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       mprotect - set protection on a region of memory


       #include <sys/mman.h>

       int mprotect(const void *addr, size_t *len, int prot);


       mprotect()  changes protection for the calling process’s memory page(s)
       containing  any  part  of   the   address   range   in   the   interval
       [addr, addr+len-1].  addr must be aligned to a page boundary.

       If the calling process tries to access memory in a manner that violates
       the protection, then the kernel generates  a  SIGSEGV  signal  for  the

       prot  is  either  PROT_NONE  or a bitwise-or of the other values in the
       following list:

       PROT_NONE  The memory cannot be accessed at all.

       PROT_READ  The memory can be read.

       PROT_WRITE The memory can be modified.

       PROT_EXEC  The memory can be executed.


       On success, mprotect() returns zero.  On error,  -1  is  returned,  and
       errno is set appropriately.


       EACCES The  memory  cannot  be  given  the  specified access.  This can
              happen, for example, if you mmap(2) a file  to  which  you  have
              read-only access, then ask mprotect() to mark it PROT_WRITE.

       EFAULT The memory cannot be accessed.

       EINVAL addr  is  not  a  valid pointer, or not a multiple of the system
              page size.

       ENOMEM Internal  kernel  structures  could  not  be   allocated.    Or:
              addresses  in  the  range  [addr,  addr+len] are invalid for the
              address space of the process, or specify one or more pages  that
              are not mapped.


       SVr4,  POSIX.1-2001.   POSIX  says  that  the behavior of mprotect() is
       unspecified if it is applied  to  a  region  of  memory  that  was  not
       obtained via mmap(2).


       On  Linux  it  is  always  legal to call mprotect() on any address in a
       process’s address space (except for  the  kernel  vsyscall  area).   In
       particular  it  can  be  used  to  change  existing code mappings to be

       Whether  PROT_EXEC  has  any  effect  different   from   PROT_READ   is
       architecture-   and   kernel   version-dependent.    On  some  hardware
       architectures (e.g., i386), PROT_WRITE implies PROT_READ.

       POSIX.1-2001 says that an implementation may permit access  other  than
       that specified in prot, but at a minimum can only allow write access if
       PROT_WRITE has been set, and must not allow any access if PROT_NONE has
       been set.


       The  program  below  allocates four pages of memory, makes the third of
       these pages read-only, and then executes  a  loop  that  walks  upwards
       through the allocated region modifying bytes.

       An  example  of  what  we  might  see  when  running the program is the

           $ ./a.out
           Start of region:        0x804c000
           Got SIGSEGV at address: 0x804e000

       #include <unistd.h>
       #include <signal.h>
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <malloc.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <errno.h>
       #include <sys/mman.h>

       #define handle_error(msg) \
           do { perror(msg); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } while (0)

       char *buffer;

       static void
       handler(int sig, siginfo_t *si, void *unused)
           printf("Got SIGSEGV at address: 0x%lx\n",
                   (long) si->si_addr);

       main(int argc, char *argv[])
           char *p;
           int pagesize;
           struct sigaction sa;

           sa.sa_flags = SA_SIGINFO;
           sa.sa_sigaction = handler;
           if (sigaction(SIGSEGV, &sa, NULL) == -1)

           pagesize = sysconf(_SC_PAGE_SIZE);
           if (pagesize == -1)

           /* Allocate a buffer aligned on a page boundary;
              initial protection is PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE */

           buffer = memalign(pagesize, 4 * pagesize);
           if (buffer == NULL)

           printf("Start of region:        0x%lx\n", (long) buffer);

           if (mprotect(buffer + pagesize * 2, pagesize,
                       PROT_NONE) == -1)

           for (p = buffer ; ; )
               *(p++) = ’a’;

           printf("Loop completed\n");     /* Should never happen */


       mmap(2), sysconf(3)


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       description  of  the project, and information about reporting bugs, can
       be found at