Provided by: crawl_0.3.3-2_i386 bug

NAME

       crawl - play the roguelike game of crawl

SYNOPSIS

       crawl  [-name  <string>]  [-race  <letter>]  [-class  <letter>] [-pizza
       <string>] [-plain] [-dir <path>] [-rc <file>] [-scores [N]] [-scorefile
       <file>]

DESCRIPTION

       Crawl  is  a fun game in the grand tradition of games like Rogue, Hack,
       and Moria. Your objective is to travel deep into  a  subterranean  cave
       complex  and retrieve the Orb of Zot, which is guarded by many horrible
       and hideous creatures.

       This file contains detailed instructions for playing Crawl. If you  are
       completely new to this kind of game, it may be worth your while to read
       at least  part  (although  it  will  probably  confuse  you  somewhat),
       otherwise  you  should probably just dive into the game and use the ’?’
       command to give a list of keys to use.

OPTIONS

       -name <string>
              set character name

       -race <letter>
              preselect race

       -class <letter>
              preselect class

       -pizza <string>
              crawl pizza

       -plain don’t use IBM extended characters  (needed  when  playing  in  a
              xterm)

       -dir <path>
              crawl directory

       -macro <path>
              directory for crawl macro file

       -rc <file>
              init file name

       -scores [N]
              show highscore list [first N entries]

       -scorefile <file>
              scorefile  name. If used without -scores, converts the scorefile
              to Crawl’s native format and writes  it  to  stdout  (useful  to
              convert  logfiles from previous releases). If the filename is -,
              reads the scorefile on stdin.

THE GAME

       CHARACTER SPECIES

       You have a number of different character races  to  choose  from.  This
       affects several characteristics including: Your choice of classes; Your
       initial attributes (strength etc); Occasional  extra  points  added  to
       some  abilities;  The  amount  of  hit  points and magic you get as you
       increase  in  level;  Your  initial  equipment;  Your  rate  of   level
       advancement; Your rate of skill advancement.

       Humans  are  the  most versatile race. Humans advance quickly in levels
       and have equal abilities in all skills.  Humans  can  also  be  of  any
       class.

       Elves  have  good  intelligence  and  dexterity,  but  suffer  a bit in
       strength.  They have slightly less hp  and  slightly  more  magic  than
       humans,  and  advance in experience a bit more slowly as well. They are
       especially good at fighting with short and long swords, although not so
       good at other weapons, and are adept at bows and darts. Their quickness
       makes them good at dodging, and they possess natural elven  stealth  as
       well.  Their  nature also gives them proficiency with magic, especially
       enchantments, but they are poor at using necromancy.

       There are also a number of related types of elves:

       High elves are a powerful elven race who advance in levels very  slowly
       -  requiring  half  again  as  much  experience  as do humans. They are
       similar to common elves in  most  respects,  but  their  strengths  and
       weaknesses tend to be greater.

       Grey  elves also advance slowly, but more quickly than high elves. They
       are generally poor at fighting - although they are still good at  short
       and  long  swords  and  bows  - but are excellent at all forms of magic
       except for necromancy.

       Deep elves are poor at  fighting  but  excellent  at  bows,  crossbows,
       darts,  and  especially  magic. They are the only elven subtype who are
       skilled at using necromancy and earth magic, and are particularly  good
       at  enchantment magic.  They advance in levels at the same rate as grey
       elves. Deep elves are not physically robust, but have great reserves of
       magical energy.

       Sludge  elves are a bit like common elves, but are not quite as good at
       most things while being better at necromancy and some elemental magics.
       They advance in level slightly faster, though.

       Elven  armour  is  unusually  light, and does not affect the dodging or
       stealth of its wearer to the extent that other armours do. Elven cloaks
       and boots are particularly useful to those who wish to be stealthy, and
       elven bows are particularly effective in conjunction with elven arrows.
       Elves are especially dangerous when using elven weapons.

       All  elves  are good at using air elemental magic, and are okay at fire
       and ice magic. They are also poor at earth magic with the exceptions of
       deep and sludge elves, who can use earth magic well.

       Hill dwarves are extremely robust but are poor at using magic. They are
       excellent at hand combat, especially favouring axes, and  are  good  at
       using  armour  and  shields, but are poor at missile combat or at using
       polearms (which are usually too big for them to wield comfortably). The
       only  forms  of  magic  which they can use with any aptitude are earth,
       fire  and  conjurations,  but  they  are  worse  than  humans  at   the
       conjurations  skill. They advance in levels at a similar rate to common
       elves.

       Mountain dwarves are almost as robust as hill dwarves and have  similar
       aptitudes,  but  are  slightly  better  at the things that hill dwarves
       don’t do very well, and slightly worse at the things that hill  dwarves
       are  good  at.   They advance in levels at a rate between that of elves
       and humans.

       Dwarven weapons and armours are  very  durable,  and  do  not  rust  or
       corrode  easily.  Dwarves  are  especially effective when using dwarven
       weaponry.

       Halflings are very small and, with deep  elves  and  kobolds,  are  the
       least  robust  of  any  character  race.  Although fair to poor at most
       fighting skills, they can use short blades well and  are  good  at  all
       forms  of  missile  combat.   They  are  also very stealthy and good at
       dodging and stabbing, but are poor  at  most  types  of  magic  (except
       enchantments  and translocations). They advance in levels as rapidly as
       humans. Halflings cannot wield large weapons.

       Hill orcs are orcs from the upper world  who,  jealous  of  the  riches
       which  their  cousins, the cave orcs, possess below the ground, descend
       in search of plunder and adventure. They are  as  robust  as  the  hill
       dwarves,  but  have very low reserves of magical energy. Their forte is
       fighting, and they are skilled at using most  hand  weapons  (with  the
       exception  of  short  blades,  at which they are only fair, and missile
       weapons, at which they are not particularly good).  They  are  poor  at
       using  most  types  of  magic  with  the  exception of conjurations and
       necromancy. They advance as quickly as humans.

       Orcish bows/crossbows are particularly effective  in  combination  with
       orcish  arrows/bolts. Orcs are especially good at using orcish weapons.

       Orcs are poor at using air elemental magic, but  okay  at  other  kinds
       (and good at earth magic).

       Kobolds  are  small,  ugly  creatures with few redeeming features. They
       have poor abilities and have similar aptitudes  to  halflings,  without
       the excellent agility. However, they are slightly better than halflings
       at using some types of magic, particularly summonings  and  necromancy.
       They   often   live  as  scavengers,  surviving  on  carrion,  but  are
       carnivorous and can only eat meat.  They advance in levels  as  quickly
       as humans.

       Mummies  are  undead  creatures who travel into the depths in search of
       revenge, redemption, or just because they want to. Being  undead,  they
       are  immune  to poisons and negative energy, have little warmth left to
       be affected by cold, and are not susceptible  to  reductions  in  their
       physical  or  mental  abilities.  However,  their dessicated bodies are
       highly flammable. They also do not need to eat or  drink,  and  in  any
       case are unable to.

       Mummies  progress  very  slowly in level (as slow as High Elves) and in
       all skills  except  fighting,  spellcasting  and  necromancy.  As  they
       increase  in level they become increasingly in touch with the powers of
       death, but cannot use some types of necromancy which only affect living
       creatures  (if  they  are  unable  to use a spell, they will usually be
       unable to memorise it). The side effects of necromantic magic  tend  to
       be relatively harmless to mummies.

       Naga  are  a  race of hybrids; humanoid from the waist up, with a large
       snake tail instead of legs. They are reasonably good at most things and
       advance  in  experience  levels  at  a  decent rate. They are naturally
       immune to poisons, can see invisible creatures, and  have  tough  skin,
       but  their  tails  are  relatively  slow and cannot move them around as
       quickly as can other creatures’ legs (this only affects their  movement
       rate;  all  other  actions  are at normal speed). Their body shape also
       prevents them from gaining full protection from most armour. Every  now
       and  then,  a  naga  can spit poison; the range, accuracy and damage of
       this poison increases with the naga’s experience level.

       Gnomes are an underground-dwelling race of creatures,  related  to  the
       dwarves  but  even more closely in touch with the earth. They are quite
       small, and share many of their characteristics with  halflings  (except
       for  the  great agility), although they advance slightly more slowly in
       experience levels. They are okay at most skills, but excellent at earth
       elemental  magic  and very poor at air magic. Occasionally they can use
       their empathy with the earth to sense their surroundings; this  ability
       increases in power as they gain experience levels.

       Ogres  are  huge,  chunky  creatures  related  to orcs. They have great
       physical strength, but are bad at almost  everything  except  fighting.
       Because  of their large size they can only wear loose robes, cloaks and
       animal skins. They learn quite slowly. Although ogres  can  eat  almost
       anything, their size means that they need to.

       Trolls  are  like ogres, but even nastier. They can rip creatures apart
       with their claws, and  regenerate  very  quickly  from  even  the  most
       terrible wounds.  They learn very slowly indeed - even more slowly than
       high elves - and need a great amount of food to survive.

       Ogre-mages are a separate race  of  ogres  who  are  unique  among  the
       beefier  races  in their ability to use magic, especially enchantments.
       Although slighter than their common ogre  relatives  they  nevertheless
       have  great  strength and can survive a lot of punishment. They advance
       in level as slowly as high elves.

       Draconians are a race of human-dragon hybrids;  humanoid  in  form  and
       approximately   human-sized,   with   wings,  tails  and  scaly  skins.
       Draconians start out in an immature form with brown scales, but as they
       grow  in  power  they  take  on  a  variety  of  colours. Some types of
       draconians have breath weapons. Because of  their  decidedly  non-human
       shapes,  draconians  cannot wear most armours.  Draconians advance very
       slowly in level, but are reasonably good at most skills (except missile
       weapons and armour).

       Centaurs  are  another  race  of  hybrid creatures: horses with a human
       torso. Centaurs can move very quickly  on  their  four  legs,  and  are
       excellent with bows and other missile weapons; they are also reasonable
       at the Fighting skill while being  slow  learners  at  specific  weapon
       skills.  They  advance  quite slowly in experience level and are rather
       sub-average at using magic. Due to their large bulk, they need a little
       extra food to survive.

       Demigods  are  mortals  (humans,  orcs or elves, for example) with some
       divine ancestry, however distant; they can be created by  a  number  of
       processes  including magical experiments and the time-honoured practice
       of interplanar miscegenation. Demigods look more or less  like  members
       of  their  mortal  part’s race, but have excellent abilities (strength,
       int, dex) and are extremely robust; they also have  great  supplies  of
       magical energy. On the downside they advance very slowly in experience,
       gain skills slightly less quickly than humans, and cannot  worship  the
       various Gods and Powers available to the other races.

       Spriggans  are small magical creatures distantly related to elves. They
       are poor fighters with anything other than a dagger  or  a  shortsword,
       have  little physical resilience, and are terrible at destructive magic
       - conjurations, summonings, necromancy and  elemental  spells.  On  the
       other  hand,  they  are  excellent at other forms of magic and are very
       good at moving silently and quickly. So great is  their  speed  that  a
       spriggan can keep pace with a centaur.

       Minotaurs  are  yet  another  hybrid - a human body with a bovine head.
       Minotaurs are extremely good at all forms of physical combat,  but  are
       awful  at  using any type of magic. They can wear all armour except for
       headgear.

       Demonspawn are horrible half-mortal, half-infernal creatures - the flip
       side of the Demigods. Demonspawn can be created in any number of ways -
       magical  experiments,  breeding,  unholy  pacts,  etc.  Although   many
       demonspawn  may  be  indistinguishable from those of pure mortal stock,
       they often grow horns,  scales  or  other  unusual  features.  Powerful
       members  of  this  class  of  beings  also  develop  a  range of unholy
       abilities,  which  are  listed  as  mutations  (and  can  sometimes  be
       activated with the ’a’ command).

       Demonspawn  advance  very slowly in experience and learn most skills at
       about the same rate as do Demigods. However, they are a  little  better
       at fighting and much better at conjurations, summonings, necromancy and
       invocations.

       Ghouls are horrible undead creatures,  slowly  rotting  away.  Although
       ghouls  can  sleep  in their graves for years on end, when they rise to
       walk among the living they must eat flesh  to  survive.  Raw  flesh  is
       preferred, especially rotting or tainted meat, and ghouls gain strength
       from consuming it.

       As undead, Ghouls are naturally immune to  poison,  cold  and  negative
       energy.  They aren’t very good at doing most things, although they make
       decent fighters and can use  ice  and  earth  magic  without  too  many
       difficulties.

       Kenku  are  an  ancient and feared race of bird-people with a legendary
       propensity for violence. They are experts at  all  forms  of  fighting,
       including  the magical arts of combat (conjurations, summonings and, to
       a lesser extent, necromancy). However, their light avian bodies  cannot
       sustain a great deal of injury.

       Basically  humanoid with bird-like heads and clawed feet, the kenku can
       wear all types of armour except helmets and boots. Despite  their  lack
       of wings, powerful kenku can fly and very powerful members of this race
       can stay in the  air  permanently.  They  are  good  at  air  and  fire
       elemental  magic,  but  poor  at  ice  and  earth  magic.  Kenku do not
       appreciate any form of servitude, and so are poor at using invocations.

       Some  species  have  special abilities which can be accessed by the ’a’
       abilities menu. Some also have  physical  characteristics  which  allow
       them to make extra attacks using the Unarmed Combat skill.

       CHARACTER CLASSES

       In  your  quest,  you  play  as  one  of a number of different types of
       characters.  Although each has its own strengths and  weaknesses,  some
       are  definitely  easier  than  others, at least to begin with. The best
       classes  for  a  beginner  are  probably   Gladiators,   fighters   and
       Berserkers; if you really want to play a magician, try a Conjurer. Each
       class starts out with a different set of skills  and  items,  but  from
       there you can shape them as you will.

       Fighters  start  with  a  decent weapon, a suit of armour and a shield.
       They have a good general grounding in the arts of fighting.

       Priests serve either Zin, the ancient and revered God of  Law,  or  the
       rather  less pleasant Death-God Yredelemnul. Although priests enter the
       dungeon with a mace (as well as a  priestly  robe  and  a  few  healing
       potions),  this is purely the result of an archaic tradition the reason
       for which has been lost in the mists of time; Priests are  not  in  any
       way restricted in their choice of weapon skills.

       The  Thief  is  one of the trickiest classes to play. Thieves start out
       with a large variety of useful skills, and need to use all of  them  to
       survive.   Thieves  start  with a short sword, some throwing darts, and
       light armour.

       The magician is the best at using magic. Magicians start with a dagger,
       a  robe,  and  a book of spells which should see them through the first
       several levels. There are various kinds of magicians:

       The Wizard is a magician who does not specialise in any area of  magic.
       Wizards start with a variety of magical skills and the magic dart spell
       in memory.

       The Conjurer specialises  in  the  violent  and  destructive  magic  of
       conjuration spells. Like the Wizard, the Conjurer starts with the magic
       dart spell.

       The Enchanter specialises in the more subtle area of enchantment magic.
       Although   not   as   directly  powerful  as  conjurations,  high-level
       enchantments offer a wide range of very handy effects. As there are  no
       useful enchantment spells of the first level, the Enchanter begins with
       a random attack spell and has a magic wand to help survive until he  or
       she  can start learning to use the craft properly, and is equipped with
       lightly enchanted weapons and armour.

       The Summoner specialises in  calling  creatures  from  this  and  other
       worlds  to give assistance. Although they can at first summon only very
       wimpy creatures, the more advanced summoning spells allow summoners  to
       call on such powers as elementals and demons.

       The Necromancer is a magician who specialises in the less pleasant side
       of magic. Necromantic spells are a varied bunch, but many involve  some
       degree of risk or harm to the caster.

       Elementalists  are magicians who specialise in one of the four types of
       elemental magic.

       Venom mages specialise in poison magic, which is  extremely  useful  in
       the  shallower  levels of the dungeon where few creatures are immune to
       it. Poison magic is especially effective when used against insects.

       Transmuters  specialise  in  transmigrations,  and  can  cause  strange
       changes in themselves and others.

       Warpers  specialise  in  translocations,  and are experts in travelling
       long distances and positioning themselves precisely.

       The Paladin is a servant of the  Shining  One,  and  has  many  of  the
       abilities  of  the Fighter and the Priest. He or she enters the dungeon
       with a sword, a shield, a robe, and a healing potion.

       The Gladiator is well trained in the art of fighting but is not so good
       at  other  things.  In fact, Gladiators are pretty terrible at anything
       except bashing monsters with heavy things.  They  start  with  a  nasty
       weapon, a small shield, and armour.

       The  Berserker  is  a  hardy warrior who fights well with many weapons.
       Berserkers worship Trog the Wrathful, from whom they get the  power  to
       go  berserk  (as  well  as  a  number of other powers should they prove
       worthy) but who forbids the use of spell magic. They enter the  dungeon
       with an axe, some spears, and a set of leather armour.

       The  Ranger  is  a fighter who specialises in missile weapons. A Ranger
       starts with a bow and some arrows, as well as a hunting knife and a set
       of leathers.

       An Assassin is a thief who is especially good at killing. Assassins are
       like thieves in most respects, but begin more skilled at hand combat.

       The Crusader is a decent fighter who also  has  some  aptitude  in  the
       magical arts. Crusaders start out with a book of martial spells.

       The Death Knight is a fighter who aligns him or herself with the powers
       of death. There are two types of Death Knights: those who  worship  and
       draw  their  abilities  from  the  Demon-God Yredelemnul, and those who
       study the fearsome arts of necromancy.

       The Chaos knight is a fighter who chooses to serve one of the  fearsome
       and  unpredictable  Gods  of  Chaos.  He or she has two choices: Xom or
       Makhleb. Xom is a very unpredictable (and possibly psychotic)  creature
       who  rewards  or punishes according to whim. Makhleb the Destroyer is a
       more purposeful God, who appreciates destruction and offers  a  variety
       of very violent powers to the faithful.

       The  Healer  is  a priest of Elyvilon. Healers begin with minor healing
       powers, but can gain far greater abilities in the long run.

       The Reaver is a warrior  who  has  some  aptitude  with  the  magic  of
       destruction.

       The  stalker  is an assassin who has some aptitude in the use of poison
       magic.

       The Monk is a type of fighter specialising  in  unarmed  combat.  Monks
       start  with  very little equipment, but can survive without the weighty
       weapons and spellbooks needed by other classes.

       EXPERIENCE

       When you kill monsters, you  gain  experience  points  (xp)  (you  also
       receive one half experience for monsters killed by friendly creatures).
       When you get enough xp, you  gain  an  experience  level,  making  your
       character more powerful.  As they gain levels, characters gain more hit
       points, magic points, and spell levels.

       SKILLS

       Your character has a number of skills which affect his or  her  ability
       to  perform  certain  tasks.  You  can  see  your character’s skills by
       pressing the ’m’ key; the higher the skill level of a skill, the better
       you are at it. Every time your character gains experience points, those
       points become available to  increase  skills.  You  convert  experience
       points  into skill levels by practising the skill in question (eg fight
       with a certain type of weapon, cast a certain type of  spell,  or  walk
       around  wearing  light  armour  to  practise  stealth).  The  amount of
       unassigned experience points is shown on the  skills  screen,  and  the
       number  in  blue  next to each skill counts down from 9 to 0 as you get
       closer to increasing that skill.

       You can elect not to practise a particular skill by selecting it in the
       skill  screen  (making  it turn dark grey). This means that you will be
       less likely to increase that skill when you practise it (and will  also
       not spend as many experience points on it).

       The race you have chosen for your character has a significant effect on
       your rate of advancement in each skill. Some races  are  very  good  at
       some  skills  and poor at others. If your character’s race is good at a
       skill, they will require less experience and take less time to  advance
       in it; being bad at a skill has the opposite result.

       There are a few different types of skills:

       Fighting skills

       Fighting is the basic skill used in hand-to-hand combat, and applies no
       matter which weapon your character is wielding (if any). It is also the
       skill  which determines the number of hit points your character gets as
       they increase in level (note that this is calculated so that you  don’t
       get a long run advantage by starting out with a high fighting skill).

       In  addition,  there  are  a  number of weapon skills which affect your
       ability to fight with specific weapons. If you are already  good  at  a
       weapon,  say  a  long  sword, and you practise for a while with similar
       weapon such as a short sword, your practise will  be  speeded  up  (and
       will require less experience) until both skills are equal.

       Similar types of weapons include:
              - All sword skills
              - Maces & flails and Axes
              - Polearms and Axes
              - Staves and Polearms

       Being  good  at a specific weapon improves the speed with which you can
       use it by about 10% every two skill levels.  Although  lighter  weapons
       are  easier  to  use  initially, as they strike quickly and accurately,
       heavier weapons increase  in  damage  potential  very  quickly  as  you
       improve your skill with them.

       Unarmed Combat is a special fighting skill. It allows your character to
       make a powerful attack when unarmed and also to make special  secondary
       attacks  (and  increases  the power of those attacks for characters who
       get them anyway).  You can practise Unarmed Combat by attacking  empty-
       handed,  and  it  is also exercised when you make a secondary attack (a
       kick, punch etc). Unarmed combat is particularly difficult  to  use  in
       combination  with  heavy  armour,  and  characters  wearing a shield or
       wielding a two-handed weapon other than a staff lose the powerful punch
       attack.

       Throwing skills

       Throwing  is the basic skill used when throwing things, and there are a
       number of individual weapon skills for missile weapons as well.

       Magic skills

       Spellcasting is the  basic  skill  for  magic  use,  and  affects  your
       reserves  of  magical energy in the same way that Fighting affects your
       hit points. Every time you increase your spellcasting  skill  you  gain
       some  magic  points  and spell levels. Spellcasting is a very difficult
       skill to learn, and requires a large amount of practice and experience.

       Only  those  characters  with  at least one magic skill at level one or
       above can learn magical spells. If your character has no magic  skills,
       he  or  she  can  learn  the  basic  principles of the hermetic arts by
       reading and reciting the spells  inscribed  on  magical  scrolls  (this
       stops being useful once you reach level one in Spellcasting).

       There  are also individual skills for each different type of magic; the
       higher the skill, the more powerful the spell. Multidisciplinary spells
       use an average of the two or three skills.

       Elemental  magic is a special case here. When you practise an elemental
       magic skill (fire, ice, air or earth magic) you will improve much  less
       quickly  than  normal  if  you already have one or more elemental magic
       skills higher than the one you are practising. This is especially  true
       if  those  skills  are ’opposed’ to the one you’re practising: fire and
       ice are mutually opposed, as are earth and air. Say you  have  level  2
       fire  magic,  level  4 ice magic, and level 1 air magic. Practising ice
       magic won’t be a problem. Practising air magic will be a bit  slow,  as
       you have other elemental skills at higher levels. Practising fire magic
       will be very slow, as you have a higher level in ice magic. Right?

       Miscellaneous

       This includes a variety of skills:

       Armour: Having a high armour skill means that you are used  to  wearing
       heavy  armour,  so you gain more AC from it and lose less evasion while
       wearing it.

       Dodging: When you are  wearing  light  armour,  a  high  dodging  skill
       increases your evasion score.

       Stealth:  Helps  you  avoid being noticed. Try not to wear heavy armour
       (or be encumbered) if you want to be stealthy.

       Stabbing: Lets  you  make  a  very  powerful  first  strike  against  a
       sleeping/resting  monster  who  hasn’t  noticed  you  yet. This is most
       effective with a dagger, slightly less effective with  a  short  sword,
       and  less  useful  (although by no means of negligible effect) with any
       other weapon.

       Shields: affects the amount of protection you gain by using a shield.

       Traps & doors: affects your ability to notice hidden  traps  and  doors
       and to disarm traps when you find them. With this skill at a high level
       you will often find hidden things without actively looking for them.

       Invocations: an easy-to-learn skill which affects your ability to  call
       on  your God for aid. Those skilled at invoking have reduced fail rates
       and produce more powerful effects. The Invocations skill  affects  your
       supply  of  magic  in  a similar way to the Spellcasting skill and to a
       greater extent, but the two are not cumulative -  whichever  gives  the
       greater  increase  is  used.   Some  Gods (such as Trog) do not require
       followers to learn this skill.

       If your character does not have a particular skill, they can gain it by
       practising as above.

       ABILITIES

       Your  character  is  further  defined  by  his  or her abilities, which
       initially vary according to class and species.

       Strength affects the amount of damage you do in combat, as well as  how
       much stuff you can carry.

       Intelligence  affects  how  well  you  can  cast spells as well as your
       ability to use some magical items.

       Dexterity affects your accuracy in combat, your  general  effectiveness
       with  missile  weapons, and your ability to dodge attacks aimed at you.
       Although your  dexterity  does  not  affect  your  evasion  score  (Ev)
       directly, any calculation involving your Ev score also takes account of
       your dexterity.

       AC: This stands for Armour Class. When you something injures you,  your
       AC  reduces the amount of damage you suffer. The number next to your AC
       is a measure of how good your shield (if any) is at blocking attacks.

       EV: This is your evasion score. It helps you  to  avoid  being  hit  by
       unpleasant things.

       Gold:  This is how much money you’re carrying. Money adds to your final
       score, and can be used to purchase items in shops.

       Magic  Resistance  affects  your  ability  to  resist  the  effects  of
       enchantments  and  similar  magic  directed at you. Although your magic
       resistance increases with your level to an extent  determined  by  your
       character’s race, the creatures you will meet deeper in the dungeon are
       better at casting spells and are more likely to be able to affect  you.
       MR is an internal variable, so you can’t see what yours is.

       Sometimes characters will be able to use special abilities, for example
       the Naga’s ability  to  spit  poison  or  the  magical  power  to  turn
       invisible  granted  by  a  ring.  These  are  accessed  through the ’a’
       command.

       RELIGION

       There are a number of Gods, Demons and other assorted Powers  who  will
       accept  your  character’s  worship,  and  sometimes give out favours in
       exchange. You can use the ’^’ command  to  check  the  requirements  of
       whoever  it  is  that  you  worship,  and if you find religion to be an
       inconvenience you can always renounce your faith (use the ’a’ command -
       but some Gods resent being scorned!).

       The  ’p’  command  lets  you  pray  to  your God. Anything you do while
       praying, you do in your God’s name - this  is  how  you  dedicate  your
       kills  or  corpse-  sacrifices  (’D’ command) to your God, for example.
       Praying also gives you a sense of what your God thinks of you, and  can
       be used to sacrifice things at altars.

       To  use  any  powers  which  your  God  deems  you  fit for, access the
       abilities menu with the ’a’ command; God-given abilities are listed  as
       invocations.

       Some  classes  start  out religious; others have to pray at an altar to
       dedicate themselves to a life of servitude. There are altars  scattered
       all over the dungeon, and your character has heard rumours of a special
       temple somewhere near the surface.

       MUTATIONS

       Although it would doubtless  be  a  nice  thing  if  you  could  remain
       genetically  pure,  there  are  too  many  toxic  wastes  and mutagenic
       radiations in the Dungeon for that to be possible. If your character is
       so affected by these that he or she undergoes physiological change, you
       can use the ’A’ command to see how much of a freak they’ve  become  and
       the ’a’ command to activate any mutations which can be controlled.

       You can also become mutated by overusing certain powerful enchantments,
       particularly Haste (not the  kind  you  get  from  being  berserk)  and
       Invisibility,  as your system absorbs too much magical energy - but you
       would have to spend almost all of your time hasted or invisible  to  be
       affected.  However,  some  powerful  items  radiate dangerous levels of
       magical energy. More often than not, the mutations  caused  by  magical
       radiations express harmfully.

       Any demonic powers your character may have are listed in red; these are
       permanent and can never be removed. If one  of  your  powers  has  been
       augmented by a mutation, it is displayed in a lighter red colour.

       EXPLORING THE DUNGEON

       You  can  make your character walk around with the numeric keypad (turn
       numlock off) or the "Rogue" keys (hjklbnyu). If this is too  slow,  you
       can  make  your  character  walk  repeatedly  by  typing  shift  and  a
       direction. They will walk in that direction until any of  a  number  of
       things happen: a hostile monster is visible on the screen, a message is
       sent to the message window for any reason, you type a key, or  you  are
       about  to  step  on anything other than normal floor or an undiscovered
       trap and it is not your first move of the long walk. Note that this  is
       functionally  equivalent  to  just  pressing  the direction key several
       times.

       If you press shift and ’5’ on the numeric keypad (or  just  the  number
       ’5’ on the keyboard) you rest for 100 turns or until your hit points or
       magic return to full, whichever is sooner. You can rest  for  just  one
       turn  by  pressing ’.’, delete, ’s’, or ’5’ on the keypad. Whenever you
       are resting, you are assumed to be observing your surroundings, so  you
       have a chance of detecting any traps or secret doors adjacent to you.

       The  section  of  the  viewing  window  which is coloured (with the ’@’
       representing you at the centre) is what you can  see  around  you.  The
       dark  grey  around it is the parts of the level which you have visited,
       but cannot currently see. The ’x’ command  lets  you  move  the  cursor
       around to get a description of the various dungeon features, and typing
       ’?’ when the cursor is over a monster brings up a short description  of
       that   monster  (these  are  all  rather  sketchy;  I’ll  write  better
       descriptions when I have time). You can get a map of  the  whole  level
       (which  shows  where  you’ve already been) by typing the ’X’ key.  This
       map specially colour-codes stairs and known traps, even if something is
       on top of them.

       You  can make your way between levels by using staircases, which appear
       as ’>’ (down) and ’<’ (up), by pressing the ’>’ or  ’<’  keys.  If  you
       ascend  an  up  staircase  on  level  one,  you  will leave the dungeon
       forever; if you are carrying the magical Orb of Zot, you win  the  game
       by doing this.

       Occasionally  you  will  find  an archway; these lead to special places
       like shops, magical labyrinths, and Hell. Depending on  which  type  of
       archway it is, you can enter it by typing ’<’ or ’>’.

       Doors  can  be  opened  with  the  ’o’  command and closed with the ’c’
       command.  Pressing control plus a direction also opens doors. If  there
       is  no  closed  door in the indicated space, you will attempt to attack
       any monster which may be standing there (this is the only way to attack
       a  friendly creature hand-to- hand). If there is no creature there, you
       will attempt to disarm any trap in  the  target  square.  If  there  is
       apparently nothing there you will still attack it, just in case there’s
       something invisible lurking around.

       A variety of dangerous and  irritating  traps  are  hidden  around  the
       dungeon.   Traps  look  like  normal floor until discovered (usually by
       activating them). A discovered trap can be disarmed with  the  control-
       direction commands, although not all traps can be affected in this way.

       When you are in a shop, you are given a list of the shopkeeper’s  stock
       from  which  to  choose,  and a list of instructions. You can leave the
       shop and even the level and come back later if you want.  Unfortunately
       the  shopkeepers  all  have an enterprise bargaining agreement with the
       dungeon teamsters union which prevents them using non-union  labour  to
       obtain stock, so you can’t sell anything in a shop (but what shopkeeper
       would trust a scummy adventurer like you, anyway?).

       You goal is to locate the Orb of Zot,  which  is  held  somewhere  deep
       beneath  the  world’s  surface.  The  Orb  is an ancient and incredibly
       powerful artefact, and the legends  promise  great  things  for  anyone
       brave  enough  to extract it from the fearsome Dungeon. Some believe it
       will grant immortality or even godhood to the one who carries  it  into
       the  sunlight;  many  undead creatures seek it in the hope that it will
       restore them to life. Good luck!

       A full list of the commands available to you can be accessed by  typing
       ’?’   (question  mark).  If you don’t like them, they can be changed by
       the use of:

       MACROS/KEYMAPS

       You can change the keys used to perform specific functions  by  editing
       the  macro.txt  file  (or  creating a new one). The K: line indicates a
       key, and the A: line assigns another key to that key’s function.

       You can also redefine keys in-game with the ‘ key, and save  them  with
       the ~ key.

       (Thanks to Juho Snellman for this patch)

       ITEMS

       In  the  dungeons of Crawl there are many different kinds of normal and
       magical artefacts to be found and used. Some of them are  useful,  some
       are  nasty,  and  some give you great power, but at a price. Some items
       are unique; these have interesting properties which can make your  life
       rather  bizarre  for  a  while.   They all fall into several classes of
       items, each of which is used in a different way. Here is a general list
       of what you might find in the course of your adventures:

       WEAPONS

       These  are  rather important. You will find a variety of weapons in the
       dungeon, ranging from small  and  quick  daggers  to  huge,  cumbersome
       battleaxes  and pole- arms. Each type of weapon does a differing amount
       of damage, has a different chance of hitting its target,  and  takes  a
       different  amount  of  time  to  swing.  You should choose your weapons
       carefully; trying to hit a bat with a greatsword is about as clever  as
       bashing a dragon with a club. For this reason it is wise to have a good
       mixture of weapon skills. Skills affect damage, accuracy and speed.

       Weapons can be enchanted; when they are identified,  they  have  values
       which  tell  you  how  much more effective they are than an unenchanted
       version. The first number is the enchantment to-hit, which affects  the
       weapon’s  accuracy,  and  the second is its damage enchantment; weapons
       which are not enchanted are simply ’+0’. Some weapons also have special
       magical  effects  which make them very effective in certain situations.
       Some types of hand weapon (especially daggers, spears  and  hand  axes)
       are  quite  effective  when  thrown. You can wield weapons with the ’w’
       command, which is a very quick action. If for some reason you  want  to
       go  bare-handed, type ’w’ followed by a hyphen (’-’). Note that weapons
       are not the only class of item which you can wield.

       The ’ key is a shortcut which automatically wields item a. If item a is
       being  wielded, it causes you to wield item b instead, if possible. Try
       assigning the letter a to your primary weapon, and b  to  your  bow  or
       something else you need to wield only sometimes. Note that this is just
       a typing shortcut and is not functionally different to  wielding  these
       items normally.

       AMMUNITION

       If  you  would  rather pick off monsters from a safe distance, you will
       need ammunition for your sling or bow. Darts are effective when  simply
       thrown;  other  kinds of ammunition require you to wield an appropriate
       device to inflict worthwhile damage. Ammunition  has  only  one  "plus"
       value,  which  affects both accuracy and damage. If you have ammunition
       suitable for what you are wielding, the ’f’  command  will  choose  the
       first  lot  in  your inventory, or you can use the ’t’ command to throw
       anything. If you are using the right kind  of  hand  weapon,  you  will
       "shoot" the ammunition, otherwise you "throw" it.

       When  throwing something, you are asked for a direction. You can either
       enter one of the directions on your keypad, or type ’*’  and  move  the
       cursor over your target if they are not in a direct line with you. When
       the cursor is on them, press ’.’ (period) or delete to target them (you
       can  also  target an empty space if you want). If you press ’>’ instead
       of  ’.’, the missile will stop at that space even if it misses, and  if
       the  target  space is water, it may hit anything which might be lurking
       beneath the surface (which would otherwise be  missed  completely).  If
       you  type  ’.’ (or del) instead of a direction or ’*’, or if you target
       yourself as described above, you throw whatever it is at yourself (this
       can  be  useful  when zapping some wands; see later). Also, if you type
       ’p’ instead of a direction or ’*’, you will target your previous target
       (if still possible).

       ARMOUR

       This  is  also  rather  important. When worn, most armour improves your
       Armour Class, which decreases  the  amount  of  damage  you  take  when
       something  injures  you. Unfortunately the heavier types of armour also
       hamper your movement, making it easier for  monsters  to  hit  you  (ie
       reducing  your  evasion  score)  and  making  it  harder for you to hit
       monsters. These effect can be mitigated by a high Armour skill. Wearing
       heavy  armour  also  increases  your  chances  of miscasting spells, an
       effect which is not reduced by your Armour skill.

       A Shield normally affects neither your AC or your evasion, but it  lets
       you  block  some  of  the  attacks aimed at you and absorbs some of the
       damage you would otherwise receive from things like dragon  breath  and
       lightning  bolts.   Wearing  a shield (especially a large shield) makes
       you less effective in hand combat.

       Some magical armours have special powers. These  powers  are  sometimes
       automatic,  affecting  you  whenever you wear the armour, and sometimes
       must be activated with the ’a’ command.

       You can wear armour with the ’W’ command, and take it off with the  ’T’
       command.

       FOOD

       This  is extremely important. You can find many different kinds of food
       in the dungeon. If  you  don’t  eat  when  you  get  hungry,  you  will
       eventually  die  of starvation. Fighting, carrying heavy loads, casting
       spells, and using some magical items will make you hungry. When you are
       starving  you fight less effectively as well. You can eat food with the
       ’e’ command.

       MAGICAL SCROLLS

       Scrolls have many different magical spells enscribed on them, some good
       and some bad. One of the most useful scrolls is the scroll of identify,
       which will tell  you  the  function  of  any  item  you  have  in  your
       inventory;  save  these  up for the more powerful and inscrutable magic
       items, like rings. You can read scrolls (and by doing so  invoke  their
       magic) with the ’r’ command.

       MAGICAL POTIONS

       While  scrolls  tend to affect your equipment or your environment, most
       potions affect your character in some way. The most common type is  the
       simple  healing  potion,  which restores some hit points, but there are
       many other varieties of potions to be  found.  Try  to  avoid  drinking
       poisonous potions! Potions can be quaffed (drunk) with the ’q’ command.

       WANDS

       Sometimes you will be lucky enough  to  find  a  stick  which  contains
       stored  magical  energies. Wands each have a certain amount of charges,
       and a wand will cease to function when its charges run  out.  You  must
       identify  a wand to find out how many uses it has left. Wands are aimed
       in the same way as missile weapons, and you can invoke the power  of  a
       wand by ’z’apping it.

       RINGS

       Magical  rings  are among the most useful of the items you will find in
       the dungeon, but can also be some of the most hazardous. They  transfer
       various  magical  abilities  onto their wearer, but powerful rings like
       rings of regeneration or invisibility make you hunger very quickly when
       activated.  You  can put on rings with the ’P’ command, and remove them
       by typing ’R’. You can wear up to two rings simultaneously, one on each
       hand;  which hand you put a ring on is immaterial to its function. Some
       rings function automatically, while others require activation (the  ’a’
       command).

       Amulets  are  similar  to  rings, but have a different range of effects
       (which tend to be more subtle). Amulets are worn around the  neck,  and
       you can wear only one at a time.

       STAVES

       There  are  a  number  of  types  of  magical staves. Some enhance your
       general spellcasting ability, while some greatly increase the power  of
       a  certain class of spells (and possibly reduce your effectiveness with
       others). Some are spell staves, and hold  spells  which  you  can  cast
       without having to memorise them first, and also without consuming food.
       You must wield a staff like a weapon in order to gain from  its  power,
       and  magical  staves  are  as  effective as +0 quarterstaves in combat.
       Spell staves can be Invoked with the ’I’ command while you are wielding
       them.

       BOOKS

       Books contain magical spells which your character may be able to learn.
       You can read a book with the ’r’  command,  which  lets  you  access  a
       description  of  each  spell,  or  memorise spells from it with the ’M’
       command. Some books have  other  special  effects,  and  some  powerful
       spellbooks  have  been  known  to  punish the attentions of incompetent
       magicians.

       CARRION

       If you manage to kill a monster delicately enough to  avoid  scattering
       bits  of  it  around  the room, it may leave a corpse behind for you to
       play with. Despite the fact that corpses are represented  by  the  same
       ’%’  sign  as  food, you can’t eat them without first cutting them into
       pieces with the ’D’ command, and being extremely hungry helps as  well.
       Even then, you should choose your homemade food with great care.

       MISCELLANEOUS

       These  are  items which don’t fall into any other category. You can use
       many of them by wielding and ’I’nvoking them. You  can  also  use  some
       other  special  items  (such  as some weapons) by invoking them in this
       way.

       You pick items up with the ’,’ (comma) command and drop them  with  the
       ’d’rop  command. When you are given a prompt like "drop which item?" or
       "pick up <x>?", if you type a number before either the  letter  of  the
       item,  or  ’y’ or ’n’ for yes or no, you will drop or get that quantity
       of the item.

       Typing ’i’ gives you an inventory of what you are  carrying.  When  you
       are  given a prompt like "Throw [or wield, wear, etc] which item?", you
       can type the letter of the item, or you can type ’?’ or ’*’ to  get  an
       inventory  list.  ’?’  lists all appropriate items, while ’*’ lists all
       items, appropriate  or  not.  When  the  inventory  screen  is  showing
       "-more-", to show you that there is another page of items, you can type
       the letter of the item you want instead of space or enter.

       You can use the adjust command (the ’=’ key) to change the  letters  to
       which your possessions are assigned. This command can be used to change
       spell letters as well.

       Some items can be stickycursed, in which case they weld  themselves  to
       your  body  when  you  use  them. Such items usually carry some kind of
       disadvantage:  a  weapon  or  armour  may  be  damaged  or   negatively
       enchanted,  while  rings  can  have all manner of unpleasant effects on
       you. If you are lucky, you might find magic which can rid you of cursed
       items.

       Items   like  scrolls,  potions  and  some  other  types  each  have  a
       characteristic, like a label or a colour, which will let you tell  them
       apart  on  the  basis of their function. However, these characteristics
       change between each game, so while in one game every potion of  healing
       may  be  yellow,  in  another game they might all be purple and bubbly.
       Once you have discovered  the  function  of  such  an  item,  you  will
       remember  it for the rest of the current game. You can access your item
       discoveries with the ’´ key.

       A very useful command is the ’V’ key, which gives you a description  of
       what an item does. This is particularly useful when comparing different
       types of weapons, but don’t expect too much information from  examining
       unidentified items.

       SPELLCASTING

       Magical  spells  are a very important part of surviving in the dungeon.
       Every character class can make use of magical  spells,  although  those
       who  enter  the dungeon without magical skills must practise by reading
       scrolls before they can attempt spellcasting.

       Spells are stored in books, which you will  occasionally  find  in  the
       dungeon.   Each  spell  has  a Level, which denotes the amount of skill
       required to use it as well as indicating how powerful it  may  be.  You
       can  only  memorise  a  certain number of levels of spells; type ’M’ to
       find out how many. When you gain experience levels,  you  can  memorise
       more,  and  you will need to save up for several levels to memorise the
       more powerful spells. When you cast a  spell,  you  temporarily  expend
       some of your magical energy as well as becoming hungrier (although more
       powerful spellcasters hunger less quickly from using magic).

       High level spells are difficult to cast, and you may miscast them every
       once  in  a while (resulting in a waste of magic and possibly dangerous
       side- effects). Your chance of failing to cast a spell properly depends
       on  your  your  skills,  your  intelligence, the level of the spell and
       whether you are wearing heavy armour. Failing to cast a spell exercises
       your spell skills, but not by as much as casting it successfully.

       Many  of  the  more  powerful  spells carry disadvantages or risks; you
       should read the spell description (obtained by reading the spellbook in
       which you found the spell) before casting anything.

       Some  spells  are  directional, and require you to enter a direction in
       the same way as you would when shooting a missile or  zapping  a  wand.
       Some spells require the proper materials to be present before they will
       work; for example, to animate a skeleton with  the  necromantic  spell,
       you  must  stand on a space where a skeleton is on the top of the stack
       of items.

       Be careful of magic-using enemies! Some of them can use magic  just  as
       well as you, if not better, and often use it intelligently.

       MONSTERS

       In  the  caverns  of Crawl, you will find a great variety of creatures,
       many of whom would very much like to eat you. To stop them doing  this,
       you  will need to fight. To attack a monster, stand next to it and move
       in its direction; this makes you attack it with your wielded weapon. Of
       course,  some  monsters  are  just too nasty to beat, and you will find
       that discretion is often the better part of valour.

       Some monsters can be friendly; friendly monsters will follow you around
       and fight on your behalf (you gain 1/2 the normal experience points for
       any kills they make). You can command your allies using  the  ’!’  key,
       which lets you either shout to attract them or tell them who to attack.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       CRAWL_NAME
              Default name for your character.

       CRAWL_PIZZA
              Your favourite pizza topping.

       CRAWL_DIR
              The directory where your macros and character dumps are  stored.

       CRAWL_RC
              A pointer to the file containing your default settings.

FILES

       /usr/lib/games/crawl/bone*
              The bones files.

       /usr/lib/games/crawl/score
              The high score list.

       $CRAWL_DIR/macro.txt
              The macro resource file.

       $CRAWL_DIR/morgue.txt
              A character dump of your last death.

       $CRAWL_RC, $CRAWL_DIR/init.txt, $HOME/.crawlrc
              Default settings.

BUGS

       Lots.

       Avoid the labyrinth... you may not be able to get out.

AUTHORS

       Copyright 1997, 1998, 1999 Linley Henzell

                                 02 April 2001                        crawl(6)