Provided by: zsh_4.3.4-24ubuntu1_i386 bug

NAME

       zshbuiltins - zsh built-in commands

SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS

       - simple command
              See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’.

       . file [ arg ... ]
              Read  commands  from  file and execute them in the current shell
              environment.

              If file does not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS  is  set,  the
              shell  looks  in  the  components of $path to find the directory
              containing file.  Files in the current directory  are  not  read
              unless  ‘.’  appears  somewhere  in  $path.   If  a  file  named
              ‘file.zwc’ is found, is newer than file,  and  is  the  compiled
              form  (created with the zcompile builtin) of file, then commands
              are read from that file instead of file.

              If any arguments arg  are  given,  they  become  the  positional
              parameters;  the old positional parameters are restored when the
              file is done executing.  The exit status is the exit  status  of
              the last command executed.

       : [ arg ... ]
              This  command  does nothing, although normal argument expansions
              is performed which may have effects on shell parameters.  A zero
              exit status is returned.

       alias [ {+|-}gmrsL ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              For  each  name with a corresponding value, define an alias with
              that value.  A trailing space in value causes the next  word  to
              be  checked  for  alias  expansion.   If the -g flag is present,
              define a global alias; global aliases are expanded even if  they
              do not occur in command position.

              If  the  -s  flags  is  present,  define  a suffix alias: if the
              command word on a command line is in the form ‘text.name’, where
              text  is any non-empty string, it is replaced by the text ‘value
              text.name’.  Note that name is treated as a literal string,  not
              a  pattern.   A  trailing  space in value is not special in this
              case.  For example,

                     alias -s ps=gv

              will cause the command ‘*.ps’ to be expanded to ‘gv  *.ps’.   As
              alias expansion is carried out earlier than globbing, the ‘*.ps’
              will then be expanded.  Suffix aliases  constitute  a  different
              name  space  from  other  aliases (so in the above example it is
              still possible to create an alias for the command  ps)  and  the
              two sets are never listed together.

              For  each  name  with no value, print the value of name, if any.
              With no arguments, print all  currently  defined  aliases  other
              than  suffix aliases.  If the -m flag is given the arguments are
              taken as patterns (they should be quoted to preserve  them  from
              being  interpreted  as  glob patterns), and the aliases matching
              these patterns are printed.  When printing aliases  and  one  of
              the  -g,  -r  or  -s  flags is present, restrict the printing to
              global, regular or suffix aliases, respectively; a regular alias
              is one which is neither a global nor a suffix alias.   Using ‘+’
              instead of ‘-’, or ending the option list  with  a  single  ‘+’,
              prevents the values of the aliases from being printed.

              If  the  -L  flag  is present, then print each alias in a manner
              suitable for putting in a startup script.  The  exit  status  is
              nonzero  if  a  name (with no value) is given for which no alias
              has been defined.

       autoload [ {+|-}UXktz ] [ -w ] [ name ... ]
              Equivalent to functions -u, with the exception of -X/+X and  -w.

              The  flag  -X  may be used only inside a shell function, and may
              not be followed by a name.  It causes the calling function to be
              marked for autoloading and then immediately loaded and executed,
              with the current array of positional  parameters  as  arguments.
              This  replaces  the  previous definition of the function.  If no
              function definition is  found,  an  error  is  printed  and  the
              function remains undefined and marked for autoloading.

              The  flag  +X  attempts  to  load  each  name  as  an autoloaded
              function, but does not execute it.   The  exit  status  is  zero
              (success)  if  the  function  was  not  previously defined and a
              definition for it was found.  This does not replace any existing
              definition   of  the  function.   The  exit  status  is  nonzero
              (failure) if  the  function  was  already  defined  or  when  no
              definition  was  found.  In the latter case the function remains
              undefined and marked for autoloading.  If ksh-style  autoloading
              is  enabled,  the  function created will contain the contents of
              the file plus a call to the function itself appended to it, thus
              giving normal ksh autoloading behaviour on the first call to the
              function.

              With the -w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled
              with the zcompile builtin, and all functions defined in them are
              marked for autoloading.

       bg [ job ... ]
       job ... &
              Put each specified job in the background, or the current job  if
              none is specified.

       bindkey
              See the section ‘Zle Builtins’ in zshzle(1).

       break [ n ]
              Exit from an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop.
              If n is specified, then break n levels instead of just one.

       builtin name [ args ... ]
              Executes the builtin name, with the given args.

       bye    Same as exit.

       cap    See the section ‘The zsh/cap Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       cd [ -sLP ] [ arg ]
       cd [ -sLP ] old new
       cd [ -sLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory.  In the  first  form,  change  the
              current directory to arg, or to the value of $HOME if arg is not
              specified.  If arg is ‘-’, change to the value of  $OLDPWD,  the
              previous directory.

              Otherwise,  if arg begins with a slash, attempt to change to the
              director given by arg.

              If arg does not begin with a slash,  the  behaviour  depends  on
              whether  the  current  directory  ‘.’  occurs  in  the  list  of
              directories contained in the shell parameter cdpath.  If it does
              not,  first  attempt  to  change  to the directory arg under the
              current directory, and if that  fails  but  cdpath  is  set  and
              contains at least one element attempt to change to the directory
              arg under each component of cdpath in turn until successful.  If
              ‘.’  occurs in cdpath, then cdpath is searched strictly in order
              so that ‘.’ is only tried at the appropriate point.

              If no directory is found, the option CDABLE_VARS is set,  and  a
              parameter  named  arg  exists  whose  value begins with a slash,
              treat its value as the directory.  In that case,  the  parameter
              is added to the named directory hash table.

              The  second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string
              old in the name of the current directory, and tries to change to
              this new directory.

              The third form of cd extracts an entry from the directory stack,
              and changes to that directory.  An argument  of  the  form  ‘+n’
              identifies  a  stack entry by counting from the left of the list
              shown by the dirs command, starting with zero.  An  argument  of
              the  form ‘-n’ counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option
              is set, the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘-’ in this context are swapped.

              If  the -s option is specified, cd refuses to change the current
              directory if the given pathname contains symlinks.   If  the  -P
              option is given or the CHASE_LINKS option is set, symbolic links
              are resolved to their true values.  If the -L  option  is  given
              symbolic  links  are  followed  regardless  of  the state of the
              CHASE_LINKS option.

       chdir  Same as cd.

       clone  See the section ‘The zsh/clone Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       command [ -pvV ] simple command
              The simple command argument is  taken  as  an  external  command
              instead  of  a  function  or  builtin  and  is  executed. If the
              POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, builtins will also be executed but
              certain  special  properties of them are suppressed. The -p flag
              causes a default path to be searched instead of that  in  $path.
              With  the  -v flag, command is similar to whence and with -V, it
              is equivalent to whence -v.

              See also the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’.

       comparguments
              See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       compcall
              See the section ‘The zsh/compctl Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       compctl
              See the section ‘The zsh/compctl Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       compdescribe
              See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       compfiles
              See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       compgroups
              See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       compquote
              See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       comptags
              See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       comptry
              See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       compvalues
              See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       continue [ n ]
              Resume the next iteration of the enclosing  for,  while,  until,
              select  or  repeat  loop.   If  n is specified, break out of n-1
              loops and resume at the nth enclosing loop.

       declare
              Same as typeset.

       dirs [ -c ] [ arg ... ]
       dirs [ -lpv ]
              With no arguments, print the contents of  the  directory  stack.
              Directories  are added to this stack with the pushd command, and
              removed  with  the  cd  or  popd  commands.   If  arguments  are
              specified,   load  them  onto  the  directory  stack,  replacing
              anything that was there, and push the current directory onto the
              stack.

              -c     clear the directory stack.

              -l     print directory names in full instead of using of using ~
                     expressions.

              -p     print directory entries one per line.

              -v     number the directories in the stack when printing.

       disable [ -afmrs ] name ...
              Temporarily disable the named hash table elements.  The  default
              is  to  disable  builtin  commands.   This  allows you to use an
              external command with the same name as a builtin  command.   The
              -a  option  causes  disable to act on regular or global aliases.
              The -s option causes disable to act on suffix aliases.   The  -f
              option causes disable to act on shell functions.  The -r options
              causes disable to act on reserved words.  Without arguments  all
              disabled  hash  table elements from the corresponding hash table
              are printed.  With the  -m  flag  the  arguments  are  taken  as
              patterns (which should be quoted to prevent them from undergoing
              filename expansion),  and  all  hash  table  elements  from  the
              corresponding  hash  table matching these patterns are disabled.
              Disabled objects can be enabled with the enable command.

       disown [ job ... ]
       job ... &|
       job ... &!
              Remove the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will  no
              longer  report their status, and will not complain if you try to
              exit an interactive shell with them running or stopped.   If  no
              job is specified, disown the current job.

              If  the  jobs are currently stopped and the AUTO_CONTINUE option
              is not set, a warning is printed  containing  information  about
              how  to make them running after they have been disowned.  If one
              of the latter two forms is used, the jobs will automatically  be
              made  running,  independent  of the setting of the AUTO_CONTINUE
              option.

       echo [ -neE ] [ arg ... ]
              Write each arg on the standard output, with a  space  separating
              each one.  If the -n flag is not present, print a newline at the
              end.  echo recognizes the following escape sequences:

              \a     bell character
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress final newline
              \e     escape
              \f     form feed
              \n     linefeed (newline)
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \0NNN  character code in octal
              \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
              \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \UNNNNNNNN
                     unicode character code in hexadecimal

              The -E flag, or the BSD_ECHO option,  can  be  used  to  disable
              these escape sequences.  In the latter case, -e flag can be used
              to enable them.

       echotc See the section ‘The zsh/termcap Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       echoti See the section ‘The zsh/terminfo Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       emulate [ -LR ] {zsh|sh|ksh|csh}
              Set up zsh options to emulate the specified  shell  as  much  as
              possible.  csh will never be fully emulated.  If the argument is
              not one of the shells listed  above,  zsh  will  be  used  as  a
              default; more precisely, the tests performed on the argument are
              the same as those used to determine  the  emulation  at  startup
              based  on  the  shell  name,  see the section ‘Compatibility’ in
              zshmisc(1) .  If the -R option is given, all options  are  reset
              to  their default value corresponding to the specified emulation
              mode, except for  certain  options  describing  the  interactive
              environment;  otherwise,  only  those  options  likely  to cause
              portability problems in scripts and functions are  altered.   If
              the   -L   option   is  given,  the  options  LOCAL_OPTIONS  and
              LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well,  causing  the  effects  of  the
              emulate  command and any setopt and trap commands to be local to
              the immediately surrounding shell  function,  if  any;  normally
              these  options are turned off in all emulation modes except ksh.

       enable [ -afmrs ] name ...
              Enable  the  named  hash  table  elements,  presumably  disabled
              earlier   with  disable.   The  default  is  to  enable  builtin
              commands.  The -a option causes enable  to  act  on  regular  or
              global  aliases.   The  -s option causes enable to act on suffix
              aliases.  The -f option causes enable to act on shell functions.
              The  -r  option causes enable to act on reserved words.  Without
              arguments all enabled hash table elements from the corresponding
              hash  table  are  printed.   With  the -m flag the arguments are
              taken as patterns (should be quoted) and all hash table elements
              from  the  corresponding  hash table matching these patterns are
              enabled.  Enabled objects  can  be  disabled  with  the  disable
              builtin command.

       eval [ arg ... ]
              Read  the  arguments  as  input  to  the  shell  and execute the
              resulting command in the current shell process.

       exec simple command
              See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’.

       exit [ n ]
              Exit the shell with the exit status specified by n; if  none  is
              specified,  use  the exit status from the last command executed.
              An EOF condition will also cause the shell to exit,  unless  the
              IGNORE_EOF option is set.

       export [ name[=value] ... ]
              The  specified  names  are  marked  for  automatic export to the
              environment of subsequently executed  commands.   Equivalent  to
              typeset  -gx.   If a parameter specified does not already exist,
              it is created in the global scope.

       false [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 1.

       fc [ -e ename ] [ -nlrdDfEim ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -p [ -a ] [ filename [ histsize [ savehistsize ] ] ]
       fc -P
       fc -ARWI [ filename ]
              Select a range of commands from first to last from  the  history
              list.  The arguments first and last may be specified as a number
              or as a string.  A negative number is used as an offset  to  the
              current  history  event  number.   A  string  specifies the most
              recent event beginning with the given string.  All substitutions
              old=new, if any, are then performed on the commands.

              If  the  -l  flag is given, the resulting commands are listed on
              standard output.  If  the  -m  flag  is  also  given  the  first
              argument  is  taken as a pattern (should be quoted) and only the
              history events matching this pattern will be  shown.   Otherwise
              the  editor  program ename is invoked on a file containing these
              history events.  If  ename  is  not  given,  the  value  of  the
              parameter  FCEDIT  is  used; if that is not set the value of the
              parameter EDITOR is used; if that is not set a builtin  default,
              usually  ‘vi’  is  used.  If ename is ‘-’, no editor is invoked.
              When editing is complete, the edited command is executed.

              If first is not specified, it will be set to -1 (the most recent
              event),  or  to  -16  if  the  -l flag is given.  If last is not
              specified, it will be set to first, or to -1 if the -l  flag  is
              given.

              The  flag  -r reverses the order of the commands and the flag -n
              suppresses command numbers when listing.  Also when listing,  -d
              prints timestamps for each command, and -f prints full time-date
              stamps.  Adding the -E flag causes the dates to  be  printed  as
              ‘dd.mm.yyyy’,  instead  of the default ‘mm/dd/yyyy’.  Adding the
              -i flag causes the dates to be printed in  ISO8601  ‘yyyy-mm-dd’
              format.  With the -D flag, fc prints elapsed times.

              ‘fc  -p’  pushes  the  current  history  list  onto  a stack and
              switches to a new history  list.   If  the  -a  option  is  also
              specified,  this  history list will be automatically popped when
              the current function scope is exited, which  is  a  much  better
              solution than creating a trap function to call ‘fc -P’ manually.
              If no arguments are specified, the history list is  left  empty,
              $HISTFILE  is  unset, and $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are set to their
              default values.  If one argument is given, $HISTFILE is  set  to
              that filename, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are left unchanged, and the
              history file is read in (if it exists)  to  initialize  the  new
              list.   If a second argument is specified, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST
              are instead set to the single specified numeric value.  Finally,
              if a third argument is specified, $SAVEHIST is set to a separate
              value from $HISTSIZE.  You are free to change these  environment
              values  for  the new history list however you desire in order to
              manipulate the new history list.

              ‘fc -P’ pops the history list back to an older list saved by ‘fc
              -p’.   The  current  list is saved to its $HISTFILE before it is
              destroyed  (assuming  that  $HISTFILE  and  $SAVEHIST  are   set
              appropriately,  of course).  The values of $HISTFILE, $HISTSIZE,
              and $SAVEHIST are restored to the values they had when  ‘fc  -p’
              was called.  Note that this restoration can conflict with making
              these variables "local", so your best  bet  is  to  avoid  local
              declarations  for these variables in functions that use ‘fc -p’.
              The one other guaranteed-safe  combination  is  declaring  these
              variables  to be local at the top of your function and using the
              automatic option (-a) with ‘fc -p’.  Finally, note  that  it  is
              legal to manually pop a push marked for automatic popping if you
              need to do so before the function exits.

              ‘fc -R’ reads the history from the given file,  ‘fc  -W’  writes
              the  history  out  to  the  given  file, and ‘fc -A’ appends the
              history out to the given file.  If no filename is specified, the
              $HISTFILE  is  assumed.   If  the -I option is added to -R, only
              those events that are not already contained within the  internal
              history  list are added.  If the -I option is added to -A or -W,
              only  those  events  that  are  new   since   last   incremental
              append/write  to  the history file are appended/written.  In any
              case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries.

       fg [ job ... ]
       job ...
              Bring  each  specified job in turn to the foreground.  If no job
              is specified, resume the current job.

       float [ {+|-}EFHghlprtux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent to typeset -E,  except  that  options  irrelevant  to
              floating point numbers are not permitted.

       functions [ {+|-}UXkmtuz ] [ name ... ]
       functions -M mathfn [ min [ max [ shellfn ] ] ]
       functions -M [ -m pattern ... ]
       functions +M [ -m ] mathfn
              Equivalent  to  typeset -f, with the exception of the -M option.
              Use of the -M option may not be combined with any of the options
              handled by typeset -f.

              functions -M mathfn defines mathfn as the name of a mathematical
              function recognised in all forms  of  arithmetical  expressions;
              see  the  section  ‘Arithmetic  Evaluation’  in  zshmisc(1).  By
              default mathfn may take any number of comma-separated arguments.
              If  min  is given, it must have exactly min args; if min and max
              are both given, it must have at least min and and  at  most  max
              args.  max may be -1 to indicate that there is no upper limit.

              By  default  the  function is implemented by a shell function of
              the same name; if shellfn is specified it gives the name of  the
              corresponding  shell function while mathfn remains the name used
              in arithmetical expressions.  The name of the function in $0  is
              mathfn  (not shellfn as would usually be the case), provided the
              option FUNCTION_ARGZERO is in effect.  The positional parameters
              in  the  shell  function  correspond  to  the  arguments  of the
              mathematical function call.  The result of the last arithmetical
              expression  evaluated inside the shell function (even if it is a
              form that normally only returns a status) gives  the  result  of
              the mathematical function.

              functions  -M  with  no  arguments  lists  all such user-defined
              functions in the same form as a definition.  With the additional
              option  -m  and  a list of arguments, all functions whose mathfn
              matches one of the pattern arguments are listed.

              function +M removes the list of mathematical functions; with the
              additional  option  -m the arguments are treated as patterns and
              all functions whose mathfn  matches  the  pattern  are  removed.
              Note  that  the shell function implementing the behaviour is not
              removed (regardless of whether its name coincides with  mathfn).

              For example, the following prints the cube of 3:

                     zmath_cube() { (( $1 * $1 * $1 )) }
                     functions -M cube 1 1 zmath_cube
                     print $(( cube(3) ))

       getcap See the section ‘The zsh/cap Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       getln [ -AclneE ] name ...
              Read the top value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell
              parameter name.  Equivalent to read -zr.

       getopts optstring name [ arg ... ]
              Checks the args for legal options.  If the args are omitted, use
              the  positional parameters.  A valid option argument begins with
              a ‘+’ or a ‘-’.  An argument not beginning with a ‘+’ or a  ‘-’,
              or  the argument ‘--’, ends the options.  Note that a single ‘-’
              is not considered a valid option argument.   optstring  contains
              the letters that getopts recognizes.  If a letter is followed by
              a ‘:’, that option is expected to have an argument.  The options
              can be separated from the argument by blanks.

              Each  time  it  is  invoked, getopts places the option letter it
              finds in the shell parameter name, prepended with a ‘+’ when arg
              begins  with  a  ‘+’.   The  index  of the next arg is stored in
              OPTIND.  The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG.

              The first option to be examined may  be  changed  by  explicitly
              assigning  to  OPTIND.  OPTIND has an initial value of 1, and is
              normally reset to 1 upon exit from a shell function.  OPTARG  is
              not  reset  and  retains  its value from the most recent call to
              getopts.  If either of OPTIND or OPTARG is explicitly unset,  it
              remains  unset,  and the index or option argument is not stored.
              The option itself is still stored in name in this case.

              A leading ‘:’ in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of
              any  invalid  option  in  OPTARG,  and to set name to ‘?’ for an
              unknown option and to ‘:’ when a  required  option  is  missing.
              Otherwise,  getopts sets name to ‘?’ and prints an error message
              when an option is invalid.  The  exit  status  is  nonzero  when
              there are no more options.

       hash [ -Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...
              hash  can be used to directly modify the contents of the command
              hash table, and the named directory hash  table.   Normally  one
              would  modify  these  tables  by  modifying  one’s PATH (for the
              command hash table) or by creating appropriate shell  parameters
              (for  the named directory hash table).  The choice of hash table
              to work on is determined by the -d option;  without  the  option
              the  command  hash  table is used, and with the option the named
              directory hash table is used.

              Given no arguments, and  neither  the  -r  or  -f  options,  the
              selected hash table will be listed in full.

              The  -r option causes the selected hash table to be emptied.  It
              will be subsequently rebuilt in  the  normal  fashion.   The  -f
              option  causes  the  selected  hash  table  to  be fully rebuilt
              immediately.  For the command hash table  this  hashes  all  the
              absolute  directories  in  the PATH, and for the named directory
              hash table this adds all users’  home  directories.   These  two
              options cannot be used with any arguments.

              The  -m  option  causes  the  arguments  to be taken as patterns
              (which should be quoted) and the  elements  of  the  hash  table
              matching  those  patterns  are printed.  This is the only way to
              display a limited selection of hash table elements.

              For each name with a corresponding  value,  put  ‘name’  in  the
              selected  hash  table, associating it with the pathname ‘value’.
              In the command hash table, this means that  whenever  ‘name’  is
              used  as  a  command argument, the shell will try to execute the
              file given by ‘value’.  In the named directory hash table,  this
              means that ‘value’ may be referred to as ‘~name’.

              For  each  name with no corresponding value, attempt to add name
              to the hash table, checking what the appropriate value is in the
              normal  manner  for  that  hash  table.  If an appropriate value
              can’t be found, then the hash table will be unchanged.

              The -v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are
              added  by explicit specification.  If has no effect if used with
              -f.

              If the -L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed
              in the form of a call to hash.

       history
              Same as fc -l.

       integer [ {+|-}Hghilprtux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent  to  typeset  -i,  except  that options irrelevant to
              integers are not permitted.

       jobs [ -dlprs ] [ job ... ]
       jobs -Z string
              Lists information about each given job, or all jobs  if  job  is
              omitted.   The  -l flag lists process IDs, and the -p flag lists
              process groups.  If the -r flag is specified only  running  jobs
              will be listed and if the -s flag is given only stopped jobs are
              shown.  If the -d flag is given, the directory  from  which  the
              job  was  started (which may not be the current directory of the
              job) will also be shown.

              The -Z option replaces  the  shell’s  argument  and  environment
              space  with  the  given  string,  truncated if necessary to fit.
              This will normally be visible  in  ps  (ps(1))  listings.   This
              feature is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state.

       kill [ -s signal_name | -n signal_number | -sig ] job ...
       kill -l [ sig ... ]
              Sends  either  SIGTERM or the specified signal to the given jobs
              or processes.  Signals are given by number or by names, with  or
              without  the  ‘SIG’  prefix.   If  the  signal being sent is not
              ‘KILL’ or ‘CONT’, then the job will be sent a ‘CONT’  signal  if
              it  is stopped.  The argument job can be the process ID of a job
              not in the job list.  In the second form, kill -l, if sig is not
              specified  the signal names are listed.  Otherwise, for each sig
              that is a name, the corresponding signal number is listed.   For
              each  sig  that  is a signal number or a number representing the
              exit status of a process which was terminated or  stopped  by  a
              signal the name of the signal is printed.

              On  some systems, alternative signal names are allowed for a few
              signals.  Typical examples are SIGCHLD and SIGCLD or SIGPOLL and
              SIGIO, assuming they correspond to the same signal number.  kill
              -l will only list the preferred form, however kill -l  alt  will
              show  if  the  alternative  form corresponds to a signal number.
              For example, under Linux kill -l IO and kill -l POLL both output
              29, hence kill -IO and kill -POLL have the same effect.

              Many  systems  will  allow  process IDs to be negative to kill a
              process group or zero to kill the current process group.

       let arg ...
              Evaluate each arg as an arithmetic expression.  See the  section
              ‘Arithmetic  Evaluation’  in  zshmisc(1)  for  a  description of
              arithmetic expressions.  The exit status is 0 if  the  value  of
              the last expression is nonzero, and 1 otherwise.

       limit [ -hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ...
              Set  or  display  resource limits.  Unless the -s flag is given,
              the limit applies only the children of  the  shell.   If  -s  is
              given  without  other  arguments,  the  resource  limits  of the
              current shell is set to the previously set  resource  limits  of
              the children.

              If  limit  is  not  specified, print the current limit placed on
              resource, otherwise set the limit to the  specified  value.   If
              the  -h  flag  is given, use hard limits instead of soft limits.
              If no resource is given, print all limits.

              When looping over  multiple  resources,  the  shell  will  abort
              immediately  if it detects a badly formed argument.  However, if
              it fails to set a limit for some other reason it  will  continue
              trying to set the remaining limits.

              resource can be one of:

              addressspace
                     Maximum amount of address space used.
              aiomemorylocked
                     Maximum   amount   of   memory  locked  in  RAM  for  AIO
                     operations.
              aiooperations
                     Maximum number of AIO operations.
              cachedthreads
                     Maximum number of cached threads.
              coredumpsize
                     Maximum size of a core dump.
              cputime
                     Maximum CPU seconds per process.
              datasize
                     Maximum data size (including stack) for each process.
              descriptors
                     Maximum value for a file descriptor.
              filesize
                     Largest single file allowed.
              maxproc
                     Maximum number of processes.
              maxpthreads
                     Maximum number of threads per process.
              memorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM.
              memoryuse
                     Maximum resident set size.
              msgqueue
                     Maximum number of bytes in POSIX message queues.
              resident
                     Maximum resident set size.
              sigpending
                     Maximum number of pending signals.
              sockbufsize
                     Maximum size of all socket buffers.
              stacksize
                     Maximum stack size for each process.
              vmemorysize
                     Maximum amount of virtual memory.

              Which of these resource limits  are  available  depends  on  the
              system.   resource can be abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix.
              It can also be an integer,  which  corresponds  to  the  integer
              defined for the resource by the operating system.

              If argument corresponds to a number which is out of the range of
              the resources configured into the shell, the shell will  try  to
              read or write the limit anyway, and will report an error if this
              fails.  As the shell does not store such  resources  internally,
              an  attempt  to  set the limit will fail unless the -s option is
              present.

              limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

              nh     hours
              nk     kilobytes (default)
              nm     megabytes or minutes
              [mm:]ss
                     minutes and seconds

       local [ {+|-}AEFHUahlprtux ] [ -LRZi [ n ]] [ name[=value] ] ...
              Same as typeset, except that the options  -g,  and  -f  are  not
              permitted.  In this case the -x option does not force the use of
              -g, i.e. exported variables will be local to functions.

       log    List all users currently logged  in  who  are  affected  by  the
              current setting of the watch parameter.

       logout [ n ]
              Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell.

       noglob simple command
              See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’.

       popd [ {+|-}n ]
              Remove  an  entry  from the directory stack, and perform a cd to
              the new top directory.  With no argument, the current top  entry
              is  removed.   An  argument  of the form ‘+n’ identifies a stack
              entry by counting from the left of the list shown  by  the  dirs
              command,  starting with zero.  An argument of the form -n counts
              from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the  meanings
              of ‘+’ and ‘-’ in this context are swapped.

       print [ -abcDilmnNoOpPrsz ] [ -u n ] [ -f format ] [ -C cols ]
         [ -R [ -en ]] [ arg ... ]
              With  the  ‘-f’ option the arguments are printed as described by
              printf.  With no flags or with the flag ‘-’, the  arguments  are
              printed  on  the  standard output as described by echo, with the
              following differences: the escape sequence ‘\M-x’  metafies  the
              character  x  (sets  the highest bit), ‘\C-x’ produces a control
              character  (‘\C-@’  and  ‘\C-?’  give  the  characters  NUL  and
              delete),  and ‘\E’ is a synonym for ‘\e’.  Finally, if not in an
              escape sequence, ‘\’ escapes the following character and is  not
              printed.

              -a     Print arguments with the column incrementing first.  Only
                     useful with the -c and -C options.

              -b     Recognize  all  the  escape  sequences  defined  for  the
                     bindkey command, see zshzle(1).

              -c     Print the arguments in columns.  Unless -a is also given,
                     arguments are printed with the row incrementing first.

              -C cols
                     Print the arguments in cols columns.  Unless -a  is  also
                     given,  arguments  are  printed with the row incrementing
                     first.

              -D     Treat  the  arguments  as  directory   names,   replacing
                     prefixes with ~ expressions, as appropriate.

              -i     If  given  together  with  -o or -O, sorting is performed
                     case-independently.

              -l     Print the arguments  separated  by  newlines  instead  of
                     spaces.

              -m     Take  the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted),
                     and remove  it  from  the  argument  list  together  with
                     subsequent arguments that do not match this pattern.

              -n     Do not add a newline to the output.

              -N     Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls.

              -o     Print the arguments sorted in ascending order.

              -O     Print the arguments sorted in descending order.

              -p     Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess.

              -P     Perform prompt expansion (see zshmisc(1)).

              -r     Ignore the escape conventions of echo.

              -R     Emulate  the  BSD  echo  command,  which does not process
                     escape sequences unless the -e flag  is  given.   The  -n
                     flag suppresses the trailing newline.  Only the -e and -n
                     flags are recognized after -R; all  other  arguments  and
                     options are printed.

              -s     Place  the  results in the history list instead of on the
                     standard output.

              -u n   Print the arguments to file descriptor n.

              -z     Push  the  arguments  onto  the  editing  buffer   stack,
                     separated by spaces.

              If  any  of ‘-m’, ‘-o’ or ‘-O’ are used in combination with ‘-f’
              and there are no arguments (after the  removal  process  in  the
              case of ‘-m’) then nothing is printed.

       printf format [ arg ... ]
              Print  the  arguments  according  to  the  format specification.
              Formatting rules are the same as used  in  C.  The  same  escape
              sequences  as  for  echo  are  recognised  in  the format. All C
              conversion specifications ending in one  of  csdiouxXeEfgGn  are
              handled.  In  addition to this, ‘%b’ can be used instead of ‘%s’
              to cause escape sequences in the argument to be  recognised  and
              ‘%q’ can be used to quote the argument in such a way that allows
              it to  be  reused  as  shell  input.  With  the  numeric  format
              specifiers,  if  the  corresponding argument starts with a quote
              character, the numeric value of the following character is  used
              as the number to print otherwise the argument is evaluated as an
              arithmetic expression. See the section  ‘Arithmetic  Evaluation’
              in  zshmisc(1) for a description of arithmetic expressions. With
              ‘%n’, the corresponding argument is taken as an identifier which
              is created as an integer parameter.

              Normally, conversion specifications are applied to each argument
              in order but they can explicitly specify the nth argument is  to
              be  used  by  replacing  ‘%’  by  ‘%n$’ and ‘*’ by ‘*n$’.  It is
              recommended that you do not  mix  references  of  this  explicit
              style  with  the  normal  style  and  the handling of such mixed
              styles may be subject to future change.

              If arguments remain unused after formatting, the  format  string
              is reused until all arguments have been consumed. With the print
              builtin, this can be suppressed by using the -r option. If  more
              arguments  are  required by the format than have been specified,
              the behaviour is  as  if  zero  or  an  empty  string  had  been
              specified as the argument.

       pushd [ -sLP ] [ arg ]
       pushd [ -sLP ] old new
       pushd [ -sLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory, and push the old current directory
              onto the directory stack.  In the first form, change the current
              directory to arg.  If arg is not specified, change to the second
              directory on the stack (that is, exchange the top two  entries),
              or  change  to  $HOME  if  the PUSHD_TO_HOME option is set or if
              there is only  one  entry  on  the  stack.   Otherwise,  arg  is
              interpreted as it would be by cd.  The meaning of old and new in
              the second form is also the same as for cd.

              The third form  of  pushd  changes  directory  by  rotating  the
              directory list.  An argument of the form ‘+n’ identifies a stack
              entry by counting from the left of the list shown  by  the  dirs
              command,  starting  with  zero.   An  argument  of the form ‘-n’
              counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option  is  set,  the
              meanings of ‘+’ and ‘-’ in this context are swapped.

              If  the option PUSHD_SILENT is not set, the directory stack will
              be printed after a pushd is performed.

              The options -s, -L and -P have the same meanings as for  the  cd
              builtin.

       pushln [ arg ... ]
              Equivalent to print -nz.

       pwd [ -rLP ]
              Print  the  absolute  pathname of the current working directory.
              If the -r or the -P flag is specified, or the CHASE_LINKS option
              is  set  and the -L flag is not given, the printed path will not
              contain symbolic links.

       r      Same as fc -e -.

       read [ -rszpqAclneE ] [ -t [ num ] ] [ -k [ num ] ] [ -d delim ]
        [ -u n ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name ...  ]
              Read one line and break it into fields using the  characters  in
              $IFS  as  separators, except as noted below.  The first field is
              assigned to the first name, the second field to the second name,
              etc.,  with  leftover fields assigned to the last name.  If name
              is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for  arrays.

              -r     Raw  mode:  a  ‘\’  at the end of a line does not signify
                     line continuation and backslashes in the line don’t quote
                     the following character and are not removed.

              -s     Don’t  echo back characters if reading from the terminal.
                     Currently does not work with the -q option.

              -q     Read only one character from the terminal and set name to
                     ‘y’  if  this  character  was  ‘y’  or  ‘Y’  and  to  ‘n’
                     otherwise.  With this flag set the return status is  zero
                     only  if  the  character  was ‘y’ or ‘Y’.  Note that this
                     always reads from the terminal, even if used with the  -p
                     or  -u or -z flags or with redirected input.  This option
                     may also be used within zle widgets.

              -k [ num ]
                     Read only one (or num) characters.  All are  assigned  to
                     the  first  name,  without  word splitting.  This flag is
                     ignored when -q is  present.   Input  is  read  from  the
                     terminal  unless one of -u or -p is present.  This option
                     may also be used within zle widgets.

                     Note that despite the mnemonic  ‘key’  this  option  does
                     read full characters, which may consist of multiple bytes
                     if the option MULTIBYTE is set.

              -z     Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it
                     to  the  first  name,  without  word  splitting.  Text is
                     pushed onto the stack with ‘print -z’ or  with  push-line
                     from  the  line  editor  (see  zshzle(1)).   This flag is
                     ignored when the -k or -q flags are present.

              -e
              -E     The input  read  is  printed  (echoed)  to  the  standard
                     output.   If the -e flag is used, no input is assigned to
                     the parameters.

              -A     The first name is taken as the name of an array  and  all
                     words are assigned to it.

              -c
              -l     These  flags are allowed only if called inside a function
                     used for  completion  (specified  with  the  -K  flag  to
                     compctl).   If  the  -c  flag  is given, the words of the
                     current command are read. If the -l flag  is  given,  the
                     whole  line  is  assigned as a scalar.  If both flags are
                     present, -l is used and -c is ignored.

              -n     Together with -c, the number of the word the cursor is on
                     is  read.  With -l, the index of the character the cursor
                     is on is read.  Note that the command name is word number
                     1,  not word 0, and that when the cursor is at the end of
                     the line, its character index is the length of  the  line
                     plus one.

              -u n   Input is read from file descriptor n.

              -p     Input is read from the coprocess.

              -d delim
                     Input  is  terminated  by  the  first  character of delim
                     instead of by newline.

              -t [ num ]
                     Test if input is available before attempting to read.  If
                     num  is  present,  it must begin with a digit and will be
                     evaluated to give a number of seconds,  which  may  be  a
                     floating point number; in this case the read times out if
                     input is not available within this time.  If num  is  not
                     present,  it  is  taken  to be zero, so that read returns
                     immediately if no input is available.   If  no  input  is
                     available,  return status 1 and do not set any variables.

                     This option is not available when reading from the editor
                     buffer  with  -z, when called from within completion with
                     -c or -l, with -q which clears  the  input  queue  before
                     reading,  or  within zle where other mechanisms should be
                     used to test for input.

                     Note that read  does  not  attempt  to  alter  the  input
                     processing mode.  The default mode is canonical input, in
                     which an entire line is read at a time, so usually  ‘read
                     -t’  will not read anything until an entire line has been
                     typed.  However, when reading from the terminal  with  -k
                     input  is processed one key at a time; in this case, only
                     availability of the first character is  tested,  so  that
                     e.g.  ‘read  -t  -k  2’  can  still  block  on the second
                     character.  Use two instances of ‘read -t -k’ if this  is
                     not  what  is  wanted.   If the first argument contains a
                     ‘?’, the remainder of this word is used as  a  prompt  on
                     standard error when the shell is interactive.

              The  value  (exit  status)  of  read is 1 when an end-of-file is
              encountered, or when -c or -l is present and the command is  not
              called  from  a  compctl  function,  or  as  described  for  -q.
              Otherwise the value is 0.

              The behavior of some combinations of the -k, -p, -q, -u  and  -z
              flags  is  undefined.   Presently  -q cancels all the others, -p
              cancels -u, -k cancels -z, and otherwise -z cancels both -p  and
              -u.

              The -c or -l flags cancel any and all of -kpquz.

       readonly
              Same as typeset -r.

       rehash Same as hash -r.

       return [ n ]
              Causes  a  shell  function or . script to return to the invoking
              script with the return status specified by n.  If n is  omitted,
              the return status is that of the last command executed.

              If  return  was  executed from a trap in a TRAPNAL function, the
              effect is different for zero and non-zero return  status.   With
              zero  status  (or  after  an  implicit  return at the end of the
              trap), the shell will  return  to  whatever  it  was  previously
              processing;  with  a  non-zero  status, the shell will behave as
              interrupted except  that  the  return  status  of  the  trap  is
              retained.   Note  that  the  numeric  value  of the signal which
              caused the  trap  is  passed  as  the  first  argument,  so  the
              statement ‘return $((128+$1))’ will return the same status as if
              the signal had not been trapped.

       sched  See the section ‘The zsh/sched Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       set [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o [ option_name ] ] ... [ {+|-}A [ name ] ] [
       arg ... ]
              Set  the  options  for  the  shell  and/or  set  the  positional
              parameters,  or  declare  and set an array.  If the -s option is
              given, it causes the specified arguments  to  be  sorted  before
              assigning  them  to  the  positional parameters (or to the array
              name if -A is used).   With  +s  sort  arguments  in  descending
              order.   For  the meaning of the other flags, see zshoptions(1).
              Flags may be specified by name using the -o option. If no option
              name is supplied with -o, the current option states are printed.
              With +o they are printed in a form that can be used as input  to
              the shell.

              If  the -A flag is specified, name is set to an array containing
              the given args; if no name is specified, all arrays are  printed
              together with their values.

              If  +A  is  used  and name is an array, the given arguments will
              replace the initial elements  of  that  array;  if  no  name  is
              specified, all arrays are printed without their values.

              The  behaviour  of arguments after -A name or +A name depends on
              whether the option KSH_ARRAYS is set.  If it  is  not  set,  all
              arguments  following  name  are treated as values for the array,
              regardless of their form.  If the option is set,  normal  option
              processing  continues  at that point; only regular arguments are
              treated as values for the array.  This means that

                     set -A array -x -- foo

              sets array to ‘-x -- foo’ if KSH_ARRAYS is not set, but sets the
              array to foo and turns on the option ‘-x’ if it is set.

              If  the  -A  flag is not present, but there are arguments beyond
              the options, the positional parameters are set.  If  the  option
              list  (if  any)  is terminated by ‘--’, and there are no further
              arguments, the positional parameters will be unset.

              If no arguments and no ‘--’ are given, then the names and values
              of  all  parameters  are printed on the standard output.  If the
              only argument is ‘+’, the names of all parameters are printed.

              For historical reasons, ‘set -’ is treated as ‘set +xv’ and ‘set
              -  args’  as  ‘set +xv -- args’ when in any other emulation mode
              than zsh’s native mode.

       setcap See the section ‘The zsh/cap Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       setopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Set the options for the shell.   All  options  specified  either
              with  flags  or  by name are set.  If no arguments are supplied,
              the names of all options currently set are printed.  If  the  -m
              flag  is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which should
              be quoted to protect them  from  filename  expansion),  and  all
              options with names matching these patterns are set.

       shift [ n ] [ name ... ]
              The  positional  parameters  ${n+1}  ...  are renamed to $1 ...,
              where n is an arithmetic expression that defaults to 1.  If  any
              names  are  given  then  the arrays with these names are shifted
              instead of the positional parameters.

       source file [ arg ... ]
              Same as ., except that the current directory is always  searched
              and is always searched first, before directories in $path.

       stat   See the section ‘The zsh/stat Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       suspend [ -f ]
              Suspend  the execution of the shell (send it a SIGTSTP) until it
              receives a SIGCONT.  Unless the -f option is  given,  this  will
              refuse to suspend a login shell.

       test [ arg ... ]
       [ [ arg ... ] ]
              Like  the  system version of test.  Added for compatibility; use
              conditional expressions instead (see  the  section  ‘Conditional
              Expressions’).   The  main  differences  between the conditional
              expression syntax and  the  test  and  [  builtins  are:   these
              commands  are not handled syntactically, so for example an empty
              variable expansion may cause an argument to be  omitted;  syntax
              errors  cause  status 2 to be returned instead of a shell error;
              and arithmetic operators expect integer  arguments  rather  than
              arithemetic expressions.

       times  Print  the  accumulated  user and system times for the shell and
              for processes run from the shell.

       trap [ arg ] [ sig ... ]
              arg is a series of commands (usually quoted to protect  it  from
              immediate  evaluation by the shell) to be read and executed when
              the shell receives any of the signals specified by one  or  more
              sig  args.  Each sig can be given as a number, or as the name of
              a signal either with or without the string SIG in front (e.g. 1,
              HUP, and SIGHUP are all the same signal).

              If  arg  is  ‘-’,  then the specified signals are reset to their
              defaults, or, if no sig args are present, all traps are reset.

              If arg is an  empty  string,  then  the  specified  signals  are
              ignored by the shell (and by the commands it invokes).

              If  arg  is  omitted but one or more sig args are provided (i.e.
              the first argument is a valid signal number or name), the effect
              is the same as if arg had been specified as ‘-’.

              The  trap  command  with  no arguments prints a list of commands
              associated with each signal.

              If sig is ZERR then arg will be executed after each command with
              a nonzero exit status.  ERR is an alias for ZERR on systems that
              have no SIGERR signal (this is the usual case).  If sig is DEBUG
              then  arg  will  be executed after each command.  If sig is 0 or
              EXIT and the trap statement is executed inside  the  body  of  a
              function,  then  the  command arg is executed after the function
              completes.  The value of $? at the start  of  execution  is  the
              exit  status  of  the shell or the return status of the function
              exiting.  If sig is 0 or EXIT and  the  trap  statement  is  not
              executed  inside the body of a function, then the command arg is
              executed when the shell terminates.

              ZERR, DEBUG, and EXIT traps are not executed inside other traps.

              Note  that  traps  defined  with  the  trap builtin are slightly
              different from those defined as ‘TRAPNAL () {  ...  }’,  as  the
              latter  have their own function environment (line numbers, local
              variables, etc.) while the former use  the  environment  of  the
              command in which they were called.  For example,

                     trapprint $LINENODEBUG

              will  print  the  line number of a command executed after it has
              run, while

                     TRAPDEBUG() { print $LINENO; }

              will always print the number zero.

              Alternative signal names are allowed  as  described  under  kill
              above.   Defining a trap under either name causes any trap under
              an alternative name to be removed.  However, it  is  recommended
              that  for  consistency  users  stick  exclusively to one name or
              another.

       true [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 0.

       ttyctl -fu
              The -f option freezes the tty, and -u unfreezes  it.   When  the
              tty  is  frozen, no changes made to the tty settings by external
              programs will be honored by the shell, except for changes in the
              size  of the screen; the shell will simply reset the settings to
              their previous values as  soon  as  each  command  exits  or  is
              suspended.   Thus, stty and similar programs have no effect when
              the tty is frozen.   Without  options  it  reports  whether  the
              terminal is frozen or not.

       type [ -wfpams ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -v.

       typeset [ {+|-}AEFHUafghklprtuxmz ] [ -LRZi [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
       typeset -T [ {+|-}Urux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] SCALAR[=value] array [ sep ]
              Set or display attributes and values for shell parameters.

              A parameter is created for each name that does not already refer
              to one.  When inside a function, a new parameter is created  for
              every  name  (even those that already exist), and is unset again
              when  the  function  completes.   See  ‘Local   Parameters’   in
              zshparam(1).   The same rules apply to special shell parameters,
              which retain their special attributes when made local.

              For each name=value assignment, the parameter  name  is  set  to
              value.  Note that arrays currently cannot be assigned in typeset
              expressions, only scalars and integers.

              If  the  shell  option  TYPESET_SILENT  is  not  set,  for  each
              remaining  name that refers to a parameter that is set, the name
              and value of the  parameter  are  printed  in  the  form  of  an
              assignment.  Nothing is printed for newly-created parameters, or
              when any attribute flags listed below are given along  with  the
              name.   Using  ‘+’  instead  of  minus to introduce an attribute
              turns it off.

              If the -p option is given, parameters and values are printed  in
              the  form  of  a typeset comand and an assignment (which will be
              printed  separately  for   arrays   and   associative   arrays),
              regardless of other flags and options.  Note that the -h flag on
              parameters is respected;  no  value  will  be  shown  for  these
              parameters.

              If  the  -T  option  is  given,  two  or three arguments must be
              present (an exception is that zero arguments are allowed to show
              the  list of parameters created in this fashion).  The first two
              are the name of a scalar and an array parameter (in that  order)
              that  will  be  tied  together in the manner of $PATH and $path.
              The optional third  argument  is  a  single-character  separator
              which will be used to join the elements of the array to form the
              scalar; if absent, a colon is used, as  with  $PATH.   Only  the
              first  character  of the separator is significant; any remaining
              characters are  ignored.   Only  the  scalar  parameter  may  be
              assigned  an  initial  value.  Both the scalar and the array may
              otherwise be manipulated as normal.  If one is unset, the  other
              will automatically be unset too.  There is no way of untying the
              variables without unsetting them, or converting the type of  one
              of  them  with  another  typeset  command;  +T  does  not  work,
              assigning an array to SCALAR is an error, and assigning a scalar
              to  array  sets it to be a single-element array.  Note that both
              ‘typeset -xT ...’ and ‘export -T ...’ work, but only the  scalar
              will  be  marked for export.  Setting the value using the scalar
              version causes a  split  on  all  separators  (which  cannot  be
              quoted).

              The  -g  (global)  flag  is treated specially: it means that any
              resulting parameter will not be restricted to local scope.  Note
              that  this  does not necessarily mean that the parameter will be
              global, as the flag will apply to any existing  parameter  (even
              if unset) from an enclosing function.  This flag does not affect
              the parameter after  creation,  hence  it  has  no  effect  when
              listing  existing  parameters,  nor  does  the  flag +g have any
              effect except in combination with -m (see below).

              If no name is present, the names and values  of  all  parameters
              are  printed.   In  this  case  the attribute flags restrict the
              display  to  only  those  parameters  that  have  the  specified
              attributes,  and using ‘+’ rather than ‘-’ to introduce the flag
              suppresses printing of the values of parameters when there is no
              parameter  name.  Also, if the last option is the word ‘+’, then
              names are printed but values are not.

              If the -m flag is given the name arguments are taken as patterns
              (which   should  be  quoted).   With  no  attribute  flags,  all
              parameters (or functions with the -f flag) with  matching  names
              are printed (the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not used in this
              case).  Note that -m is ignored if no patterns  are  given.   If
              the  +g  flag  is  combined  with  -m,  a new local parameter is
              created for every matching parameter that is not already  local.
              Otherwise  -m  applies  all  other  flags  or assignments to the
              existing parameters.  Except  when  assignments  are  made  with
              name=value,  using  +m  forces  the  matching  parameters  to be
              printed, even inside a function.

              If no attribute flags are given and either no -m flag is present
              or the +m form was used, each parameter name printed is preceded
              by  a  list  of  the  attributes  of  that   parameter   (array,
              association,  exported,  integer, readonly).  If +m is used with
              attribute flags, and all those flags are introduced with +,  the
              matching parameter names are printed but their values are not.

              The following attribute flags may be specified:

              -A     The  names  refer  to  associative  array parameters; see
                     ‘Array Parameters’ in zshparam(1).

              -L     Left justify and remove leading blanks from value.  If  n
                     is  nonzero,  it defines the width of the field.  If n is
                     zero, the width is determined by the width of  the  value
                     of   the  first  assignment.   In  the  case  of  numeric
                     parameters, the length of the complete value assigned  to
                     the  parameter  is  used  to determine the width, not the
                     value that would be output.

                     The width is  the  count  of  characters,  which  may  be
                     multibyte  characters  if  the  MULTIBYTE  option  is  in
                     effect.  Note that the screen width of the  character  is
                     not  taken into account; if this is required, use padding
                     with parameter expansion flags ${(ml...)...} as described
                     in ‘Parameter Expansion Flags’ in zshexpn(1).

                     When the parameter is expanded, it is filled on the right
                     with blanks or truncated if necessary to fit  the  field.
                     Note  truncation  can  lead  to  unexpected  results with
                     numeric parameters.  Leading zeros are removed if the  -Z
                     flag is also set.

              -R     Similar  to  -L, except that right justification is used;
                     when the parameter is expanded, the field is left  filled
                     with  blanks  or  truncated  from  the  end.   May not be
                     combined with the -Z flag.

              -U     For arrays (but not for associative  arrays),  keep  only
                     the  first occurrence of each duplicated value.  This may
                     also be set for colon-separated special  parameters  like
                     PATH  or FIGNORE, etc.  This flag has a different meaning
                     when used with -f; see below.

              -Z     Specially  handled  if  set  along  with  the  -L   flag.
                     Otherwise,  similar  to -R, except that leading zeros are
                     used for padding instead of blanks if the first non-blank
                     character  is  a digit.  Numeric parameters are specially
                     handled:  they  are  always  eligible  for  padding  with
                     zeroes,  and  the  zeroes  are inserted at an appropriate
                     place in the output.

              -a     The names refer to array parameters.  An array  parameter
                     may be created this way, but it may not be assigned to in
                     the typeset statement.  When displaying, both normal  and
                     associative arrays are shown.

              -f     The  names refer to functions rather than parameters.  No
                     assignments can be made, and the only other  valid  flags
                     are  -t,  -k,  -u,  -U  and  -z.   The  flag  -t turns on
                     execution tracing for this function.  The -u and -U flags
                     cause  the function to be marked for autoloading; -U also
                     causes alias expansion to be suppressed when the function
                     is  loaded.  The fpath parameter will be searched to find
                     the  function  definition  when  the  function  is  first
                     referenced;  see  the  section ‘Functions’. The -k and -z
                     flags make the function  be  loaded  using  ksh-style  or
                     zsh-style  autoloading respectively. If neither is given,
                     the setting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD option determines how the
                     function is loaded.

              -h     Hide:  only  useful  for special parameters (those marked
                     ‘<S>’  in  the  table  in  zshparam(1)),  and  for  local
                     parameters  with  the  same  name as a special parameter,
                     though harmless for others.   A  special  parameter  with
                     this  attribute  will  not retain its special effect when
                     made local.  Thus after ‘typeset  -h  PATH’,  a  function
                     containing  ‘typeset  PATH’ will create an ordinary local
                     parameter  without   the   usual   behaviour   of   PATH.
                     Alternatively,  the  local  parameter may itself be given
                     this attribute; hence inside a function ‘typeset -h PATH’
                     creates  an ordinary local parameter and the special PATH
                     parameter is not altered in any way.  It is also possible
                     to  create  a local parameter using ‘typeset +h special’,
                     where the local copy of special will retain  its  special
                     properties regardless of having the -h attribute.  Global
                     special parameters loaded from shell  modules  (currently
                     those in zsh/mapfile and zsh/parameter) are automatically
                     given the -h attribute to avoid name clashes.

              -H     Hide value: specifies that typeset will not  display  the
                     value  of  the  parameter  when  listing  parameters; the
                     display for such parameters is always as if the ‘+’  flag
                     had  been  given.   Use  of  the  parameter  is  in other
                     respects normal, and the option does  not  apply  if  the
                     parameter is specified by name, or by pattern with the -m
                     option.  This is on by default for the parameters in  the
                     zsh/parameter  and  zsh/mapfile  modules.  Note, however,
                     that  unlike  the  -h  flag  this  is  also  useful   for
                     non-special parameters.

              -i     Use  an internal integer representation.  If n is nonzero
                     it defines the output arithmetic base,  otherwise  it  is
                     determined by the first assignment.

              -E     Use   an   internal   double-precision   floating   point
                     representation.  On output the variable will be converted
                     to  scientific  notation.  If n is nonzero it defines the
                     number of significant figures to display; the default  is
                     ten.

              -F     Use   an   internal   double-precision   floating   point
                     representation.  On output the variable will be converted
                     to  fixed-point  decimal  notation.   If  n is nonzero it
                     defines the number of digits to display after the decimal
                     point; the default is ten.

              -l     Convert  the  result to lower case whenever the parameter
                     is expanded.  The value is not converted when assigned.

              -r     The given names are marked readonly.  Note that  if  name
                     is  a  special  parameter,  the readonly attribute can be
                     turned on, but cannot then be turned off.

              -t     Tags the named parameters.  Tags have no special  meaning
                     to  the  shell.   This  flag has a different meaning when
                     used with -f; see above.

              -u     Convert the result to upper case whenever  the  parameter
                     is  expanded.   The value is not converted when assigned.
                     This flag has a different meaning when used with -f;  see
                     above.

              -x     Mark   for   automatic   export  to  the  environment  of
                     subsequently   executed   commands.    If   the    option
                     GLOBAL_EXPORT  is set, this implies the option -g, unless
                     +g is also explicitly given; in other words the parameter
                     is not made local to the enclosing function.  This is for
                     compatibility with previous versions of zsh.

       ulimit [ [ -SHacdfilmnpqstvx | -N resource [ limit ] ... ]
              Set or display resource limits of the shell  and  the  processes
              started by the shell.  The value of limit can be a number in the
              unit specified below or the value ‘unlimited’.  By default, only
              soft  limits  are  manipulated. If the -H flag is given use hard
              limits instead of soft limits.  If the -S flag is given together
              with  the  -H flag set both hard and soft limits.  If no options
              are used, the file size limit (-f)  is  assumed.   If  limit  is
              omitted  the  current  value  of  the  specified  resources  are
              printed.  When more than one resource  values  are  printed  the
              limit name and unit is printed before each value.

              When  looping  over  multiple  resources,  the  shell will abort
              immediately if it detects a badly formed argument.  However,  if
              it  fails  to  set a limit for some other reson it will continue
              trying to set the remaining limits.

              -a     Lists all of the current resource limits.
              -c     512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps.
              -d     K-bytes on the size of the data segment.
              -f     512-byte blocks on the size of files written.
              -i     The number of pending signals.
              -l     K-bytes on the size of locked-in memory.
              -m     K-bytes on the size of physical memory.
              -n     open file descriptors.
              -q     Bytes in POSIX message queues.
              -s     K-bytes on the size of the stack.
              -t     CPU seconds to be used.
              -u     processes available to the user.
              -v     K-bytes on the size of virtual memory.  On  some  systems
                     this refers to the limit called ‘address space’.
              -x     The number of locks on files.

              A  resource  may  also  be  specified by integer in the form ‘-N
              resource’, where resource corresponds to the integer defined for
              the  resource  by the operating system.  This may be used to set
              the limits for  resources  known  to  the  shell  which  do  not
              correspond  to  option  letters.   Such  limits will be shown by
              number in the output of ‘ulimit -a’.

              The number may alternatively be  out  of  the  range  of  limits
              compiled  into  the  shell.  The shell will try to read or write
              the limit anyway, and will report an error if this fails.

       umask [ -S ] [ mask ]
              The umask is set to mask.  mask can be either an octal number or
              a  symbolic value as described in chmod(1).  If mask is omitted,
              the current value is printed.  The -S option causes the mask  to
              be  printed as a symbolic value.  Otherwise, the mask is printed
              as an  octal  number.   Note  that  in  the  symbolic  form  the
              permissions  you  specify are those which are to be allowed (not
              denied) to the users specified.

       unalias
              Same as unhash -a.

       unfunction
              Same as unhash -f.

       unhash [ -adfms ] name ...
              Remove the element named name from an internal hash table.   The
              default  is remove elements from the command hash table.  The -a
              option causes unhash to remove regular or global  aliases.   The
              -s option causes unhash to remove suffix aliases.  The -f option
              causes unhash to remove shell functions.  The -d options  causes
              unhash to remove named directories.  If the -m flag is given the
              arguments are taken as  patterns  (should  be  quoted)  and  all
              elements  of  the  corresponding  hash table with matching names
              will be removed.

       unlimit [ -hs ] resource ...
              The resource limit for each resource is set to the  hard  limit.
              If   the  -h  flag  is  given  and  the  shell  has  appropriate
              privileges,  the  hard  resource  limit  for  each  resource  is
              removed.  The resources of the shell process are only changed if
              the -s flag is given.

       unset [ -fmv ] name ...
              Each named parameter is unset.  Local  parameters  remain  local
              even  if unset; they appear unset within scope, but the previous
              value will still reappear when the scope ends.

              Individual elements of associative array parameters may be unset
              by  using  subscript  syntax on name, which should be quoted (or
              the  entire  command  prefixed  with  noglob)  to  protect   the
              subscript from filename generation.

              If  the -m flag is specified the arguments are taken as patterns
              (should be quoted) and all parameters with  matching  names  are
              unset.  Note that this cannot be used when unsetting associative
              array elements, as the subscript will be treated as part of  the
              pattern.

              The  -v  flag  specifies that name refers to parameters. This is
              the default behaviour.

              unset -f is equivalent to unfunction.

       unsetopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Unset the options for the shell.  All options  specified  either
              with  flags or by name are unset.  If no arguments are supplied,
              the names of all options currently unset are printed.  If the -m
              flag  is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which should
              be quoted to  preserve  them  from  being  interpreted  as  glob
              patterns),  and  all  options with names matching these patterns
              are unset.

       vared  See the section ‘Zle Builtins’ in zshzle(1).

       wait [ job ... ]
              Wait for the specified jobs or processes.  If job is  not  given
              then  all currently active child processes are waited for.  Each
              job can be either a job specification or the process ID of a job
              in  the job table.  The exit status from this command is that of
              the job waited for.

       whence [ -vcwfpams ] name ...
              For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a
              command name.

              -v     Produce a more verbose report.

              -c     Print  the  results  in  a  csh-like  format.  This takes
                     precedence over -v.

              -w     For each name, print ‘name: word’ where word  is  one  of
                     alias,  builtin,  command,  function, hashed, reserved or
                     none, according  as  name  corresponds  to  an  alias,  a
                     built-in  command, an external command, a shell function,
                     a command defined with the hash builtin, a reserved word,
                     or  is not recognised.  This takes precedence over -v and
                     -c.

              -f     Causes the contents of a shell function to be  displayed,
                     which  would otherwise not happen unless the -c flag were
                     used.

              -p     Do a path search  for  name  even  if  it  is  an  alias,
                     reserved word, shell function or builtin.

              -a     Do  a  search  for all occurrences of name throughout the
                     command path.  Normally  only  the  first  occurrence  is
                     printed.

              -m     The  arguments  are taken as patterns (should be quoted),
                     and  the  information  is  displayed  for  each   command
                     matching one of these patterns.

              -s     If  a  pathname contains symlinks, print the symlink-free
                     pathname as well.

       where [ -wpms ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -ca.

       which [ -wpams ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -c.

       zcompile [ -U ] [ -z | -k ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -ca [ -m ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -t file [ name ... ]
              This builtin  command  can  be  used  to  compile  functions  or
              scripts,  storing  the  compiled  form in a file, and to examine
              files  containing  the  compiled  form.   This   allows   faster
              autoloading  of  functions  and execution of scripts by avoiding
              parsing of the text when the files are read.

              The first form (without the -c, -a  or  -t  options)  creates  a
              compiled  file.   If only the file argument is given, the output
              file has the name ‘file.zwc’ and will  be  placed  in  the  same
              directory  as  the  file.  The shell will load the compiled file
              instead of  the  normal  function  file  when  the  function  is
              autoloaded;   see   the   section   ‘Autoloading  Functions’  in
              zshfunc(1) for a description of  how  autoloaded  functions  are
              searched.  The extension .zwc stands for ‘zsh word code’.

              If  there is at least one name argument, all the named files are
              compiled into the output file given as the first  argument.   If
              file  does  not  end  in  .zwc,  this extension is automatically
              appended.  Files  containing  multiple  compiled  functions  are
              called  ‘digest’  files, and are intended to be used as elements
              of the FPATH/fpath special array.

              The second form, with the -c or -a options, writes the  compiled
              definitions  for all the named functions into file.  For -c, the
              names must be functions currently  defined  in  the  shell,  not
              those  marked  for  autoloading.   Undefined  functions that are
              marked for autoloading may be written by using the -a option, in
              which  case  the  fpath  is  searched  and  the  contents of the
              definition files for those functions,  if  found,  are  compiled
              into  file.   If both -c and -a are given, names of both defined
              functions and functions marked for autoloading may be given.  In
              either  case,  the  functions in files written with the -c or -a
              option will be autoloaded as if  the  KSH_AUTOLOAD  option  were
              unset.

              The reason for handling loaded and not-yet-loaded functions with
              different options is that some definition files for  autoloading
              define  multiple functions, including the function with the same
              name as the file, and, at the end, call that function.  In  such
              cases   the  output  of  ‘zcompile  -c’  does  not  include  the
              additional  functions  defined  in  the  file,  and  any   other
              initialization  code  in  the file is lost.  Using ‘zcompile -a’
              captures all this extra information.

              If the -m option is combined with -c or -a, the names  are  used
              as  patterns  and  all  functions whose names match one of these
              patterns will be written. If no name is given,  the  definitions
              of  all functions currently defined or marked as autoloaded will
              be written.

              The third  form,  with  the  -t  option,  examines  an  existing
              compiled  file.   Without  further  arguments,  the names of the
              original files compiled into it are listed.  The first  line  of
              output  shows  the  version of the shell which compiled the file
              and how the file will be used (i.e. by reading it directly or by
              mapping  it into memory).  With arguments, nothing is output and
              the return status is set to zero if definitions  for  all  names
              were  found in the compiled file, and non-zero if the definition
              for at least one name was not found.

              Other options:

              -U     Aliases are not expanded when compiling the named  files.

              -R     When  the  compiled file is read, its contents are copied
                     into the shell’s memory, rather than  memory-mapped  (see
                     -M).   This  happens automatically on systems that do not
                     support memory mapping.

                     When compiling scripts instead of autoloadable functions,
                     it  is  often desirable to use this option; otherwise the
                     whole file, including the code to define functions  which
                     have   already   been   defined,   will   remain  mapped,
                     consequently wasting memory.

              -M     The compiled file is mapped into the shell’s memory  when
                     read.  This is done in such a way that multiple instances
                     of the shell running on the same  host  will  share  this
                     mapped file.  If neither -R nor -M is given, the zcompile
                     builtin decides what to do  based  on  the  size  of  the
                     compiled file.

              -k
              -z     These  options  are  used when the compiled file contains
                     functions which are to be autoloaded. If -z is given, the
                     function will be autoloaded as if the KSH_AUTOLOAD option
                     is not set, even if it is set at the  time  the  compiled
                     file is read, while if the -k is given, the function will
                     be loaded as if KSH_AUTOLOAD is set.  These options  also
                     take  precedence  over  any -k or -z options specified to
                     the autoload builtin. If  neither  of  these  options  is
                     given,  the  function will be loaded as determined by the
                     setting of  the  KSH_AUTOLOAD  option  at  the  time  the
                     compiled file is read.

                     These  options may also appear as many times as necessary
                     between the listed names to specify the loading style  of
                     all following functions, up to the next -k or -z.

                     The  created  file  always  contains  two versions of the
                     compiled format, one for big-endian machines and one  for
                     small-endian  machines.   The  upshot of this is that the
                     compiled file is machine independent and if it is read or
                     mapped,  only  one half of the file is actually used (and
                     mapped).

       zformat
              See the section ‘The zsh/zutil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       zftp   See the section ‘The zsh/zftp Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       zle    See the section ‘Zle Builtins’ in zshzle(1).

       zmodload [ -dL ] [ ... ]
       zmodload -e [ -A ] [ ... ]
       zmodload [ -a [ -bcpf [ -I ] ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -u [ -abcdpf [ -I ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
       zmodload -R modalias ...
              Performs operations relating to zsh’s loadable modules.  Loading
              of  modules  while the shell is running (‘dynamical loading’) is
              not available on all operating systems, or on all  installations
              on  a particular operating system, although the zmodload command
              itself is always available and can be used to manipulate modules
              built  into  versions  of the shell executable without dynamical
              loading.

              Without arguments the  names  of  all  currently  loaded  binary
              modules  are  printed.   The -L option causes this list to be in
              the form of a series of zmodload commands.  Forms with arguments
              are:

              zmodload [ -i ] name ...
              zmodload -u [ -i ] name ...
                     In  the  simplest  case,  zmodload loads a binary module.
                     The module must be in a file with a  name  consisting  of
                     the specified name followed by a standard suffix, usually
                     ‘.so’ (‘.sl’ on HPUX).  If the module  to  be  loaded  is
                     already  loaded and the -i option is given, the duplicate
                     module is ignored.  Otherwise zmodload  prints  an  error
                     message  and  returns  a  non-zero  status.   If zmodload
                     detects an inconsistency, such as an invalid module  name
                     or  circular  dependency  list, the current code block is
                     aborted.   Hence  ‘zmodload  -i  module  2>/dev/null’  is
                     sufficient  to test whether a module is available.  If it
                     is available, the module is loaded if necessary, while if
                     it   is   not  available,  non-zero  status  is  silently
                     returned.

                     The named module is  searched  for  in  the  same  way  a
                     command   is,   using   $module_path  instead  of  $path.
                     However, the path  search  is  performed  even  when  the
                     module name contains a ‘/’, which it usually does.  There
                     is no way to prevent the path search.

                     With -u, zmodload unloads modules.  The same name must be
                     given  that  was given when the module was loaded, but it
                     is  not  necessary  for  the  module  to  exist  in   the
                     filesystem.   The  -i  option suppresses the error if the
                     module is already unloaded (or was never loaded).

                     Each module has a  boot  and  a  cleanup  function.   The
                     module  will  not  be  loaded if its boot function fails.
                     Similarly a module can only be unloaded  if  its  cleanup
                     function runs successfully.

              zmodload -d [ -L ] [ name ]
              zmodload -d name dep ...
              zmodload -ud name [ dep ... ]
                     The -d option can be used to specify module dependencies.
                     The modules named in the second and subsequent  arguments
                     will  be  loaded  before  the  module  named in the first
                     argument.

                     With -d and  one  argument,  all  dependencies  for  that
                     module  are listed.  With -d and no arguments, all module
                     dependencies are listed.  This listing is by default in a
                     Makefile-like  format.  The -L option changes this format
                     to a list of zmodload -d commands.

                     If -d and -u are both used, dependencies are removed.  If
                     only  one  argument  is  given, all dependencies for that
                     module are removed.

              zmodload -ab [ -L ]
              zmodload -ab [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ub [ -i ] builtin ...
                     The -ab option defines autoloaded builtins.   It  defines
                     the  specified  builtins.   When any of those builtins is
                     called, the module specified in  the  first  argument  is
                     loaded.   If  only  the  name  is  given,  one builtin is
                     defined, with the same name as the module.  -i suppresses
                     the   error   if   the  builtin  is  already  defined  or
                     autoloaded, regardless of which module it came from.

                     With -ab and no arguments, all  autoloaded  builtins  are
                     listed,  with  the  module  name  (if different) shown in
                     parentheses  after  the  builtin  name.   The  -L  option
                     changes this format to a list of zmodload -a commands.

                     If  -b  is  used  together with the -u option, it removes
                     builtins previously  defined  with  -ab.   This  is  only
                     possible if the builtin is not yet loaded.  -i suppresses
                     the error if the builtin is  already  removed  (or  never
                     existed).

              zmodload -ac [ -IL ]
              zmodload -ac [ -iI ] name [ cond ... ]
              zmodload -uc [ -iI ] cond ...
                     The  -ac  option  is  used to define autoloaded condition
                     codes. The cond strings give the names of the  conditions
                     defined  by the module. The optional -I option is used to
                     define infix condition names. Without this option  prefix
                     condition names are defined.

                     If given no condition names, all defined names are listed
                     (as a series of zmodload commands if  the  -L  option  is
                     given).

                     The   -uc   option  removes  definitions  for  autoloaded
                     conditions.

              zmodload -ap [ -L ]
              zmodload -ap [ -i ] name [ parameter ... ]
              zmodload -up [ -i ] parameter ...
                     The -p option is like the -b and -c  options,  but  makes
                     zmodload work on autoloaded parameters instead.

              zmodload -af [ -L ]
              zmodload -af [ -i ] name [ function ... ]
              zmodload -uf [ -i ] function ...
                     The  -f  option  is  like the -b, -p, and -c options, but
                     makes zmodload work on autoloaded math functions instead.

              zmodload -a [ -L ]
              zmodload -a [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ua [ -i ] builtin ...
                     Equivalent to -ab and -ub.

              zmodload -e [ -A ] [ string ... ]
                     The -e option without arguments lists all loaded modules;
                     if  the  -A  option  is  also   given,   module   aliases
                     corresponding  to  loaded  modules  are also shown.  With
                     arguments only the return status is set to  zero  if  all
                     strings  given  as  arguments are names of loaded modules
                     and to one if at least on string is not  the  name  of  a
                     loaded  module.   This  can  be  used  to  test  for  the
                     availability of things implemented by modules.   In  this
                     case,  any  aliases are automatically resolved and the -A
                     flag is not used.

              zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
                     For each argument, if both modalias and module are given,
                     define modalias to be an alias for the module module.  If
                     the  module  modalias  is  ever  subsequently  requested,
                     either  via  a  call to zmodload or implicitly, the shell
                     will attempt to load module instead.  If  module  is  not
                     given,  show the definition of modalias.  If no arguments
                     are  given,  list  all  defined  module  aliases.    When
                     listing,  if  the  -L  flag  was  also  given,  list  the
                     definition as a zmodload command to recreate the alias.

                     The  existence  of  aliases  for  modules  is  completely
                     independent  of  whether  the  name  resolved is actually
                     loaded as a module: while the alias exists,  loading  and
                     unloading the module under any alias has exactly the same
                     effect as using the resolved name, and  does  not  affect
                     the  connection  between  the alias and the resolved name
                     which  can  be  removed  either  by  zmodload  -R  or  by
                     redefining  the alias.  Chains of aliases (i.e. where the
                     first resolved name is itself an alias) are valid so long
                     as  these are not circular.  As the aliases take the same
                     format as module names, they may include path separators:
                     in this case, there is no requirement for any part of the
                     path named to exist as the alias will be resolved  first.
                     For example, ‘any/old/alias’ is always a valid alias.

                     Dependencies  added to aliased modules are actually added
                     to the resolved module; these  remain  if  the  alias  is
                     removed.   It  is  valid to create an alias whose name is
                     one of the standard shell modules and which resolves to a
                     different module.  However, if a module has dependencies,
                     it will not be possible to use  the  module  name  as  an
                     alias  as the module will already be marked as a loadable
                     module in its own right.

                     Apart from the above, aliases can be used in the zmodload
                     command  anywhere  module  names  are required.  However,
                     aliases will not be shown in lists of loaded modules with
                     a bare ‘zmodload’.

              zmodload -R modalias ...
                     For each modalias argument that was previously defined as
                     a module alias via zmodload -A, delete the alias.  If any
                     was  not defined, an error is caused and the remainder of
                     the line is ignored.

              Note that zsh makes no distinction  between  modules  that  were
              linked  into  the shell and modules that are loaded dynamically.
              In both cases this builtin  command  has  to  be  used  to  make
              available  the  builtins  and  other  things  defined by modules
              (unless the module is autoloaded on these definitions). This  is
              true  even  for  systems  that  don’t support dynamic loading of
              modules.

       zparseopts
              See the section ‘The zsh/zutil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       zprof  See the section ‘The zsh/zprof Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       zpty   See the section ‘The zsh/zpty Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       zregexparse
              See the section ‘The zsh/zutil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       zsocket
              See the section ‘The zsh/net/socket Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       zstyle See the section ‘The zsh/zutil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       ztcp   See the section ‘The zsh/net/tcp Module’ in zshmodules(1).