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NAME

     vlan - IEEE 802.1Q VLAN network interface

SYNOPSIS

     To compile this driver into the kernel, place the following lines in your
     kernel configuration file:

           device miibus
           device vlan

     Alternatively, to load the driver as a module at boot time, place the
     following line in loader.conf(5):

           if_vlan_load="YES"

DESCRIPTION

     The vlan driver demultiplexes frames tagged according to the IEEE 802.1Q
     standard into logical vlan network interfaces, which allows
     routing/bridging between multiple VLANs through a single switch trunk
     port.

     Each vlan interface is created at runtime using interface cloning.  This
     is most easily done with the ifconfig(8) create command or using the
     cloned_interfaces variable in rc.conf(5).

     To function, a vlan interface must be assigned a parent interface and
     numeric VLAN tag using ifconfig(8).  A single parent can be assigned to
     multiple vlan interfaces provided they have different tags.  The parent
     interface is likely to be an Ethernet card connected to a properly
     configured switch port.  The VLAN tag should match one of those set up in
     the switched network.

     Initially vlan assumes the same minimum length for tagged and untagged
     frames.  This mode is selected by the sysctl(8) variable
     net.link.vlan.soft_pad set to 0 (default).  However, there are network
     devices that fail to adjust frame length, should it fall below the
     allowed minimum due to untagging.  Such devices should be able to
     interoperate with vlan after changing the value of net.link.vlan.soft_pad
     to 1.  In the latter mode, vlan will pad short frames before tagging them
     so that their length stays not less than the minimum value after
     untagging by the non-compliant devices.

HARDWARE

     The vlan driver supports efficient operation over parent interfaces that
     can provide help in processing VLANs.  Such interfaces are automatically
     recognized by their capabilities.  Depending on the level of
     sophistication found in a physical interface, it may do full VLAN
     processing or just be able to receive and transmit frames exceeding the
     maximum Ethernet frame size by the length of a 802.1Q header.  The
     capabilities may be user-controlled by the respective parameters to
     ifconfig(8), vlanhwtag and vlanmtu.  However, a physical interface is not
     obliged to react to them: It may have either capability enabled
     permanently without a way to turn it off.  The whole issue is very
     specific to a particular device and its driver.

     By now, the list of physical interfaces able of full VLAN processing in
     the hardware is limited to the following devices: bge(4), em(4), ixgb(4),
     nge(4), re(4), stge(4), ti(4), txp(4), and vge(4).

     The rest of the Ethernet interfaces can run VLANs using software
     emulation in the vlan driver.  However, most of them lack the capability
     of transmitting and receiving oversized frames.  Assigning such an
     interface as the parent to vlan will result in a reduced MTU on the
     corresponding vlan interfaces.  In the modern Internet, this is likely to
     cause tcp(4) connectivity problems due to massive, inadequate icmp(4)
     filtering that breaks the Path MTU Discovery mechanism.

     The interfaces that support oversized frames are as follows:

           bfe(4)  supports long frames for vlan natively.

           dc(4)   supports long frames for vlan natively.

           de(4)   requires defining BIG_PACKET in the
                   /usr/src/sys/pci/if_de.c source file and rebuilding the
                   kernel or module.  The hack works only for the 21041,
                   21140, and 21140A chips.

           fxp(4)  supports long frames for vlan natively.

           gem(4)  supports long frames for vlan natively.

           hme(4)  supports long frames for vlan natively.

           le(4)   supports long frames for vlan natively.

           rl(4)   supports long frames for vlan natively.

           sis(4)  supports long frames for vlan natively.

           sk(4)   supports long frames for vlan natively.

           ste(4)  supports long frames for vlan natively.

           tl(4)   has support for long frames.

           tx(4)   supports long frames for vlan natively.

           xl(4)   supports long frames only if the card is built on a newer
                   chip (Cyclone and above).

     The vlan driver automatically recognizes devices that natively support
     oversized frames for vlan use and calculates the appropriate frame MTU
     based on the capabilities of the parent interface.  The other interfaces
     listed above can handle oversized frames, but they do not advertise this
     ability of theirs.  The MTU setting on vlan can be corrected manually if
     used in conjunction with such parent interface.

SEE ALSO

     kqueue(2), miibus(4), ifconfig(8), sysctl(8)

BUGS

     No 802.1Q features except VLAN tagging are implemented.

     EVFILT_NETDEV events on a vlan interface will be sent through kqueue(2)
     only if the parent interface uses miibus(4) for link state notification.