Provided by: git-core_220.127.116.11-1.1ubuntu2_i386
git-fetch - Download objects and refs from another repository
git-fetch <options> <repository> <refspec>...
Fetches named heads or tags from another repository, along with the
objects necessary to complete them.
The ref names and their object names of fetched refs are stored in
.git/FETCH_HEAD. This information is left for a later merge operation
done by "git merge".
When <refspec> stores the fetched result in tracking branches, the tags
that point at these branches are automatically followed. This is done
by first fetching from the remote using the given <refspec>s, and if
the repository has objects that are pointed by remote tags that it does
not yet have, then fetch those missing tags. If the other end has tags
that point at branches you are not interested in, you will not get
Pass --quiet to git-fetch-pack and silence any other internally
Append ref names and object names of fetched refs to the existing
contents of .git/FETCH_HEAD. Without this option old data in
.git/FETCH_HEAD will be overwritten.
When given, and the repository to fetch from is handled by
git-fetch-pack, --exec=<upload-pack> is passed to the command to
specify non-default path for the command run on the other end.
When git-fetch is used with <rbranch>:<lbranch> refspec, it refuses
to update the local branch <lbranch> unless the remote branch
<rbranch> it fetches is a descendant of <lbranch>. This option
overrides that check.
By default, tags that point at objects that are downloaded from the
remote repository are fetched and stored locally. This option
disables this automatic tag following.
Most of the tags are fetched automatically as branch heads are
downloaded, but tags that do not point at objects reachable from
the branch heads that are being tracked will not be fetched by this
mechanism. This flag lets all tags and their associated objects be
Keep downloaded pack.
By default git-fetch refuses to update the head which corresponds
to the current branch. This flag disables the check. This is purely
for the internal use for git-pull to communicate with git-fetch,
and unless you are implementing your own Porcelain you are not
supposed to use it.
Deepen the history of a shallow repository created by git clone
with --depth=<depth> option (see git-clone(1)) by the specified
number of commits.
The "remote" repository that is the source of a fetch or pull
operation. This parameter can be either a URL (see the section GIT
URLS below) or the name of a remote (see the section REMOTES
The canonical format of a <refspec> parameter is +?<src>:<dst>;
that is, an optional plus +, followed by the source ref, followed
by a colon :, followed by the destination ref.
The remote ref that matches <src> is fetched, and if <dst> is not
empty string, the local ref that matches it is fast forwarded using
<src>. Again, if the optional plus + is used, the local ref is
updated even if it does not result in a fast forward update.
If the remote branch from which you want to pull is modified in
non-linear ways such as being rewound and rebased frequently, then
a pull will attempt a merge with an older version of itself, likely
conflict, and fail. It is under these conditions that you would
want to use the + sign to indicate non-fast-forward updates will be
needed. There is currently no easy way to determine or declare that
a branch will be made available in a repository with this behavior;
the pulling user simply must know this is the expected usage
pattern for a branch.
You never do your own development on branches that appear on the
right hand side of a <refspec> colon on Pull: lines; they are to be
updated by git-fetch. If you intend to do development derived from
a remote branch B, have a Pull: line to track it (i.e. Pull:
B:remote-B), and have a separate branch my-B to do your development
on top of it. The latter is created by git branch my-B remote-B (or
its equivalent git checkout -b my-B remote-B). Run git fetch to
keep track of the progress of the remote side, and when you see
something new on the remote branch, merge it into your development
branch with git pull . remote-B, while you are on my-B branch.
There is a difference between listing multiple <refspec> directly
on git-pull command line and having multiple Pull: <refspec> lines
for a <repository> and running git-pull command without any
explicit <refspec> parameters. <refspec> listed explicitly on the
command line are always merged into the current branch after
fetching. In other words, if you list more than one remote refs,
you would be making an Octopus. While git-pull run without any
explicit <refspec> parameter takes default <refspec>s from Pull:
lines, it merges only the first <refspec> found into the current
branch, after fetching all the remote refs. This is because making
an Octopus from remote refs is rarely done, while keeping track of
multiple remote heads in one-go by fetching more than one is often
Some short-cut notations are also supported.
· tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>;
it requests fetching everything up to the given tag.
· A parameter <ref> without a colon is equivalent to <ref>: when
pulling/fetching, so it merges <ref> into the current branch
without storing the remote branch anywhere locally
One of the following notations can be used to name the remote
SSH is the default transport protocol over the network. You can
optionally specify which user to log-in as, and an alternate, scp-like
syntax is also supported. Both syntaxes support username expansion, as
does the native git protocol, but only the former supports port
specification. The following three are identical to the last three
To sync with a local directory, you can use:
They are mostly equivalent, except when cloning. See git-clone(1) for
If there are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories and
you want to use a different format for them (such that the URLs you use
will be rewritten into URLs that work), you can create a configuration
section of the form:
[url "<actual url base>"]
insteadOf = <other url base>
For example, with this:
insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
insteadOf = work:
a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be
rewritten in any context that takes a URL to be
The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as
· a remote in the git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,
· a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or
· a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.
All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line
because they each contain a refspec which git will use by default.
Named remote in configuration file
You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had previously
configured using git-remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a manual edit
to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL of this remote will be used to
access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be used by
default when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. The
entry in the config file would appear like this:
url = <url>
push = <refspec>
fetch = <refspec>
Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The
URL in this file will be used to access the repository. The refspec in
this file will be used as default when you do not provide a refspec on
the command line. This file should have the following format:
URL: one of the above URL format
Push: lines are used by git-push and Pull: lines are used by git-pull
and git-fetch. Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for
additional branch mappings.
Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches. The
URL in this file will be used to access the repository. This file
should have the following format:
<url> is required; #<head> is optional. When you do not provide a
refspec on the command line, git will use the following refspec, where
<head> defaults to master, and <repository> is the name of this file
you provided in the command line.
Written by Linus Torvalds <firstname.lastname@example.org> and Junio C Hamano
Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list
Part of the git(1) suite