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NAME

       glob,  globfree  -  find pathnames matching a pattern, free memory from
       glob()

SYNOPSIS

       #include <glob.h>

       int glob(const char *pattern, int flags,
                int (*errfunc) (const char *epath, int eerrno),
                glob_t *pglob);
       void globfree(glob_t *pglob);

DESCRIPTION

       The glob() function searches for all  the  pathnames  matching  pattern
       according  to  the  rules  used  by  the shell (see glob(7)).  No tilde
       expansion or parameter substitution is done; if  you  want  these,  use
       wordexp(3).

       The globfree() function frees the dynamically allocated storage from an
       earlier call to glob().

       The results of a glob() call are stored in the structure pointed to  by
       pglob.   This  structure  is  of type glob_t (declared in <glob.h>) and
       includes the following elements defined by POSIX.2 (more may be present
       as an extension):

           typedef struct {
               size_t   gl_pathc;    /* Count of paths matched so far  */
               char   **gl_pathv;    /* List of matched pathnames.  */
               size_t   gl_offs;     /* Slots to reserve in gl_pathv.  */
           } glob_t;

       Results are stored in dynamically allocated storage.

       The  parameter  flags  is made up of the bitwise OR of zero or more the
       following symbolic constants, which modify the behavior of glob():

       GLOB_ERR
              Return upon a read error (because a directory does not have read
              permission,  for example).  By default, glob() attempts carry on
              despite errors, reading all of the directories that it can.

       GLOB_MARK
              Append a slash to each path which corresponds to a directory.

       GLOB_NOSORT
              Don’t sort the returned pathnames.  The only reason to  do  this
              is  to save processing time.  By default, the returned pathnames
              are sorted.

       GLOB_DOOFFS
              Reserve pglob->gl_offs slots at the beginning  of  the  list  of
              strings  in  pglob->pathv.   The  reserved  slots  contain  NULL
              pointers.

       GLOB_NOCHECK
              If no pattern matches, return the original pattern.  By default,
              glob() returns GLOB_NOMATCH if there are no matches.

       GLOB_APPEND
              Append  the  results  of  this  call  to  the  vector of results
              returned by a previous call to glob().  Do not set this flag  on
              the first invocation of glob().

       GLOB_NOESCAPE
              Don’t  allow  backslash (’\’) to be used as an escape character.
              Normally, a  backslash  can  be  used  to  quote  the  following
              character, providing a mechanism to turn off the special meaning
              metacharacters.

       flags may also include any of the following, which are  GNU  extensions
       and not defined by POSIX.2:

       GLOB_PERIOD
              Allow  a  leading  period  to  be matched by metacharacters.  By
              default, metacharacters can’t match a leading period.

       GLOB_ALTDIRFUNC
              Use alternative functions pglob->gl_closedir, pglob->gl_readdir,
              pglob->gl_opendir,  pglob->gl_lstat, and pglob->gl_stat for file
              system access instead of the normal library functions.

       GLOB_BRACE
              Expand csh(1) style brace expressions of the form {a,b}.   Brace
              expressions  can  be  nested.  Thus, for example, specifying the
              pattern "{foo/{,cat,dog},bar}" would return the same results  as
              four separate glob() calls using the strings: "foo/", "foo/cat",
              "foo/dog", and "bar".

       GLOB_NOMAGIC
              If the pattern contains no  metacharacters  then  it  should  be
              returned  as  the  sole  matching word, even if there is no file
              with that name.

       GLOB_TILDE
              Carry out tilde  expansion.   If  a  tilde  (’~’)  is  the  only
              character  in  the  pattern,  or  an  initial  tilde is followed
              immediately by a slash (’/’), then the  home  directory  of  the
              caller  is  substituted  for  the tilde.  If an initial tilde is
              followed by a username (e.g., "~andrea/bin"), then the tilde and
              username are substituted by the home directory of that user.  If
              the username  is  invalid,  or  the  home  directory  cannot  be
              determined, then no substitution is performed.

       GLOB_TILDE_CHECK
              This  provides  behavior  similar  to  that  of GLOB_TILDE.  The
              difference is that if the  username  is  invalid,  or  the  home
              directory  cannot  be  determined,  then  instead  of  using the
              pattern itself as  the  name,  glob()  returns  GLOB_NOMATCH  to
              indicate an error.

       GLOB_ONLYDIR
              This  is  a hint to glob() that the caller is interested only in
              directories that match the pattern.  If the  implementation  can
              easily determine file-type information, then non-directory files
              are not returned to the caller.  However, the caller must  still
              check that returned files are directories.  (The purpose of this
              flag is merely  to  optimize  performance  when  the  caller  is
              interested only in directories.)

       If  errfunc is not NULL, it will be called in case of an error with the
       arguments epath, a pointer to the path which failed,  and  eerrno,  the
       value  of  errno  as  returned  from  one  of  the calls to opendir(3),
       readdir(3), or stat(2).  If errfunc returns nonzero, or if GLOB_ERR  is
       set, glob() will terminate after the call to errfunc.

       Upon  successful return, pglob->gl_pathc contains the number of matched
       pathnames and  pglob->gl_pathv  contains  a  pointer  to  the  list  of
       pointers to matched pathnames.  The list of pointers is terminated by a
       NULL pointer.

       It is possible to  call  glob()  several  times.   In  that  case,  the
       GLOB_APPEND  flag  has  to  be  set  in  flags  on the second and later
       invocations.

       As a GNU extension, pglob->gl_flags is set to the flags specified, ored
       with GLOB_MAGCHAR if any metacharacters were found.

RETURN VALUE

       On  successful completion, glob() returns zero.  Other possible returns
       are:

       GLOB_NOSPACE
              for running out of memory,

       GLOB_ABORTED
              for a read error, and

       GLOB_NOMATCH
              for no found matches.

CONFORMING TO

       POSIX.2, POSIX.1-2001.

NOTES

       The structure elements gl_pathc and gl_offs are declared as  size_t  in
       glibc  2.1, as they should be according to POSIX.2, but are declared as
       int in libc4, libc5 and glibc 2.0.

BUGS

       The glob() function may fail due  to  failure  of  underlying  function
       calls,  such  as malloc(3) or opendir(3).  These will store their error
       code in errno.

EXAMPLE

       One example of use is the following code, which simulates typing

           ls -l *.c ../*.c

       in the shell:

           glob_t globbuf;

           globbuf.gl_offs = 2;
           glob("*.c", GLOB_DOOFFS, NULL, &globbuf);
           glob("../*.c", GLOB_DOOFFS | GLOB_APPEND, NULL, &globbuf);
           globbuf.gl_pathv[0] = "ls";
           globbuf.gl_pathv[1] = "-l";
           execvp("ls", &globbuf.gl_pathv[0]);

SEE ALSO

       ls(1), sh(1),  stat(2),  exec(3),  fnmatch(3),  malloc(3),  opendir(3),
       readdir(3), wordexp(3), glob(7)

COLOPHON

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       description of the project, and information about reporting  bugs,  can
       be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.