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       EXPLAIN - show the execution plan of a statement


       EXPLAIN [ ANALYZE ] [ VERBOSE ] statement


       This  command  displays  the execution plan that the PostgreSQL planner
       generates for the supplied statement. The execution plan shows how  the
       table(s)  referenced  by  the  statement  will  be  scanned  — by plain
       sequential scan,  index  scan,  etc.  —  and  if  multiple  tables  are
       referenced,  what  join  algorithms  will be used to bring together the
       required rows from each input table.

       The most critical part  of  the  display  is  the  estimated  statement
       execution  cost,  which is the planner’s guess at how long it will take
       to run the statement (measured in units of disk page fetches). Actually
       two  numbers  are  shown: the start-up time before the first row can be
       returned, and the total time to return all the rows. For  most  queries
       the  total  time is what matters, but in contexts such as a subquery in
       EXISTS, the planner will choose the smallest start-up time  instead  of
       the smallest total time (since the executor will stop after getting one
       row, anyway).  Also, if you limit the number of rows to return  with  a
       LIMIT  clause,  the  planner makes an appropriate interpolation between
       the endpoint costs to estimate which plan is really the cheapest.

       The ANALYZE option causes the statement to be  actually  executed,  not
       only planned. The total elapsed time expended within each plan node (in
       milliseconds) and total number of rows it actually returned  are  added
       to  the  display.  This  is  useful  for  seeing  whether the planner’s
       estimates are close to reality.

              Important: Keep in mind that the statement is actually  executed
              when  ANALYZE  is used. Although EXPLAIN will discard any output
              that a SELECT would return, other side effects of the  statement
              will  happen  as usual. If you wish to use EXPLAIN ANALYZE on an
              INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, or EXECUTE statement without letting the
              command affect your data, use this approach:

              EXPLAIN ANALYZE ...;


              Carry out the command and show the actual run times.

              Show  the  full internal representation of the plan tree, rather
              than just a summary. Usually this  option  is  only  useful  for
              specialized  debugging  purposes.  The  VERBOSE output is either
              pretty-printed  or  not,  depending  on  the  setting   of   the
              explain_pretty_print configuration parameter.

              statement, whose execution plan you wish to see.


       There is only sparse documentation  on  the  optimizer’s  use  of  cost
       information  in  PostgreSQL.  Refer  to  in  the documentation for more

       In order to allow the  PostgreSQL  query  planner  to  make  reasonably
       informed  decisions  when  optimizing  queries,  the  ANALYZE statement
       should be run to record  statistics  about  the  distribution  of  data
       within  the  table.  If  you  have not done this (or if the statistical
       distribution of the data in the table has changed  significantly  since
       the  last  time  ANALYZE  was run), the estimated costs are unlikely to
       conform to the real  properties  of  the  query,  and  consequently  an
       inferior query plan may be chosen.

       Genetic  query  optimization  (GEQO)  randomly  tests  execution plans.
       Therefore, when the number of  tables  exceeds  geqo_threshold  causing
       genetic  query optimization to be used, the execution plan is likely to
       change each time the statement is executed.


       To show the plan for a simple query on a table with  a  single  integer
       column and 10000 rows:


                              QUERY PLAN
        Seq Scan on foo  (cost=0.00..155.00 rows=10000 width=4)
       (1 row)

       If  there  is  an  index  and  we  use  a query with an indexable WHERE
       condition, EXPLAIN might show a different plan:

       EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM foo WHERE i = 4;

                                QUERY PLAN
        Index Scan using fi on foo  (cost=0.00..5.98 rows=1 width=4)
          Index Cond: (i = 4)
       (2 rows)

       And here is an example of a query plan for a query using  an  aggregate

       EXPLAIN SELECT sum(i) FROM foo WHERE i < 10;

                                    QUERY PLAN
        Aggregate  (cost=23.93..23.93 rows=1 width=4)
          ->  Index Scan using fi on foo  (cost=0.00..23.92 rows=6 width=4)
                Index Cond: (i < 10)
       (3 rows)

       Here  is  an  example of using EXPLAIN EXECUTE to display the execution
       plan for a prepared query:

       PREPARE query(int, int) AS SELECT sum(bar) FROM test
           WHERE id > $1 AND id < $2
           GROUP BY foo;

       EXPLAIN ANALYZE EXECUTE query(100, 200);

                                                              QUERY PLAN
        HashAggregate  (cost=39.53..39.53 rows=1 width=8) (actual time=0.661..0.672 rows=7 loops=1)
          ->  Index Scan using test_pkey on test  (cost=0.00..32.97 rows=1311 width=8) (actual time=0.050..0.395 rows=99 loops=1)
                Index Cond: ((id > $1) AND (id < $2))
        Total runtime: 0.851 ms
       (4 rows)

       Of course, the  specific  numbers  shown  here  depend  on  the  actual
       contents  of  the tables involved. Also note that the numbers, and even
       the selected query strategy, may vary between PostgreSQL  releases  due
       to  planner  improvements. In addition, the ANALYZE command uses random
       sampling to estimate data statistics; therefore,  it  is  possible  for
       cost  estimates  to  change  after  a fresh run of ANALYZE, even if the
       actual distribution of data in the table has not changed.


       There is no EXPLAIN statement defined in the SQL standard.


       ANALYZE [analyze(7)]