Provided by: zip_2.32-1_i386 bug


       zip, zipcloak, zipnote, zipsplit - package and compress (archive) files


       zip   [-aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$]   [-b path]    [-n suffixes]
       [-t mmddyyyy] [-tt mmddyyyy] [ zipfile [ file1 file2 ...]] [-xi list]

       zipcloak [-dhL] [-b path] zipfile

       zipnote [-hwL] [-b path] zipfile

       zipsplit [-hiLpst] [-n size] [-b path] zipfile


       zip  is  a compression and file packaging utility for Unix, VMS, MSDOS,
       OS/2, Windows NT, Minix, Atari and Macintosh, Amiga and Acorn RISC  OS.

       It  is  analogous  to  a  combination  of  the UNIX commands tar(1) and
       compress(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil  Katz’s  ZIP  for  MSDOS

       A  companion  program  (unzip(1)),  unpacks  zip archives.  The zip and
       unzip(1) programs can work with archives produced by PKZIP,  and  PKZIP
       and  PKUNZIP  can work with archives produced by zip.  zip version 2.32
       is compatible with PKZIP 2.04.  Note that PKUNZIP 1.10  cannot  extract
       files produced by PKZIP 2.04 or zip 2.32. You must use PKUNZIP 2.04g or
       unzip 5.0p1 (or later versions) to extract them.

       For a brief help on zip and unzip,  run  each  without  specifying  any
       parameters on the command line.

       The  program  is  useful for packaging a set of files for distribution;
       for  archiving  files;  and  for  saving  disk  space  by   temporarily
       compressing unused files or directories.

       The  zip  program  puts  one or more compressed files into a single zip
       archive, along with information about the files (name, path, date, time
       of  last modification, protection, and check information to verify file
       integrity).  An entire directory structure can be  packed  into  a  zip
       archive  with  a  single command.  Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are
       common for text files.  zip has one compression method (deflation)  and
       can  also  store  files without compression.  zip automatically chooses
       the better of the two for each file to be compressed.

       The basic command format is

              zip options archive inpattern inpattern ...

       where archive is a new or existing  zip  archive  and  inpattern  is  a
       directory  or file path optionally including wildcards.  When given the
       name of an existing zip archive, zip  will  replace  identically  named
       entries  in the zip archive or add entries for new names.  For example,
       if  exists  and  contains  foo/file1  and  foo/file2,  and  the
       directory foo contains the files foo/file1 and foo/file3, then:

              zip -r foo

       or more concisely

              zip -r foo foo

       will  replace foo/file1 in and add foo/file3 to  After
       this,  contains  foo/file1,  foo/file2,  and  foo/file3,  with
       foo/file2 unchanged from before.

       If  the file list is specified as -@, [Not on MacOS] zip takes the list
       of input files from standard input.  Under UNIX,  this  option  can  be
       used  to  powerful effect in conjunction with the find(1) command.  For
       example, to archive all the C source files in the current directory and
       its subdirectories:

              find . -name "*.[ch]" -print | zip source -@

       (note  that  the pattern "*.[ch]" must be quoted to keep the shell from
       expanding it).  zip will also accept a single dash  ("-")  as  the  zip
       file name, in which case it will write the zip file to standard output,
       allowing the output to be piped to another program. For example:

              zip -r - . | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       would write the zip output directly to a tape with the specified  block
       size for the purpose of backing up the current directory.

       zip  also  accepts  a  single  dash  ("-")  as the name of a file to be
       compressed, in which case it will read the file  from  standard  input,
       allowing zip to take input from another program. For example:

              tar cf - . | zip backup -

       would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing
       up the current directory. This generally  produces  better  compression
       than  the  previous  example  using the -r option, because zip can take
       advantage of redundancy between files. The backup can be restored using
       the command

              unzip -p backup | tar xf -

       When  no  zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal, zip acts
       as a filter,  compressing  standard  input  to  standard  output.   For

              tar cf - . | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       is equivalent to

              tar cf - . | zip - - | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       zip  archives  created in this manner can be extracted with the program
       funzip which is provided in the unzip package, or by  gunzip  which  is
       provided in the gzip package. For example:

              dd if=/dev/nrst0  ibs=16k | funzip | tar xvf -

       When  changing an existing zip archive, zip will write a temporary file
       with the new contents, and only replace the old one when the process of
       creating the new version has been completed without error.

       If  the  name  of  the  zip  archive does not contain an extension, the
       extension .zip is added. If the  name  already  contains  an  extension
       other than .zip the existing extension is kept unchanged.


       -a     [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format.

       -A     Adjust  self-extracting  executable  archive.  A self-extracting
              executable archive is created by prepending the SFX stub  to  an
              existing  archive.  The  -A option tells zip to adjust the entry
              offsets  stored  in  the  archive  to  take  into  account  this
              "preamble" data.

       Note:  self-extracting  archives  for the Amiga are a special case.  At
       present, only the Amiga port of zip is capable of adjusting or updating
       these  without  corrupting them.  -J can be used to remove the SFX stub
       if other updates need to be made.

       -B     [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text).

       -Bn    [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as
              bit  0: Don’t add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit 1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe)
              bit  3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe)
              bit 8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files

       -b path
              Use  the  specified  path  for  the  temporary  zip archive. For

                     zip -b /tmp stuff *

              will put the  temporary  zip  archive  in  the  directory  /tmp,
              copying  over to the current directory when done. This
              option is only useful when updating an existing archive, and the
              file  system  containing  this  old archive does not have enough
              space to hold both old and new archives at the same time.

       -c     Add one-line comments for each file.  File  operations  (adding,
              updating)  are  done  first, and the user is then prompted for a
              one-line comment for each file.  Enter the comment  followed  by
              return, or just return for no comment.

       -d     Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\* \*.o

              will  remove the entry foo/tom/junk, all of the files that start
              with foo/harry/, and all of the files that end with .o  (in  any
              path).   Note  that  shell pathname expansion has been inhibited
              with backslashes, so that zip can see  the  asterisks,  enabling
              zip  to  match on the contents of the zip archive instead of the
              contents of the current directory.  You can also use  quotes  to
              escape wildcards, as in

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk "foo/harry/*" "*.o"

              Under systems where the shell does not expand wildcards, such as
              MSDOS, the backslashes are not needed.  The above would then be

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/* *.o

              Under MSDOS, -d is case sensitive when it matches names  in  the
              zip  archive.  This requires that file names be entered in upper
              case if they were zipped by PKZIP on an MSDOS system.

       -df    [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive.
              Good   for   exporting   files   to  foreign  operating-systems.
              Resource-forks will be ignored at all.

       -D     Do not create  entries  in  the  zip  archive  for  directories.
              Directory   entries   are  created  by  default  so  that  their
              attributes can be saved in the  zip  archive.   The  environment
              variable  ZIPOPT  can be used to change the default options. For
              example under Unix with sh:

                     ZIPOPT="-D"; export ZIPOPT

              (The variable ZIPOPT can be used for any option except -i and -x
              and  can  include several options.) The option -D is a shorthand
              for -x "*/" but the latter cannot  be  set  as  default  in  the
              ZIPOPT environment variable.

       -e     Encrypt  the  contents of the zip archive using a password which
              is entered on the terminal in response to a  prompt  (this  will
              not  be  echoed;  if  standard error is not a tty, zip will exit
              with an error).  The password prompt is  repeated  to  save  the
              user  from typing errors.  Note that this encrypts with standard
              pkzip encryption which is considered weak.

       -E     [OS/2] Use  the  .LONGNAME  Extended  Attribute  (if  found)  as

       -f     Replace  (freshen)  an existing entry in the zip archive only if
              it has been modified more recently than the version  already  in
              the  archive;  unlike  the  update option (-u) this will not add
              files that are not already in the zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -f foo

              This command should be run from the same  directory  from  which
              the  original  zip  command  was  run, since paths stored in zip
              archives are always relative.

              Note that the timezone environment variable  TZ  should  be  set
              according  to the local timezone in order for the -f , -u and -o
              options to work correctly.  The reasons behind this are somewhat
              subtle  but  have  to  do with the differences between the Unix-
              format file  times  (always  in  GMT)  and  most  of  the  other
              operating  systems  (always  local  time)  and  the necessity to
              compare the two.  A typical TZ value  is  ‘‘MET-1MEST’’  (Middle
              European  time  with  automatic adjustment for ‘‘summertime’’ or
              Daylight Savings Time).

       -F     Fix the zip archive. This option can be used if some portions of
              the  archive  are  missing. It is not guaranteed to work, so you
              MUST make a backup of the original archive first.

              When doubled as in -FF the compressed  sizes  given  inside  the
              damaged  archive  are  not  trusted  and  zip  scans for special
              signatures to identify the limits between the  archive  members.
              The  single  -F  is more reliable if the archive is not too much
              damaged, for example if it has only been truncated, so try  this
              option first.

              Neither  option will recover archives that have been incorrectly
              transferred in ascii mode instead of binary. After  the  repair,
              the  -t option of unzip may show that some files have a bad CRC.
              Such files cannot be recovered; you can  remove  them  from  the
              archive using the -d option of zip.

       -g     Grow  (append to) the specified zip archive, instead of creating
              a new one. If this operation fails, zip attempts to restore  the
              archive  to  its  original  state. If the restoration fails, the
              archive might become corrupted.  This  option  is  ignored  when
              there’s  no existing archive or when at least one archive member
              must be updated or deleted.

       -h     Display the zip help information (this also appears  if  zip  is
              run with no arguments).

       -i files
              Include only the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo . -i \*.c

              which  will include only the files that end in .c in the current
              directory and its subdirectories. (Note  for  PKZIP  users:  the
              equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              PKZIP  does  not  allow  recursion in directories other than the
              current  one.)   The  backslash  avoids   the   shell   filename
              substitution,  so  that the name matching is performed by zip at
              all directory levels.  Not escaping wildcards on shells that  do
              wildcard  substitution before zip gets the command line may seem
              to work but files in subdirectories matching  the  pattern  will
              never  be checked and so not matched.  For shells, such as Win32
              command prompts, that do not replace  file  patterns  containing
              wildcards  with  the  respective  file  names,  zip  will do the
              recursion and escaping the wildcards is not needed.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo  . -i@include.lst

              which will only include the files in the current  directory  and
              its   subdirectories   that  match  the  patterns  in  the  file
              include.lst, one file pattern per line.

       -I     [Acorn RISC OS] Don’t scan through Image files.  When used,  zip
              will  not  consider  Image  files  (eg.  DOS partitions or Spark
              archives when SparkFS is loaded) as directories but  will  store
              them as single files.

              For example, if you have SparkFS loaded, zipping a Spark archive
              will result  in  a  zipfile  containing  a  directory  (and  its
              content)  while  using  the  ’I’ option will result in a zipfile
              containing a Spark archive. Obviously this second case will also
              be obtained (without the ’I’ option) if SparkFS isn’t loaded.

       -j     Store  just the name of a saved file (junk the path), and do not
              store directory names. By default, zip will store the full  path
              (relative to the current path).

       -jj    [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). The complete path including
              volume will be stored. By default  the  relative  path  will  be

       -J     Strip any prepended data (e.g. a SFX stub) from the archive.

       -k     Attempt  to  convert  the  names  and paths to conform to MSDOS,
              store only the MSDOS attribute (just the  user  write  attribute
              from  UNIX), and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though
              it was not); for compatibility with PKUNZIP  under  MSDOS  which
              cannot handle certain names such as those with two dots.

       -l     Translate  the  Unix  end-of-line  character  LF  into the MSDOS
              convention CR LF. This option  should  not  be  used  on  binary
              files.   This  option  can  be  used  on Unix if the zip file is
              intended for PKUNZIP under MSDOS. If  the  input  files  already
              contain  CR  LF, this option adds an extra CR. This ensures that
              unzip -a on Unix will get back an exact  copy  of  the  original
              file,  to  undo  the  effect  of zip -l.  See the note on binary
              detection for -ll below.

       -ll    Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF.  This option
              should  not be used on binary files and a warning will be issued
              when a file is converted that later is detected  to  be  binary.
              This option can be used on MSDOS if the zip file is intended for
              unzip under Unix.

              In Zip 2.31 and later, binary detection has been changed from  a
              simple  percentage  of binary characters being considered binary
              to a more selective method that should consider  files  in  many
              character   sets,   including  UTF-8,  that  only  include  text
              characters in that character set to be text.  This allows  unzip
              -a to convert these files.

       -L     Display the zip license.

       -m     Move  the  specified  files into the zip archive; actually, this
              deletes the target directories/files after making the  specified
              zip  archive.  If a directory becomes empty after removal of the
              files, the directory is also  removed.  No  deletions  are  done
              until zip has created the archive without error.  This is useful
              for conserving disk space, but is potentially dangerous so it is
              recommended to use it in combination with -T to test the archive
              before removing all input files.

       -MM    All input patterns must match at least one file  and  all  input
              files  found  must  be readable.  Normally when an input pattern
              does not match a file the "name not matched" warning  is  issued
              and  when  an  input file has been found but later is missing or
              not readable a missing or not readable warning  is  issued.   In
              either  case zip continues creating the archive, with missing or
              unreadable new files being skipped  and  files  already  in  the
              archive  remaining  unchanged.  After the archive is created, if
              any files were not readable zip returns the OPEN error code  (18
              on most systems) instead of the normal success return (0 on most
              systems).  With -MM set, zip exits as soon as an  input  pattern
              is not matched (whenever the "name not matched" warning would be
              issued) or when an input file is not readable.  In  either  case
              zip exits with an OPEN error and no archive is created.

              This option is useful when a known list of files is to be zipped
              so any missing or unreadable files will result in an error.   It
              is less useful when used with wildcards, but zip will still exit
              with an error if any input pattern doesn’t match  at  least  one
              file  and  if  any matched files are unreadable.  If you want to
              create the archive anyway and only need to know  if  files  were
              skipped, don’t use -MM and just check the return code.

       -n suffixes
              Do  not attempt to compress files named with the given suffixes.
              Such files are simply stored (0% compression) in the output  zip
              file,  so  that  zip  doesn’t  waste its time trying to compress
              them.   The  suffixes  are  separated  by   either   colons   or
              semicolons.  For example:

                     zip -rn  foo foo

              will  copy  everything from foo into, but will store any
              files that end in .Z, .zip, .tiff, .gif, or .snd without  trying
              to  compress  them  (image  and sound files often have their own
              specialized compression methods).   By  default,  zip  does  not
              compress     files     with     extensions     in    the    list
      Such files are stored directly  in
              the output archive.  The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used
              to change the default options. For example under Unix with csh:

                     setenv ZIPOPT "-n"

              To attempt compression on all files, use:

                     zip -n : foo

              The maximum compression option -9 also attempts  compression  on
              all files regardless of extension.

              On  Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes (3
              hex digit format). By default, zip does not compress files  with
              filetypes  in the list DDC:D96:68E (i.e. Archives, CFS files and
              PackDir files).

       -N     [Amiga,  MacOS]  Save  Amiga  or  MacOS  filenotes  as   zipfile
              comments.  They can be restored by using the -N option of unzip.
              If -c is used also, you are prompted for comments only for those
              files that do not have filenotes.

       -o     Set  the  "last  modified" time of the zip archive to the latest
              (oldest) "last modified" time found among the entries in the zip
              archive.   This  can  be  used  without any other operations, if
              desired.  For example:

                     zip -o foo

              will change the last modified time of to the latest time
              of the entries in

       -P password
              use  password  to  encrypt  zipfile  entries  (if any).  THIS IS
              INSECURE!  Many multi-user operating systems  provide  ways  for
              any user to see the current command line of any other user; even
              on stand-alone systems there is always the threat  of  over-the-
              shoulder  peeking.   Storing the plaintext password as part of a
              command line in an automated script  is  even  worse.   Whenever
              possible,  use  the  non-echoing,  interactive  prompt  to enter
              passwords.  (And where security is truly important,  use  strong
              encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively
              weak encryption provided by standard zipfile utilities.)

       -q     Quiet  mode;  eliminate  informational  messages   and   comment
              prompts.   (Useful, for example, in shell scripts and background

       -Qn    [QDOS] store information about the file in the file header  with
              n defined as
              bit  0: Don’t add headers for any file
              bit  1: Add headers for all files
              bit  2: Don’t wait for interactive key press on exit

       -r     Travel the directory structure recursively; for example:

                     zip -r foo

              or a bit more concisely

                     zip -r foo foo

              In  this case, all the files and directories in foo are saved in
              a zip archive named, including files with names starting
              with ".", since the recursion does not use the shell’s file-name
              substitution mechanism.  If you wish to include only a  specific
              subset of the files in directory foo and its subdirectories, use
              the -i option to specify the pattern of files  to  be  included.
              You  should  not  use  -r with the name ".*", since that matches
              ".."   which  will  attempt  to  zip  up  the  parent  directory
              (probably not what was intended).

       -R     Travel  the  directory  structure  recursively  starting  at the
              current directory; for example:

                     zip -R foo ’*.c’

              In this case, all the files matching *.c in the tree starting at
              the  current  directory  are  stored  into  a  zip archive named
      Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

       -S     [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden  files.
              [MacOS]  Includes  finder  invisible  files,  which  are ignored

       -t mmddyyyy
              Do not operate on files modified prior to  the  specified  date,
              where mm is the month (0-12), dd is the day of the month (1-31),
              and yyyy is the year.  The ISO 8601 date  format  yyyy-mm-dd  is
              also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo

                     zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo

              will  add  all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were
              last modified on or after 7 December 1991, to  the  zip  archive

       -tt mmddyyyy
              Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date,
              where mm is the month (0-12), dd is the day of the month (1-31),
              and  yyyy  is  the year.  The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is
              also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo

                     zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo

              will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories  that  were
              last  modified  before  30  November  1995,  to  the zip archive

       -T     Test the integrity of the new zip file. If the check fails,  the
              old  zip  file  is  unchanged  and (with the -m option) no input
              files are removed.

       -u     Replace (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it
              has  been modified more recently than the version already in the
              zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -u stuff *

              will add any new files in the current directory, and update  any
              files  which  have been modified since the zip archive
              was last created/modified (note that zip will not  try  to  pack
     into itself when you do this).

              Note  that  the  -u  option  with  no arguments acts like the -f
              (freshen) option.

       -v     Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info.

              Normally, when applied to real operations, this  option  enables
              the  display  of  a  progress  indicator  during compression and
              requests  verbose  diagnostic  info  about   zipfile   structure

              When  -v  is the only command line argument, and either stdin or
              stdout is not redirected to  a  file,  a  diagnostic  screen  is
              printed.  In  addition  to  the  help screen header with program
              name, version, and release date, some pointers to  the  Info-ZIP
              home   and   distribution   sites  are  given.  Then,  it  shows
              information about the  target  environment  (compiler  type  and
              version,  OS  version, compilation date and the enabled optional
              features used to create the zip executable.

       -V     [VMS] Save VMS file  attributes  and  use  portable  form.   zip
              archives created with this option are truncated at EOF but still
              may not be usable on other systems depending on the  file  types
              being zipped.

       -VV    [VMS]  Save VMS file attributes.  zip archives created with this
              option include the entire file and should be  able  to  recreate
              most  VMS files on VMS systems but these archives will generally
              not be usable on other systems.

       -w     [VMS] Append the version  number  of  the  files  to  the  name,
              including  multiple  versions  of files.  (default: use only the
              most recent version of a specified file).

       -x files
              Explicitly exclude the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o

              which  will  include  the  contents  of  foo  in  while
              excluding  all  the  files that end in .o.  The backslash avoids
              the shell filename substitution, so that the  name  matching  is
              performed  by zip at all directory levels.  If you do not escape
              wildcards  in  patterns  it  may  seem  to  work  but  files  in
              subdirectories will not be checked for matches.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo foo -x@exclude.lst

              which  will  include  the  contents  of  foo  in  while
              excluding all the files that match  the  patterns  in  the  file
              exclude.lst (each file pattern on a separate line).

       -X     Do  not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on OS/2,
              uid/gid and file times on Unix).

       -y     Store symbolic links as such in  the  zip  archive,  instead  of
              compressing  and  storing the file referred to by the link (UNIX

       -z     Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.  The
              comment  is  ended by a line containing just a period, or an end
              of file condition (^D on UNIX, ^Z on MSDOS, OS/2, and VMS).  The
              comment can be taken from a file:

                     zip -z foo < foowhat

       -#     Regulate  the  speed of compression using the specified digit #,
              where  -0  indicates  no  compression  (store  all  files),   -1
              indicates  the fastest compression method (less compression) and
              -9   indicates   the   slowest   compression   method   (optimal
              compression,  ignores  the suffix list). The default compression
              level is -6.

       -!     [WIN32] Use privileges (if granted) to  obtain  all  aspects  of
              WinNT security.

       -@     Take  the  list  of  input  files  from standard input. Only one
              filename per line.

       -$     [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32] Include the  volume  label  for  the  drive
              holding the first file to be compressed.  If you want to include
              only the volume label or to force  a  specific  drive,  use  the
              drive name as first file name, as in:

                     zip -$ foo a: c:bar


       The simplest example:

              zip stuff *

       creates the archive (assuming it does not exist) and puts all
       the files in the current directory in it, in compressed form (the  .zip
       suffix  is added automatically, unless that archive name given contains
       a  dot  already;  this  allows  the  explicit  specification  of  other

       Because of the way the shell does filename substitution, files starting
       with "." are not included; to include these as well:

              zip stuff .* *

       Even  this  will  not  include  any  subdirectories  from  the  current

       To zip up an entire directory, the command:

              zip -r foo foo

       creates  the  archive, containing all the files and directories
       in the directory foo that is contained within the current directory.

       You may want to make a zip archive that  contains  the  files  in  foo,
       without  recording  the directory name, foo.  You can use the -j option
       to leave off the paths, as in:

              zip -j foo foo/*

       If you are short on disk space, you might not have enough room to  hold
       both  the  original  directory  and  the  corresponding  compressed zip
       archive.  In this case, you can create the archive in steps  using  the
       -m  option.   If  foo contains the subdirectories tom, dick, and harry,
       you can:

              zip -rm foo foo/tom
              zip -rm foo foo/dick
              zip -rm foo foo/harry

       where the first command creates, and the next two  add  to  it.
       At  the  completion  of  each  zip command, the last created archive is
       deleted, making room for the next zip command to function.


       This section applies only to UNIX, though the  ?,  *,  and  []  special
       characters  are implemented on other systems including MSDOS and Win32.
       Watch this space for details on MSDOS and VMS operation.

       The UNIX shells (sh(1) and csh(1)) do filename substitution on  command
       arguments.  The special characters are:

       ?      match any single character

       *      match any number of characters (including none)

       []     match  any  character in the range indicated within the brackets
              (example: [a-f], [0-9]).

       When these characters are encountered (without  being  escaped  with  a
       backslash  or  quotes),  the  shell will look for files relative to the
       current path that match the pattern, and replace the  argument  with  a
       list of the names that matched.

       The  zip  program can do the same matching on names that are in the zip
       archive being modified or, in the  case  of  the  -x  (exclude)  or  -i
       (include)  options,  on  the  list of files to be operated on, by using
       backslashes or quotes to tell the shell not to do the  name  expansion.
       In  general,  when zip encounters a name in the list of files to do, it
       first looks for the name in the file system.  If it finds it,  it  then
       adds  it  to the list of files to do.  If it does not find it, it looks
       for the name in the zip archive being modified (if  it  exists),  using
       the  pattern matching characters described above, if present.  For each
       match, it will add that name to the list  of  files  to  be  processed,
       unless  this  name  matches  one  given with the -x option, or does not
       match any name given with the -i option.

       The pattern matching includes the path, and so patterns like \*.o match
       names  that  end in ".o", no matter what the path prefix is.  Note that
       the backslash must precede every special character (i.e. ?*[]), or  the
       entire argument must be enclosed in double quotes ("").

       In  general, use backslash to make zip do the pattern matching with the
       -f (freshen) and -d  (delete)  options,  and  sometimes  after  the  -x
       (exclude)  option when used with an appropriate operation (add, -u, -f,
       or -d).


       ZIPOPT contains default options that will be used when running zip

       ZIP    [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC OS] contains extensions separated by a : that  will  cause
              native  filenames  with  one  of  the specified extensions to be
              added to the zip file with basename and extension swapped.  zip

              [VMS] see ZIPOPT


       compress(1), shar(1), tar(1), unzip(1), gzip(1)


       The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by
       PKWARE and takes on the following values, except under VMS:

              0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

              2      unexpected end of zip file.

              3      a  generic  error  in  the  zipfile  format was detected.
                     Processing may have completed successfully  anyway;  some
                     broken  zipfiles  created  by other archivers have simple

              4      zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers
                     during program initialization.

              5      a  severe  error  in  the  zipfile  format  was detected.
                     Processing probably failed immediately.

              6      entry too large to split (with zipsplit), read, or write

              7      invalid comment format

              8      zip -T failed or out of memory

              9      the user  aborted  zip  prematurely  with  control-C  (or

              10     zip encountered an error while using a temp file

              11     read or seek error

              12     zip has nothing to do

              13     missing or empty zip file

              14     error writing to a file

              15     zip was unable to create a file to write to

              16     bad command line parameters

              18     zip could not open a specified file to read

       VMS  interprets  standard Unix (or PC) return values as other, scarier-
       looking things, so zip instead maps them into VMS-style  status  codes.
       The current mapping is as follows:   1 (success) for normal exit,
        and (0x7fff000? + 16*normal_zip_exit_status) for all errors, where the
       ‘?’ is 0 (warning) for zip value 12, 2 (error) for the zip values 3, 6,
       7, 9, 13, 16, 18, and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones.


       zip  2.32  is  not compatible with PKUNZIP 1.10. Use zip 1.1 to produce
       zip files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1.10.

       zip files produced by zip 2.32 must not be updated by zip 1.1 or  PKZIP
       1.10,  if  they contain encrypted members or if they have been produced
       in a pipe or on a non-seekable device. The old versions of zip or PKZIP
       would create an archive with an incorrect format.  The old versions can
       list the contents of the zip file but cannot extract it anyway (because
       of  the  new  compression algorithm).  If you do not use encryption and
       use regular disk files, you do not have to care about this problem.

       Under VMS, not all of the odd file formats are treated properly.   Only
       stream-LF  format  zip files are expected to work with zip.  Others can
       be converted using Rahul Dhesi’s BILF program.   This  version  of  zip
       handles  some  of  the  conversion  internally.   When  using Kermit to
       transfer zip files from Vax to MSDOS, type "set file type block" on the
       Vax.   When  transferring from MSDOS to Vax, type "set file type fixed"
       on the Vax.  In both cases, type "set file type binary" on MSDOS.

       Under VMS, zip hangs for file specification  that  uses  DECnet  syntax

       On  OS/2,  zip  cannot  match  some  names,  such as those including an
       exclamation mark or a hash sign.  This is a bug  in  OS/2  itself:  the
       32-bit DosFindFirst/Next don’t find such names.  Other programs such as
       GNU tar are also affected by this bug.

       Under OS/2, the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is  (for
       compatibility)   the   amount   returned   by  the  16-bit  version  of
       DosQueryPathInfo(). Otherwise OS/2 1.3 and 2.0 would  report  different
       EA sizes when DIRing a file.  However, the structure layout returned by
       the 32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different, it uses extra padding
       bytes  and  link  pointers  (it’s  a linked list) to have all fields on
       4-byte  boundaries  for  portability  to  future  RISC  OS/2  versions.
       Therefore  the value reported by zip (which uses this 32-bit-mode size)
       differs from that reported by DIR.  zip stores the  32-bit  format  for
       portability, even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version running on OS/2 1.3,
       so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size.

       Development of zip 3.0 and unzip 6.0 are underway.   See  those  source
       distributions for many new features and the latest bug fixes.


       Copyright (C) 1997-2006 Info-ZIP.

       Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler, Richard B. Wales, Jean-loup Gailly,
       Onno van der Linden, Kai Uwe Rommel, Igor Mandrichenko, John  Bush  and
       Paul  Kienitz.   Permission is granted to any individual or institution
       to use, copy, or redistribute this software  so  long  as  all  of  the
       original  files  are included, that it is not sold for profit, and that
       this copyright notice is retained.


       Please  send bug reports and comments to: zip-bugs at
       For bug reports, please include the version of zip  (see  zip -h),  the
       make options used to compile it (see zip -v), the machine and operating
       system in use, and as much additional information as possible.


       Thanks to R. P. Byrne for his Shrink.Pas program, which  inspired  this
       project,  and  from which the shrink algorithm was stolen; to Phil Katz
       for placing in the public  domain  the  zip  file  format,  compression
       format, and .ZIP filename extension, and for accepting minor changes to
       the file format; to  Steve  Burg  for  clarifications  on  the  deflate
       format;  to  Haruhiko  Okumura  and  Leonid Broukhis for providing some
       useful ideas for the compression algorithm;  to  Keith  Petersen,  Rich
       Wales,  Hunter  Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list and
       ftp site for the Info-ZIP group to use; and most  importantly,  to  the
       Info-ZIP  group  itself  (listed in the file infozip.who) without whose
       tireless testing and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would  not  have
       been  possible.   Finally  we  should  thank (blame) the first Info-ZIP
       moderator, David Kirschbaum, for getting us into this mess in the first
       place.  The manual page was rewritten for UNIX by R. P. C. Rodgers.