Provided by: xfsdump_2.2.45-1_i386 bug


       xfsdump - XFS filesystem incremental dump utility


       xfsdump -h
       xfsdump [ options ] -f dest [ -f dest ... ] filesystem
       xfsdump [ options ] - filesystem
       xfsdump -I [ subopt=value ... ]


       xfsdump backs up files and their attributes in a filesystem.  The files
       are dumped to storage  media,  a  regular  file,  or  standard  output.
       Options  allow  the  operator to have all files dumped, just files that
       have changed since a previous dump, or just files contained in  a  list
       of pathnames.

       The  xfsrestore(8)  utility re-populates a filesystem with the contents
       of the dump.

       Each invocation of xfsdump dumps just one filesystem.  That  invocation
       is  termed a dump session.  The dump session splits the filesystem into
       one or more dump streams, one per destination.  The split  is  done  in
       filesystem inode number (ino) order, at boundaries selected to equalize
       the size of each stream.  Furthermore, the breakpoints between  streams
       may  be  in  the  middle  of very large files (at extent boundaries) if
       necessary to achieve reasonable stream size  equalization.   Each  dump
       stream  can  span  several media objects, and a single media object can
       contain several dump streams.  The  typical  media  object  is  a  tape
       cartridge.   The  media  object  records the dump stream as one or more
       media files.  A media file is a self-contained partial  dump,  intended
       to  minimize  the impact of media dropouts on the entire dump stream at
       the expense of increasing the time required to complete  the  dump.  By
       default  only  one  media  file  is written unless a media file size is
       specified using the -d option.  Other  techniques,  such  as  making  a
       second  copy  of  the dump image, provide more protection against media
       failures than multiple media files will.

       However,  the  current  implementation  in  Linux  only  supports   one
       destination  and running single threaded. Therefore, the above comments
       regarding multiple streams describe the possible future capabilities.

       xfsdump     maintains     an     online     dump      inventory      in
       /var/lib/xfsdump/inventory.   The  -I  option  displays  the  inventory
       contents hierarchically.  The levels of the hierarchy are:  filesystem,
       dump session, stream, and media file.

       The options to xfsdump are:

       -a   Specifies  that  files for which the Data Migration Facility (DMF)
            has complete offline copies (dual-state files) be  treated  as  if
            they  were  offline (OFL).  This means that the file data will not
            be dumped by xfsdump, resulting in a smaller dump  file.   If  the
            file  is  later restored the file data is still accessible through
            DMF.  If both ’-a option’ and ’-z option’ are specified,  the  ’-a
            option’ takes precedence (see ’-z option’ below).

       -b blocksize
            Specifies  the  blocksize, in bytes, to be used for the dump.  The
            same blocksize must be specified to restore the tape.  If  the  -m
            option  is  not  used,  then  -b  does  not  need to be specified.
            Instead, a default blocksize of 1Mb will be used.

       -c progname
            Use the specified program to  alert  the  operator  when  a  media
            change  is  required.  The  alert program is typically a script to
            send a mail or flash a window to draw the operator’s attention.

       -d filesize
            Specifies the size, in megabytes, of dump  media  files.   If  not
            specified,  xfsdump  will  dump  data to tape using a single media
            file per media object.  The specified media file size may need  to
            be  adjusted if, for example, xfsdump cannot fit a media file onto
            a single tape.

       -e   Allow files to be excluded from the dump.  This will cause xfsdump
            to skip files which have the "no dump" file attribute set. See the
            "Excluding individual files" section below for details on  setting
            this  file  attribute.  Files  with  an  extended  attribute named
            "SGI_XFSDUMP_SKIP_FILE" will also be skipped, however this  method
            is  deprecated  and  xfsdump will stop checking for it in a future

       -f dest [ -f dest ... ]
            Specifies a dump destination.   A  dump  destination  can  be  the
            pathname  of  a device (such as a tape drive), a regular file or a
            remote tape drive (see rmt(8)).  This option must  be  omitted  if
            the  standard  output  option  (a  lone  -  preceding  the  source
            filesystem specification) is specified.

       -l level
            Specifies a dump level of 0 to 9.  The dump level  determines  the
            base  dump  to  which this dump is relative.  The base dump is the
            most recent dump at a lesser level.  A level 0 dump is absolute  -
            all  files  are  dumped.   A  dump  level where 1 <= level <= 9 is
            referred to as an incremental dump.  Only  files  that  have  been
            changed since the base dump are dumped.  Subtree dumps (see the -s
            option below) cannot be used as the base for incremental dumps.

       -m   Use the minimal tape protocol for non-scsi  tape  destinations  or
            remote  tape destinations which are not scsi Linux tape drives nor
            IRIX tape drives.  This option cannot be used without specifying a
            blocksize to be used (see -b option above).

       -o   Overwrite  the  tape.  With this option, xfsdump does not read the
            tape first to check the contents.  This  option  may  be  used  if
            xfsdump is unable to determine the block size of a tape .

       -p interval
            Causes  progress  reports to be printed at the specified interval.
            interval is given in seconds.  The progress report  indicates  how
            many  files  have  been dumped, the total number of files to dump,
            the percentage of data dumped, and the elapsed time.

       -q   Destination tape drive is a QIC tape.  QIC tapes only  use  a  512
            byte blocksize, for which xfsdump must make special allowances.

       -s pathname [ -s pathname ... ]
            Restricts  the  dump to files contained in the specified pathnames
            (subtrees).  Up to 100 pathnames can  be  specified.   A  pathname
            must  be  relative  to  the  mount  point  of the filesystem.  For
            example, if a filesystem is mounted at /d2, the pathname  argument
            for  the  directory  /d2/users  is ‘‘users’’.  A pathname can be a
            file or a directory; if it is a directory, the entire hierarchy of
            files  and  subdirectories  rooted  at  that  directory is dumped.
            Subtree dumps cannot be used as the  base  for  incremental  dumps
            (see the -l option above).

       -t file
            Sets  the  dump  time to the modification time of file rather than
            using the current time.  xfsdump uses the dump time  to  determine
            what  files  need to be backed up during an incremental dump. This
            option should be used when dumping snapshots so that the dump time
            matches  the time the snapshot was taken. Otherwise files modified
            after a snapshot is taken may be skipped in the  next  incremental

       -v verbosity
       -v subsys=verbosity[,subsys=verbosity,...]
            Specifies  the  level of detail used for messages displayed during
            the course of the dump. The verbosity argument can  be  passed  as
            either a string or an integer. If passed as a string the following
            values may be used: silent, verbose, trace, debug, or  nitty.   If
            passed  as an integer, values from 0-5 may be used. The values 0-4
            correspond to the strings already listed. The value 5 can be  used
            to produce even more verbose debug output.

            The first form of this option activates message logging across all
            dump subsystems. The second form allows the message logging  level
            to  be  controlled  on a per-subsystem basis. The two forms can be
            combined (see the example below). The argument subsys can take one
            of  the  following values: general, proc, drive, media, inventory,
            inomap and excluded_files.

            For example, to dump the root filesystem  with  tracing  activated
            for all subsystems:

                 # xfsdump -v trace -f /dev/tape /

            To enable debug-level tracing for drive and media operations:

                 # xfsdump -v drive=debug,media=debug -f /dev/tape /

            To  enable tracing for all subsystems, and debug level tracing for
            drive operations only:

                 # xfsdump -v trace,drive=debug -f /dev/tape /

            To list files that will be excluded from the dump:

                 # xfsdump -e -v excluded_files=debug -f /dev/tape /

       -z size
            Specifies the maximum size, in kilobytes, of files to be  included
            in  the  dump.   Files  over  this size, will be excluded from the
            dump,  except  for  DMF  dual-state  files  when  ’-a  option’  is
            specified  (see  ’-a  option’ above).  When specified, ’-a option’
            takes precedence over ’-z option’. The size is an  estimate  based
            on  the  number  of  disk blocks actually used by the file, and so
            does not include holes.  In other words, size refers to the amount
            of  space  the  file  would  take  in  the  resulting dump.  On an
            interactive restore, the skipped file is visible with xfsrestore’s
            ’ls’  and  while  you  can  use  the ’add’ and ’extract’ commands,
            nothing will be restored.

       -A   Do not dump extended file attributes.  When dumping  a  filesystem
            managed  within  a DMF environment this option should not be used.
            DMF  stores  file  migration  status  within  extended  attributes
            associated  with  each file. If these attributes are not preserved
            when the filesystem is restored, files that had been  in  migrated
            state  will  not  be recallable by DMF. Note that dumps containing
            extended file attributes cannot be restored with older versions of

       -B session_id
            Specifies  the ID of the dump session upon which this dump session
            is to be based.  If this option is specified, the -l  (level)  and
            -R  (resume) options are not allowed.  Instead, xfsdump determines
            if the current dump session should be incremental and/or  resumed,
            by looking at the base session’s level and interrupted attributes.
            If the base session was interrupted, the current dump session is a
            resumption of that base at the same level.  Otherwise, the current
            dump session is an incremental dump with a level one greater  than
            that  of  the  base  session.   This option allows incremental and
            resumed dumps to be based on any previous dump, rather  than  just
            the most recent.

       -E   Pre-erase  media.   If  this  option is specified, media is erased
            prior to use.  The operator is prompted for  confirmation,  unless
            the -F option is also specified.

       -F   Don’t prompt the operator.  When xfsdump encounters a media object
            containing non-xfsdump data, xfsdump normally  asks  the  operator
            for  permission  to  overwrite.  With this option the overwrite is
            performed, no questions asked.  When  xfsdump  encounters  end-of-
            media during a dump, xfsdump normally asks the operator if another
            media object will be provided.   With  this  option  the  dump  is
            instead interrupted.

       -I   Displays  the  xfsdump  inventory (no dump is performed).  xfsdump
            records  each   dump   session   in   an   online   inventory   in
            /var/lib/xfsdump/inventory.    xfsdump   uses  this  inventory  to
            determine the base for incremental dumps.  It is also  useful  for
            manually identifying a dump session to be restored.  Suboptions to
            filter the inventory display are described later.

       -J   Inhibits the normal update of the inventory.  This is useful  when
            the media being dumped to will be discarded or overwritten.

       -L session_label
            Specifies  a  label for the dump session.  It can be any arbitrary
            string up to 255 characters long.

       -M label [ -M label ... ]
            Specifies a label for the first media object  (for  example,  tape
            cartridge)  written  on  the  corresponding destination during the
            session.  It can be any arbitrary  string  up  to  255  characters
            long.  Multiple media object labels can be specified, one for each

       -O options_file
            Insert the options contained in options_file into the beginning of
            the  command  line.   The options are specified just as they would
            appear if typed into  the  command  line.   In  addition,  newline
            characters (\n) can be used as whitespace.  The options are placed
            before all options actually given on the command line, just  after
            the  command name.  Only one -O option can be used.  Recursive use
            is  ignored.   The  source  filesystem  cannot  be  specified   in

       -R   Resumes a previously interrupted dump session.  If the most recent
            dump at this dump’s level (-l option) was interrupted,  this  dump
            contains  only  files  not  in the interrupted dump and consistent
            with the incremental  level.   However,  files  contained  in  the
            interrupted  dump  that  have  been  subsequently modified are re-

       -T   Inhibits interactive dialogue timeouts.  When the -F option is not
            specified,  xfsdump  prompts  the  operator  for  labels and media
            changes.  Each dialogue normally  times  out  if  no  response  is
            supplied.  This option prevents the timeout.

       -Y length
            Specify  I/O  buffer  ring  length.  xfsdump uses a ring of output
            buffers to achieve maximum throughput when dumping to tape drives.
            The  default  ring  length  is 3.  However, this is only supported
            when running multi-threaded which has not been done for Linux  yet
            - making this option benign.

       -    A lone - causes the dump stream to be sent to the standard output,
            where it can be piped to another utility such as xfsrestore(8)  or
            redirected  to  a  file.   This  option cannot be used with the -f
            option.  The - must follow  all  other  options  and  precede  the
            filesystem specification.

       The filesystem, filesystem, can be specified either as a mount point or
       as  a  special  device  file  (for  example,  /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0).   The
       filesystem must be mounted to be dumped.


   Dump Interruption
       A dump can be interrupted at any time and later resumed.  To interrupt,
       type control-C (or the  current  terminal  interrupt  character).   The
       operator  is  prompted  to  select one of several operations, including
       dump interruption.  After the operator selects dump  interruption,  the
       dump continues until a convenient break point is encountered (typically
       the end of the current file).  Very large files are broken into smaller
       subfiles, so the wait for the end of the current file is brief.

   Dump Resumption
       A  previously  interrupted  dump  can  be  resumed by specifying the -R
       option.   If  the  most  recent  dump  at  the  specified   level   was
       interrupted, the new dump does not include files already dumped, unless
       they have changed since the interrupted dump.

   Media Management
       A single media object can contain many  dump  streams.   Conversely,  a
       single  dump  stream can span multiple media objects.  If a dump stream
       is sent to a media object already containing one or more dumps, xfsdump
       appends  the  new  dump stream after the last dump stream.  Media files
       are never overwritten.   If  end-of-media  is  encountered  during  the
       course of a dump, the operator is prompted to insert a new media object
       into the drive.  The dump stream continuation  is  appended  after  the
       last media file on the new media object.

       Each    dump    session    updates    an    inventory    database    in
       /var/lib/xfsdump/inventory.  xfsdump uses the  inventory  to  determine
       the base of incremental and resumed dumps.

       This  database can be displayed by invoking xfsdump with the -I option.
       The  display  uses  tabbed  indentation  to   present   the   inventory
       hierarchically.   The  first  level is filesystem.  The second level is
       session.  The third level is media stream (currently only one stream is
       supported).   The  fourth  level  lists  the  media  files sequentially
       composing the stream.

       The following suboptions are available to filter the display.

       -I depth=n
            (where n is 1, 2, or 3)  limits  the  hierarchical  depth  of  the
            display.  When  n  is  1, only the filesystem information from the
            inventory is displayed. When n is 2, only filesystem  and  session
            information  are  displayed. When n is 3, only filesystem, session
            and stream information are displayed.

       -I level=n
            (where n is the dump level) limits the display to  dumps  of  that
            particular dump level.

       The  display  may  be restricted to media files contained in a specific
       media object.

       -I mobjid=value
            (where value is a media ID) specifies  the  media  object  by  its
            media ID.

       -I mobjlabel=value
            (where  value  is a media label) specifies the media object by its
            media label.

       Similarly, the display can be restricted to a specific filesystem.

       -I mnt=mount_point
            (that  is,  [hostname:]pathname),  identifies  the  filesystem  by
            mountpoint.   Specifying  the  hostname  is  optional,  but may be
            useful in a clustered environment where more than one host can  be
            responsible for dumping a filesystem.

       -I fsid=filesystem_id
            identifies the filesystem by filesystem ID.

       -I dev=device_pathname
            (that is, [hostname:]device_pathname) identifies the filesystem by
            device. As  with  the  mnt  filter,  specifying  the  hostname  is

       More  than  one  of  these  suboptions,  separated  by  commas,  may be
       specified at the same time to limit the display  of  the  inventory  to
       those  dumps  of  interest.   However,  at  most four suboptions can be
       specified at once: one to constrain the display hierarchy depth, one to
       constrain the dump level, one to constrain the media object, and one to
       constrain the filesystem.

       For example, -I  depth=1,mobjlabel="tape  1",mnt=host1:/test_mnt  would
       display only the filesystem information (depth=1) for those filesystems
       that were mounted on host1:/test_mnt at the time of the dump, and  only
       those filesystems dumped to the media object labeled "tape 1".

       Dump  records  may  be  removed  (pruned)  from the inventory using the
       xfsinvutil program.

       An additional media file is placed at the  end  of  each  dump  stream.
       This media file contains the inventory information for the current dump
       session.  Its contents may be merged back  into  the  online  inventory
       database at a later time using xfsrestore(1M).

       The  inventory files stored in /var/lib/xfsdump are not included in the
       dump, even if that directory is contained within the  filesystem  being
       dumped.   Including  the  inventory  in  the  dump  may lead to loss or
       corruption of data, should an older version be restored overwriting the
       current  version.   To  backup  the  xfsdump inventory, the contents of
       /var/lib/xfsdump should be copied to another location which may then be
       safely  dumped.   Upon restoration, those files may be copied back into
       /var/lib/xfsdump,  overwriting  whatever  files  may   be   there,   or
       xfsinvutil(1M)  may  be used to selectively merge parts of the restored
       inventory back into the current inventory.   Prior  to  version  1.1.8,
       xfsdump would include the /var/lib/xfsdump directory in the dump.  Care
       should be taken not to overwrite the  /var/lib/xfsdump  directory  when
       restoring  an  old  dump, by either restoring the filesystem to another
       location or by copying the current contents of  /var/lib/xfsdump  to  a
       safe place prior to running xfsrestore(1M).

       The  operator  can  specify  a label to identify the dump session and a
       label to identify a media object.  The session label is placed in every
       media  file  produced in the course of the dump, and is recorded in the

       The media label is used to identify media objects, and  is  independent
       of  the  session label.  Each media file on the media object contains a
       copy of the  media  label.   An  error  is  returned  if  the  operator
       specifies  a media label that does not match the media label on a media
       object containing valid media files.  Media labels are recorded in  the

       UUIDs  (Universally  Unique  Identifiers)  are used in three places: to
       identify the filesystem being dumped (using the  filesystem  UUID,  see
       xfs(5) for more details), to identify the dump session, and to identify
       each media object.  The inventory display (-I) includes all of these.

   Dump Level Usage
       The dump level mechanism provides  a  structured  form  of  incremental
       dumps.   A  dump  of  level level includes only files that have changed
       since the most recent dump at a level less than  level.   For  example,
       the  operator  can  establish a dump schedule that involves a full dump
       every Friday and a daily incremental dump containing  only  files  that
       have changed since the previous dump.  In this case Friday’s dump would
       be at level 0, Saturday’s at level 1, Sunday’s at level 2, and  so  on,
       up to the Thursday dump at level 6.

       The above schedule results in a very tedious restore procedure to fully
       reconstruct the Thursday version of the  filesystem;  xfsrestore  would
       need  to  be  fed all 7 dumps in sequence.  A compromise schedule is to
       use level 1 on Saturday, Monday, and Wednesday, and level 2 on  Sunday,
       Tuesday,  and  Thursday.   The  Monday  and  Wednesday dumps would take
       longer, but the worst case restore requires the  accumulation  of  just
       three dumps, one each at level 0, level 1, and level 2.

       If  the  filesystem being dumped contains user quotas, xfsdump will use
       xfs_quota(8) to store the quotas in a file called xfsdump_quotas in the
       root of the filesystem to be dumped. This file will then be included in
       the dump.  Upon restoration, xfs_quota (8) can be  used  to  reactivate
       the  quotas for the filesystem.  Note, however, that the xfsdump_quotas
       file will probably require modification to  change  the  filesystem  or
       UIDs  if  the  filesystem has been restored to a different partition or
       system. Group and project quotas will be handled in a  similar  fashion
       and  saved in files called xfsdump_quotas_group and xfsdump_quotas_proj
       , respectively.

   Excluding individual files
       It may be desirable to exclude particular files or directories from the
       dump.   The  -s  option  can  be  used to limit the dump to a specified
       directory, and the -z option can  be  used  to  exclude  files  over  a
       particular size.  Additionally, when xfsdump is run with the -e option,
       files that are tagged with the "no dump" file  attribute  will  not  be
       included  in  the  dump.  The chattr(1) command can be used to set this
       attribute on individual files or entire subtrees.

       To tag an individual file for exclusion from the dump:

            $ chattr +d file

       To tag all files in a subtree for exclusion from the dump:

            $ chattr -R +d directory

       Note that any new files or directories created in a directory which has
       the  "no dump" attribute set will automatically inherit this attribute.
       Also note that xfsdump does not check directories  for  the  "no  dump"

       Care  should  be  taken  to  note  which files have been tagged.  Under
       normal operation, xfsdump will only report the number of files it  will
       skip.   The -v excluded_files=debug option, however, will cause xfsdump
       to list the inode numbers of the individual files affected.


       To perform a level 0, single stream dump of the root  filesystem  to  a
       locally mounted tape drive, prompting for session and media labels when

            # xfsdump -f /dev/tape /

       To specify session and media labels explicitly:

            # xfsdump -L session_1 -M tape_0 -f /dev/tape /

       To perform a dump to a remote tape using the minimal rmt protocol and a
       set blocksize of 64k:

            # xfsdump -m -b 65536 -f otherhost:/dev/tape /

       To  perform  a  level  0, multi-stream dump to two locally mounted tape

            # xfsdump -L session_2 -f /dev/rmt/tps4d6v -M tape_1 \
                      -f /dev/rmt/tps5d6v -M tape_2 /

       To perform a level 1 dump relative to the last level 0 dump recorded in
       the inventory:

            # xfsdump -l 1 -f /dev/tape /

       To  copy  the  contents  of  a  filesystem  to  another  directory (see

            # xfsdump -J - / | xfsrestore -J - /new


                                dump inventory database


       attr(1),   rmt(8),    xfsrestore(8),    xfsinvutil(8),    xfs_quota(8),


       The exit code is 0 on normal completion, non-zero if an error occurs or
       the dump is terminated by the operator.

       For all verbosity levels greater than 0 (silent) the final line of  the
       output shows the exit status of the dump. It is of the form:

            xfsdump: Dump Status: code

       Where   code  takes  one  of  the  following  values:  SUCCESS  (normal
       completion), INTERRUPT (interrupted), QUIT (media  no  longer  usable),
       INCOMPLETE   (dump  incomplete),  FAULT  (software  error),  and  ERROR
       (resource error).  Every attempt will be made to keep both  the  syntax
       and  the  semantics of this log message unchanged in future versions of
       xfsdump.  However, it may be necessary to refine or expand the  set  of
       exit codes, or their interpretation at some point in the future.

       The  message  ‘‘xfsdump:  WARNING:  unable  to  open  directory: ino N:
       Invalid argument’’ can occur with filesystems which are actively  being
       modified while xfsdump is running.  This can happen to either directory
       or regular file inodes - affected files will not end up  in  the  dump,
       files  below  affected  directories  will  be  placed  in the orphanage
       directory by xfsrestore.


       xfsdump does not dump unmounted filesystems.

       The dump frequency field of /etc/fstab is not supported.

       xfsdump uses the alert program only when a media change is required.

       xfsdump requires root privilege (except for inventory display).

       xfsdump can only dump XFS filesystems.

       The media format used by xfsdump can only be understood by  xfsrestore.

       xfsdump  does  not  know  how  to manage CD-ROM or other removable disk

       xfsdump can become confused when doing incremental or resumed dumps  if
       on  the  same machine you dump two XFS filesystems and both filesystems
       have the same filesystem identifier (UUID).   Since  xfsdump  uses  the
       filesystem  identifier  to  identify filesystems, xfsdump maintains one
       combined set of dump inventories for both filesystems  instead  of  two
       sets  of dump inventories.  This scenario can happen only if dd or some
       other block-by-block copy program was used to make a  copy  of  an  XFS
       filesystem.  See xfs_copy(8) and xfs(5) for more details.