can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but their requested
              value  will  be  rounded down if they try to exceed it.  See the
              client version of this option (above) for some extra details.

              This specifies an alternate config file than the default.   This
              is  only  relevant  when  --daemon is specified.  The default is
              /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon  is  running  over  a  remote
              shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that
              case  the  default  is  rsyncd.conf  in  the  current  directory
              (typically $HOME).

              When  running  as  a  daemon, this option instructs rsync to not
              detach itself and become a background process.  This  option  is
              required  when  running  as a service on Cygwin, and may also be
              useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
              or  AIX’s  System  Resource  Controller.   --no-detach  is  also
              recommended when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has
              no effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

              This  specifies  an  alternate TCP port number for the daemon to
              listen on rather than the default of 873.  See also  the  “port”
              global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This  option  tells  the  rsync daemon to use the given log-file
              name instead of using the “log file” setting in the config file.

              This  option  tells  the  rsync  daemon  to use the given FORMAT
              string instead of using the “log format” setting in  the  config
              file.   It  also enables “transfer logging” unless the string is
              empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

              This overrides the socket options  setting  in  the  rsyncd.conf
              file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
              This  option increases the amount of information the daemon logs
              during its  startup  phase.   After  the  client  connects,  the
              daemon’s  verbosity level will be controlled by the options that
              the client used and the “max verbosity” setting in the  module’s
              config section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells  rsync  to  prefer  IPv4/IPv6  when  creating the incoming
              sockets  that  the  rsync  daemon  will  use   to   listen   for
              connections.   One  of  these  options  may be required in older
              versions of Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the  kernel  (if
              you  see  an “address already in use” error when nothing else is
              using the port, try specifying --ipv6 or  --ipv4  when  starting
              the daemon).

       -h, --help
              When   specified   after  --daemon,  print  a  short  help  page
              describing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.


       The filter rules  allow  for  flexible  selection  of  which  files  to
       transfer (include) and which files to skip (exclude).  The rules either
       directly specify include/exclude patterns or  they  specify  a  way  to
       acquire  more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).

       As the list of files/directories to transfer  is  built,  rsync  checks
       each  name  to  be  transferred  against  the  list  of include/exclude
       patterns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on:  if it is
       an  exclude  pattern,  then  that  file is skipped; if it is an include
       pattern then that filename is not skipped; if no  matching  pattern  is
       found, then the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync  builds  an  ordered  list  of  filter  rules as specified on the
       command-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:


       You have your choice of using either  short  or  long  RULE  names,  as
       described below.  If you use a short-named rule, the ’,’ separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.   The  PATTERN  or  FILENAME  that
       follows  (when  present)  must  come  after either a single space or an
       underscore (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

              exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
              include, + specifies an include pattern.
              merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
              dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
              hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the  transfer.
              show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
              protect,  P  specifies  a  pattern  for  protecting  files  from
              risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
              clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as  are
       comment lines that start with a “#”.

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full range of rule parsing as described above —  they  only  allow  the
       specification of include/exclude patterns plus a “!” token to clear the
       list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a  file).
       If  a  pattern  does  not  begin with “- ” (dash, space) or “+ ” (plus,
       space), then the rule will be interpreted as if “+ ”  (for  an  include
       option) or “- ” (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A
       --filter option, on the other hand, must always contain either a  short
       or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note  also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one
       rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options  on
       the  command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.


       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the “+”,
       “-”,  etc.  filter  rules  (as  introduced  in the FILTER RULES section
       above).  The include/exclude rules  each  specify  a  pattern  that  is
       matched   against  the  names  of  the  files  that  are  going  to  be
       transferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts  with  a  /  then  it  is  anchored  to  a
              particular  spot  in  the  hierarchy  of  files, otherwise it is
              matched against the end of the pathname.  This is similar  to  a
              leading  ^  in  regular  expressions.  Thus “/foo” would match a
              file named “foo” at either the “root of  the  transfer”  (for  a
              global  rule)  or  in  the  merge-file’s  directory  (for a per-
              directory rule).  An unqualified “foo” would match any  file  or
              directory named “foo” anywhere in the tree because the algorithm
              is applied recursively from the top down; it behaves as if  each
              path  component  gets  a turn at being the end of the file name.
              Even the unanchored “sub/foo” would match at any  point  in  the
              hierarchy  where  a  “foo”  was  found  within a directory named
              “sub”.  See the section on  ANCHORING  INCLUDE/EXCLUDE  PATTERNS
              for  a  full discussion of how to specify a pattern that matches
              at the root of the transfer.

       o      if the pattern  ends  with  a  /  then  it  will  only  match  a
              directory, not a file, link, or device.

       o      rsync  chooses  between doing a simple string match and wildcard
              matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these  three
              wildcard characters: ’*’, ’?’, and ’[’ .

       o      a  ’*’  matches  any  non-empty  path  component  (it  stops  at

       o      use ’**’ to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a ’?’ matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a  ’[’  introduces  a  character  class,  such   as   [a-z]   or

       o      in  a  wildcard  pattern,  a  backslash  can be used to escape a
              wildcard  character,  but  it  is  matched  literally  when   no
              wildcards are present.

       o      if  the  pattern  contains  a / (not counting a trailing /) or a
              “**”, then it is matched against the  full  pathname,  including
              any leading directories. If the pattern doesn’t contain a / or a
              “**”, then it is matched only against the final component of the
              filename.   (Remember  that the algorithm is applied recursively
              so “full filename” can actually be any portion of  a  path  from
              the starting directory on down.)

       o      a  trailing  “dir_name/***” will match both the directory (as if
              “dir_name/” had  been  specified)  and  all  the  files  in  the
              directory  (as  if  “dir_name/**”  had  been  specified).  (This
              behavior is new for version 2.6.7.)

       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied  by
       -a),  every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down, so
       include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent’s
       full  name (e.g. to include “/foo/bar/baz” the subcomponents “/foo” and
       “/foo/bar” must not be excluded).  The exclude patterns actually short-
       circuit  the  directory  traversal  stage when rsync finds the files to
       send.  If a pattern excludes a  particular  parent  directory,  it  can
       render  a  deeper  include  pattern  ineffectual  because rsync did not
       descend through that  excluded  section  of  the  hierarchy.   This  is
       particularly  important  when using a trailing ’*’ rule.  For instance,
       this won’t work:

              + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
              + /file-is-included
              - *

       This fails because the parent directory “some” is excluded by  the  ’*’
       rule,  so  rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the “some” or
       “some/path” directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories in
       the  hierarchy  to  be  included by using a single rule: “+ */” (put it
       somewhere   before   the   “-   *”   rule),   and   perhaps   use   the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited.   For  instance,
       this set of rules works fine:

              + /some/
              + /some/path/
              + /some/path/this-file-is-found
              + /file-also-included
              - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      “- *.o” would exclude all filenames matching *.o

       o      “-  /foo”  would  exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the
              transfer-root directory

       o      “- foo/” would exclude any directory named foo

       o      “- /foo/*/bar” would exclude any file named bar which is at  two
              levels   below  a  directory  named  foo  in  the  transfer-root

       o      “- /foo/**/bar” would exclude any file named  bar  two  or  more
              levels   below  a  directory  named  foo  in  the  transfer-root

       o      The combination of “+ */”, “+ *.c”, and “- *” would include  all
              directories  and  C  source files but nothing else (see also the
              --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The combination of “+ foo/”, “+  foo/bar.c”,  and  “-  *”  would
              include  only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory
              must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the “*”)


       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
       merge  (.)  or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There are two kinds of merged files — single-instance  (’.’)  and  per-
       directory  (’:’).   A  single-instance merge file is read one time, and
       its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the “.”
       rule.   For  per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory
       that it traverses for the named file, merging  its  contents  when  the
       file  exists  into  the  current  list  of inherited rules.  These per-
       directory rule files must be created on the sending side because it  is
       the  sending  side  that  is  being  scanned for the available files to
       transfer.  These rule files may also need  to  be  transferred  to  the
       receiving  side if you want them to affect what files don’t get deleted

       Some examples:

              merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
              . /etc/rsync/default.rules
              dir-merge .per-dir-filter
              dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
              :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A - specifies that the  file  should  consist  of  only  exclude
              patterns,   with   no  other  rule-parsing  except  for  in-file

       o      A + specifies that the  file  should  consist  of  only  include
              patterns,   with   no  other  rule-parsing  except  for  in-file

       o      A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in  a  CVS-
              compatible  manner.   This  turns on ’n’, ’w’, and ’-’, but also
              allows the list-clearing token  (!)  to  be  specified.   If  no
              filename is provided, “.cvsignore” is assumed.

       o      A  e  will  exclude  the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.
              “dir-merge,e .rules” is like “dir-merge .rules” and “-  .rules”.

       o      An   n   specifies   that   the   rules  are  not  inherited  by

       o      A w specifies  that  the  rules  are  word-split  on  whitespace
              instead  of  the  normal  line-splitting.   This  also turns off
              comments.  Note: the space that separates the  prefix  from  the
              rule  is  treated  specially,  so “- foo + bar” is parsed as two
              rules (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn’t also disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for  the  “+”  or  “-”
              rules  (below)  in order to have the rules that are read in from
              the file default to having that  modifier  set.   For  instance,
              “merge,-/  .excl” would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-
              path excludes, while “dir-merge,s .filt” and  “:sC”  would  each
              make  all  their  per-directory  rules apply only on the sending

       The following modifiers are accepted after a “+” or “-”:

       o      A “/” specifies that the include/exclude rule should be  matched
              against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
              “-/ /etc/passwd” would exclude the  passwd  file  any  time  the
              transfer  was  sending  files from the “/etc” directory, and “-/
              subdir/foo” would always exclude “foo” when it is in a dir named
              “subdir”,  even if “foo” is at the root of the current transfer.

       o      A “!” specifies that the include/exclude should take  effect  if
              the pattern fails to match.  For instance, “-! */” would exclude
              all non-directories.

       o      A C is used to indicate that all the  global  CVS-exclude  rules
              should  be  inserted  as  excludes in place of the “-C”.  No arg
              should follow.

       o      An s is used to indicate that the rule applies  to  the  sending
              side.   When  a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files
              from being transferred.  The default is for  a  rule  to  affect
              both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
              default rules become sender-side only.  See also  the  hide  (H)
              and  show  (S)  rules,  which  are  an  alternate way to specify
              sending-side includes/excludes.

       o      An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the  receiving
              side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
              from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
              the  protect  (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way
              to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       Per-directory  rules  are  inherited  in  all  subdirectories  of   the
       directory  where  the  merge-file was found unless the ’n’ modifier was
       used.  Each subdirectory’s rules are prefixed  to  the  inherited  per-
       directory rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher
       priority than the inherited rules.  The entire set of  dir-merge  rules
       are grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so
       it is possible  to  override  dir-merge  rules  via  a  rule  that  got
       specified  earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing
       rule (“!”) is read from  a  per-directory  file,  it  only  clears  the
       inherited rules for the current merge file.

       Another  way  to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being
       inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored  rules  in  a
       per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file’s directory, so
       a pattern “/foo” would only match the file “foo” in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here’s  an  example  filter  file  which  you’d specify via --filter=".

              merge /home/user/.global-filter
              - *.gz
              dir-merge .rules
              + *.[ch]
              - *.o

       This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter  file  at
       the  start of the list and also turns the “.rules” filename into a per-
       directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to  the  start  of  the
       directory  scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
       directory  of  the  first  transfer  directory, rsync will scan all the
       parent dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for  the
       indicated  per-directory  file.   For instance, here is a common filter
       (see -F):

              --filter=’: /.rsync-filter’

       That rule tells rsync  to  scan  for  the  file  .rsync-filter  in  all
       directories  from  the  root  down  through the parent directory of the
       transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file in
       the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer.  (Note: for an
       rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module’s “path”.)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

              rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=’: ../../.rsync-filter’ /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=’: .rsync-filter’ /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The first two commands above will look for “.rsync-filter” in  “/”  and
       “/src”   before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for  the  file  in
       “/src/path” and  its  subdirectories.   The  last  command  avoids  the
       parent-dir  scan  and  only looks for the “.rsync-filter” files in each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a “.cvsignore” in your patterns,
       you  should  use  the  rule  “:C”,  which  creates  a  dir-merge of the
       .cvsignore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.   You  can  use
       this  to  affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option’s inclusion of the
       per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your  rules  by  putting
       the  “:C”  wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync
       would add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of  all
       your  other  rules  (giving  it a lower priority than your command-line
       rules).  For example:

              cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter=’. -’ a/ b
              + foo.o
              - *.old
              rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude=’*.old’ a/ b

       Both of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each  one  will  merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather
       than at the end.  This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the
       rules  that  follow  the  :C  instead  of being subservient to all your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions,   the  contents  of  $HOME/.cvsignore,  and  the  value  of
       $CVSIGNORE) you should omit the  -C  command-line  option  and  instead
       insert a “-C” rule into your filter rules; e.g. “--filter=-C”.


       You  can clear the current include/exclude list by using the “!” filter
       rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The  “current”
       list  is  either  the  global list of rules (if the rule is encountered
       while parsing the filter options)  or  a  set  of  per-directory  rules
       (which  are  inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use
       this to clear out the parent’s rules).


       As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are  anchored  at
       the “root of the transfer” (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are anchored at the merge-file’s  directory).   If  you  think  of  the
       transfer  as  a  subtree  of  names  that are being sent from sender to
       receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to  be  duplicated
       in  the  destination  directory.  This root governs where patterns that
       start with a / match.

       Because the matching is relative to  the  transfer-root,  changing  the
       trailing  slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative
       option affects the path you need to use in your matching  (in  addition
       to  changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let’s say that we want to match two source files, one with an  absolute
       path of “/home/me/foo/bar”, and one with a path of “/home/you/bar/baz”.
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing “me”)
              +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing “you”)
              Target file: /dest/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
              +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The  easiest  way to see what name you should filter is to just look at
       the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the  name  (use
       the --dry-run option if you’re not yet ready to copy any files).


       Without  a  delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
       sending side,  so  you  can  feel  free  to  exclude  the  merge  files
       themselves  without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the ’e’
       modifier adds this exclude for you, as seen  in  these  two  equivalent

              rsync -av --filter=’: .excl’ --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
              rsync -av --filter=’:e .excl’ host:src/dir /dest

       However,  if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want
       some files to be excluded from being deleted, you’ll need  to  be  sure
       that  the  receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way
       is to include the per-directory merge files in  the  transfer  and  use
       --delete-after,  because  this ensures that the receiving side gets all
       the same exclude rules as the sending side before it  tries  to  delete

              rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you’ll need
       to either specify some global exclude  rules  (i.e.  specified  on  the
       command  line), or you’ll need to maintain your own per-directory merge
       files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is  this  (assume
       that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=’: .rules’ --filter=’. /my/extra.rules’
          --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In  the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the
       transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are  subservient  to  the
       rules  merged  from  the .rules files because they were specified after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side is  excluding  the  .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically  exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don’t
       get deleted) and then put rules into the local files  to  control  what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

           rsync -av --filter=’:e /.rsync-filter’ --delete \
               host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest


       Batch  mode  can  be  used  to  apply  the  same set of updates to many
       identical systems. Suppose one has a tree  which  is  replicated  on  a
       number  of  hosts.   Now  suppose  some  changes have been made to this
       source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts.
       In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch
       option to apply the changes made to the  source  tree  to  one  of  the
       destination  trees.   The write-batch option causes the rsync client to
       store in a “batch file” all  the  information  needed  to  repeat  this
       operation against other, identical destination trees.

       To  apply  the  recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync
       with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For convenience, one additional file is creating when  the  write-batch
       option  is used.  This file’s name is created by appending “.sh” to the
       batch filename.  The .sh file  contains  a  command-line  suitable  for
       updating  a  destination tree using that batch file. It can be executed
       using a  Bourne  (or  Bourne-like)  shell,  optionally  passing  in  an
       alternate  destination  tree pathname which is then used instead of the
       original path. This is useful when the destination  tree  path  differs
       from the original destination tree path.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data  block  generation  more  than  once  when  updating
       multiple  destination  trees. Multicast transport protocols can be used
       to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many hosts  at  once,
       instead of sending the same data to every host individually.


              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ scp foo* remote:
              $ ssh remote ./ /bdest/dir/

              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In   these   examples,   rsync  is  used  to  update  /adest/dir/  from
       /source/dir/ and the information to repeat this operation is stored  in
       “foo” and “”.  The host “remote” is then updated with the batched
       data going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between  the
       two  examples  reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal
       with batches:

       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn’t have to be
              local  —  you  can push or pull data to/from a remote host using
              either the  remote-shell  syntax  or  rsync  daemon  syntax,  as

       o      The  first  example  uses  the  created “” file to get the
              right rsync options when running the read-batch command  on  the
              remote host.

       o      The  second  example  reads the batch data via standard input so
              that the batch file doesn’t need to  be  copied  to  the  remote
              machine first.  This example avoids the script because it
              needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit
              the  script  file  if you wished to make use of it (just be sure
              that no other option is trying to use standard  input,  such  as
              the "--exclude-from=-" option).


       The  read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating
       to be identical to the destination tree that was  used  to  create  the
       batch  update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees
       is encountered the update might be discarded with  a  warning  (if  the
       file  appears  to  be  up-to-date  already)  or  the file-update may be
       attempted and then, if the file fails to verify, the  update  discarded
       with  an  error.   This  means that it should be safe to re-run a read-
       batch operation if the command got interrupted.  If you wish  to  force
       the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file’s size
       and date, use the -I option (when reading  the  batch).   If  an  error
       occurs,  the  destination  tree will probably be in a partially updated
       state. In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch)  mode
       of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The  rsync  version used on all destinations must be at least as new as
       the one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an  error
       if  the  protocol  version  in the batch file is too new for the batch-
       reading rsync to handle.  See also the --protocol option for a  way  to
       have  the  creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can
       understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so
       mixing versions older than that with newer versions will not work.)

       When  reading  a  batch  file,  rsync  will  force the value of certain
       options to match the data in the batch file if you didn’t set  them  to
       the  same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and should)
       be  changed.   For  instance  --write-batch  changes  to  --read-batch,
       --files-from  is  dropped, and the --filter/--include/--exclude options
       are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The   code   that   creates   the   file   transforms    any
       filter/include/exclude options into a single list that is appended as a
       “here” document to the shell script file.  An  advanced  user  can  use
       this  to  modify  the  exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by
       --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
       the  shell  script  as  an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch
       command for the batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync was based on “rsync+”, but the  latest
       version uses a new implementation.


       Three  basic  behaviors  are  possible when rsync encounters a symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By default, symbolic links are  not  transferred  at  all.   A  message
       “skipping non-regular” file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If  --links  is  specified,  then  symlinks are recreated with the same
       target on the destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are “collapsed” by  copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       rsync  also  distinguishes  “safe”  and  “unsafe”  symbolic  links.  An
       example where this might be used is  a  web  site  mirror  that  wishes
       ensure  the  rsync  module they copy does not include symbolic links to
       /etc/passwd   in   the   public   section   of   the    site.     Using
       --copy-unsafe-links  will cause any links to be copied as the file they
       point to on the destination.   Using  --safe-links  will  cause  unsafe
       links  to  be  omitted altogether.  (Note that you must specify --links
       for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic links are considered unsafe  if  they  are  absolute  symlinks
       (start  with  /),  empty, or if they contain enough “..”  components to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here’s a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The  list
       is  in  order  of  precedence,  so if your combination of options isn’t
       mentioned, use the first  line  that  is  a  complete  subset  of  your

              Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
              other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn all unsafe symlinks  into  files  and  duplicate  all  safe

              Turn  all  unsafe  symlinks  into  files,  noisily skip all safe

       --links --safe-links
              Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

              Duplicate all symlinks.


       rsync occasionally produces error  messages  that  may  seem  a  little
       cryptic.  The  one  that seems to cause the most confusion is “protocol
       version mismatch — is your shell clean?”.

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote  shell
       facility  producing  unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using
       for its transport. The way to diagnose this  problem  is  to  run  your
       remote shell like this:

              ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then  look  at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat
       should be a zero length file. If you are getting the above  error  from
       rsync  then  you  will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
       data. Look at the contents and try to work out what  is  producing  it.
       The  most  common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
       (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output  statements  for  non-
       interactive logins.

       If   you  are  having  trouble  debugging  filter  patterns,  then  try
       specifying the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity rsync will  show
       why each individual file is included or excluded.


       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested   action   not  supported:  an  attempt  was  made  to
              manipulate 64-bit files on a platform that cannot support  them;
              or  an  option was specified that is supported by the client and
              not by the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive


              The  CVSIGNORE  environment  variable  supplements  any   ignore
              patterns  in  .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for
              more details.

              The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you  to  override  the
              default  shell  used  as  the transport for rsync.  Command line
              options are permitted after the command name, just as in the  -e

              The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
              rsync client to use a web  proxy  when  connecting  to  a  rsync
              daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

              Setting  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the required password allows you to
              run authenticated rsync connections to an rsync  daemon  without
              user  intervention. Note that this does not supply a password to
              a shell transport such as ssh.

       USER or LOGNAME
              The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to  determine
              the  default  username  sent  to an rsync daemon.  If neither is
              set, the username defaults to “nobody”.

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user’s default
              .cvsignore file.


       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf




       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When  transferring  to  FAT  filesystems  rsync  may re-sync unmodified
       files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are  transferred  as  native  numerical

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the website at


       This man page is current for version 2.6.9 of rsync.


       The  options  --server  and  --sender are used internally by rsync, and
       should never be typed by  a  user  under  normal  circumstances.   Some
       awareness  of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
       when setting up a login that  can  only  run  an  rsync  command.   For
       instance,  the  support  directory  of  the  rsync  distribution has an
       example script named rrsync (for restricted rsync)  that  can  be  used
       with a restricted ssh login.


       rsync  is  distributed  under  the  GNU  public  license.  See the file
       COPYING for details.

       A WEB site is available at  The site  includes
       an  FAQ-O-Matic  which  may  cover  questions unanswered by this manual

       The primary ftp site for rsync is

       We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program.

       This program uses the excellent zlib  compression  library  written  by
       Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.


       Thanks  to  Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Rothwell
       and David Bell for helpful suggestions, patches and testing  of  rsync.
       I’ve probably missed some people, my apologies if I have.

       Especial  thanks also to: David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer,
       Martin Pool, Wayne Davison, J.W. Schultz.


       rsync was originally written by Andrew  Tridgell  and  Paul  Mackerras.
       Many people have later contributed to it.

       Mailing   lists   for   support   and   development  are  available  at

                                  6 Nov 2006                          rsync(1)