Provided by: git-core_1.5.6.3-1.1ubuntu2_i386 bug


       git-log - Show commit logs


       git-log <option>...


       Shows the commit logs.

       The command takes options applicable to the git-rev-list(1) command to
       control what is shown and how, and options applicable to the git-diff-
       tree(1) commands to control how the changes each commit introduces are


           Generate patch (see section on generating patches).

           Synonym for "-p".

           Shorthand for "--unified=<n>".

           Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the usual
           three. Implies "-p".

           Generate the raw format.

           Synonym for "-p --raw".

           Generate a diffstat. You can override the default output width for
           80-column terminal by "--stat=width". The width of the filename
           part can be controlled by giving another width to it separated by a

           Similar to --stat, but shows number of added and deleted lines in
           decimal notation and pathname without abbreviation, to make it more
           machine friendly. For binary files, outputs two - instead of saying
           0 0.

           Output only the last line of the --stat format containing total
           number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted

           Output only the sub-directories that are impacted by a diff, and to
           what degree they are impacted. You can override the default cut-off
           in percent (3) by "--dirstat=limit". If you want to enable
           "cumulative" directory statistics, you can use the "--cumulative"
           flag, which adds up percentages recursively even when they have
           been already reported for a sub-directory.

           Output a condensed summary of extended header information such as
           creations, renames and mode changes.

           Synonym for "-p --stat".

           NUL-line termination on output. This affects the --raw output field
           terminator. Also output from commands such as "git-log" will be
           delimited with NUL between commits.

           Show only names of changed files.

           Show only names and status of changed files. See the description of
           the --diff-filter option on what the status letters mean.

           Show colored diff.

           Turn off colored diff, even when the configuration file gives the
           default to color output.

           Show colored word diff, i.e. color words which have changed.

           Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration file gives
           the default to do so.

           Warn if changes introduce trailing whitespace or an indent that
           uses a space before a tab. Exits with non-zero status if problems
           are found. Not compatible with --exit-code.

           Instead of the first handful characters, show full object name of
           pre- and post-image blob on the "index" line when generating a
           patch format output.

           In addition to --full-index, output "binary diff" that can be
           applied with "git apply".

           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object name in
           diff-raw format output and diff-tree header lines, show only
           handful hexdigits prefix. This is independent of --full-index
           option above, which controls the diff-patch output format. Non
           default number of digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.

           Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and create.

           Detect renames.

           Detect copies as well as renames. See also --find-copies-harder.

           Select only files that are Added (A), Copied (C), Deleted (D),
           Modified (M), Renamed (R), have their type (mode) changed (T), are
           Unmerged (U), are Unknown (X), or have had their pairing Broken
           (B). Any combination of the filter characters may be used. When *
           (All-or-none) is added to the combination, all paths are selected
           if there is any file that matches other criteria in the comparison;
           if there is no file that matches other criteria, nothing is

           For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds copies only if
           the original file of the copy was modified in the same changeset.
           This flag makes the command inspect unmodified files as candidates
           for the source of copy. This is a very expensive operation for
           large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than one -C
           option has the same effect.

           -M and -C options require O(n^2) processing time where n is the
           number of potential rename/copy targets. This option prevents
           rename/copy detection from running if the number of rename/copy
           targets exceeds the specified number.

           Look for differences that contain the change in <string>.

           When -S finds a change, show all the changes in that changeset, not
           just the files that contain the change in <string>.

           Make the <string> not a plain string but an extended POSIX regex to

           Output the patch in the order specified in the <orderfile>, which
           has one shell glob pattern per line.

           Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or on-disk
           file to tree contents.

           When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be told to
           exclude changes outside the directory and show pathnames relative
           to it with this option. When you are not in a subdirectory (e.g. in
           a bare repository), you can name which subdirectory to make the
           output relative to by giving a <path> as an argument.

           Treat all files as text.

           Shorthand for "--text".

           Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

           Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace at
           line end, and considers all other sequences of one or more
           whitespace characters to be equivalent.

           Shorthand for "--ignore-space-change".

           Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences
           even if one line has whitespace where the other line has none.

           Shorthand for "--ignore-all-space".

           Make the program exit with codes similar to diff(1). That is, it
           exits with 1 if there were differences and 0 means no differences.

           Disable all output of the program. Implies --exit-code.

           Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an
           external diff driver with gitattributes(5), you need to use this
           option with git-log(1) and friends.

           Disallow external diff drivers.

           Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation.

           Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".

           Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".

           Do not show any source or destination prefix.
       For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also
       gitdiffcore(7)[diffcore documentation].

           Limits the number of commits to show.

           Show only commits between the named two commits. When either
           <since> or <until> is omitted, it defaults to HEAD, i.e. the tip of
           the current branch. For a more complete list of ways to spell
           <since> and <until>, see "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in git-rev-

           Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown.

           Without this flag, "git log -p <paths>..." shows commits that touch
           the specified paths, and diffs about the same specified paths. With
           this, the full diff is shown for commits that touch the specified
           paths; this means that "<paths>..." limits only commits, and
           doesn´t limit diff for those commits.

           Continue listing the history of a file beyond renames.

           Before the log message print out its size in bytes. Intended mainly
           for porcelain tools consumption. If git is unable to produce a
           valid value size is set to zero. Note that only message is
           considered, if also a diff is shown its size is not included.

           Show only commits that affect the specified paths.

   Commit Formatting
           Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format,
           where <format> can be one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller,
           email, raw and format:<string>. When omitted, the format defaults
           to medium.

           Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
           configuration (see git-config(1)).

           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name,
           show only handful hexdigits prefix. Non default number of digits
           can be specified with "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies diff
           output, if it is displayed).

           This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for
           people using 80-column terminals.

           The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in
           their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the command
           to re-code the commit log message in the encoding preferred by the
           user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to UTF-8.

           Synonym for --date=relative.

           Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such as
           when using "--pretty". config variable sets a default
           value for log command´s --date option.

           --date=relative shows dates relative to the current time, e.g. "2
           hours ago".

           --date=local shows timestamps in user´s local timezone.

           --date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.

           --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC 2822 format,
           often found in E-mail messages.

           --date=short shows only date but not time, in YYYY-MM-DD format.

           --date=default shows timestamps in the original timezone (either
           committer´s or author´s).

           Print the parents of the commit.

           Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from.
           Commits from the left side are prefixed with < and those from the
           right with >. If combined with --boundary, those commits are
           prefixed with -.

           For example, if you have this topology:

                            y---b---b  branch B
                           / \ /
                          /   .
                         /   / \
                        o---x---a---a  branch A
           you would get an output line this:

                       $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

                       >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
                       >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
                       <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
                       <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
                       -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
                       -xxxxxxx... 1st on a

           Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history on
           the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines to be
           printed in between commits, in order for the graph history to be
           drawn properly.

           This implies the --topo-order option by default, but the
           --date-order option may also be specified.

   Diff Formatting
       Below are listed options that control the formatting of diff output.
       Some of them are specific to git-rev-list(1), however other diff
       options may be given. See git-diff-files(1) for more options.

           This flag changes the way a merge commit is displayed. It shows the
           differences from each of the parents to the merge result
           simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
           and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
           which were modified from all parents.

           This flag implies the -c options and further compresses the patch
           output by omitting hunks that show differences from only one
           parent, or show the same change from all but one parent for an
           Octopus merge.

           Show recursive diffs.

           Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies -r.

   Commit Limiting
       Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
       special notations explained in the description, additional commit
       limiting may be applied.

       -n number, --max-count=number
           Limit the number of commits output.

           Skip number commits before starting to show the commit output.

       --since=date, --after=date
           Show commits more recent than a specific date.

       --until=date, --before=date
           Show commits older than a specific date.

       --author=pattern, --committer=pattern
           Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header lines
           that match the specified pattern (regular expression).

           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the
           specified pattern (regular expression).

       -i, --regexp-ignore-case
           Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to letters case.

       -E, --extended-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
           instead of the default basic regular expressions.

       -F, --fixed-strings
           Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don´t interpret
           pattern as a regular expression).

           Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

           Show also parts of history irrelevant to current state of a given
           path. This turns off history simplification, which removed merges
           which didn´t change anything at all at some child. It will still
           actually simplify away merges that didn´t change anything at all
           into either child.

           Do not print commits with more than one parent.

           Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit.
           This option can give a better overview when viewing the evolution
           of a particular topic branch, because merges into a topic branch
           tend to be only about adjusting to updated upstream from time to
           time, and this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
           brought in to your history by such a merge.

           Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for all
           following revision specifiers, up to the next --not.

           Pretend as if all the refs in $GIT_DIR/refs/ are listed on the
           command line as <commit>.

           Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit
           on the "other side" when the set of commits are limited with
           symmetric difference. For example, if you have two branches, A and
           B, a usual way to list all commits on only one side of them is with
           --left-right, like the example above in the description of that
           option. It however shows the commits that were cherry-picked from
           the other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked from
           branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are excluded
           from the output.

       -g, --walk-reflogs
           Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries
           from the most recent one to older ones. When this option is used
           you cannot specify commits to exclude (that is, ^commit,
           commit1..commit2, nor commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).
           With --pretty format other than oneline (for obvious reasons), this
           causes the output to have two extra lines of information taken from
           the reflog. By default, commit@{Nth} notation is used in the
           output. When the starting commit is specified as instead. Under
           --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with this
           information on the same line.

           Cannot be combined with --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

           After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a conflict
           and don´t exist on all heads to merge.

           Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually not

       --dense, --sparse
           When optional paths are given, the default behaviour (--dense) is
           to only output commits that changes at least one of them, and also
           ignore merges that do not touch the given paths.

           Use the --sparse flag to makes the command output all eligible
           commits (still subject to count and age limitation), but apply
           merge simplification nevertheless.

   Commit Ordering
       By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.

           This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e. descendant
           commits are shown before their parents).

           This option is similar to --topo-order in the sense that no parent
           comes before all of its children, but otherwise things are still
           ordered in the commit timestamp order.

           Output the commits in reverse order. Cannot be combined with

   Object Traversal
       These options are mostly targeted for packing of git repositories.

           Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
           commits.  --objects foo ^bar thus means "send me all object IDs
           which I need to download if I have the commit object bar, but not

           Similar to --objects, but also print the IDs of excluded commits
           prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by git-pack-objects(1)
           to build "thin" pack, which records objects in deltified form based
           on objects contained in these excluded commits to reduce network

           Only useful with --objects; print the object IDs that are not in

           Only show the given revs, but do not traverse their ancestors.

           Overrides a previous --no-walk.


       If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline,
       email or raw, an additional line is inserted before the Author: line.
       This line begins with "Merge: " and the sha1s of ancestral commits are
       printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not
       necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have
       limited your view of history: for example, if you are only interested
       in changes related to a certain directory or file.

       Here are some additional details for each format:

       ·    oneline

               <sha1> <title line>
           This is designed to be as compact as possible.

       ·    short

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>

               <title line>

       ·    medium

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               Date: <author date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·    full

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               Commit: <committer>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·    fuller

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               AuthorDate: <author date>
               Commit: <committer>
               CommitDate: <committer date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·    email

               From <sha1> <date>
               From: <author>
               Date: <author date>
               Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·    raw

           The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the
           commit object. Notably, the SHA1s are displayed in full, regardless
           of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and parents
           information show the true parent commits, without taking grafts nor
           history simplification into account.

       ·    format:

           The format: format allows you to specify which information you want
           to show. It works a little bit like printf format, with the notable
           exception that you get a newline with %n instead of \n.

           E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n"
           would show something like this:

               The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
               The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<
           The placeholders are:

           ·    %H: commit hash

           ·    %h: abbreviated commit hash

           ·    %T: tree hash

           ·    %t: abbreviated tree hash

           ·    %P: parent hashes

           ·    %p: abbreviated parent hashes

           ·    %an: author name

           ·    %ae: author email

           ·    %ad: author date

           ·    %aD: author date, RFC2822 style

           ·    %ar: author date, relative

           ·    %at: author date, UNIX timestamp

           ·    %ai: author date, ISO 8601 format

           ·    %cn: committer name

           ·    %ce: committer email

           ·    %cd: committer date

           ·    %cD: committer date, RFC2822 style

           ·    %cr: committer date, relative

           ·    %ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp

           ·    %ci: committer date, ISO 8601 format

           ·    %e: encoding

           ·    %s: subject

           ·    %b: body

           ·    %Cred: switch color to red

           ·    %Cgreen: switch color to green

           ·    %Cblue: switch color to blue

           ·    %Creset: reset color

           ·    %m: left, right or boundary mark

           ·    %n: newline

           ·    %x00: print a byte from a hex code

       ·    tformat:

           The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it
           provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics.
           In other words, each commit has the message terminator character
           (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator placed
           between entries. This means that the final entry of a single-line
           format will be properly terminated with a new line, just as the
           "oneline" format does. For example:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe ´$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/´
               7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe ´$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/´


       When "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree", or "git-diff-files" are run
       with a -p option, "git diff" without the --raw option, or "git log"
       with the "-p" option, they do not produce the output described above;
       instead they produce a patch file. You can customize the creation of
       such patches via the GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and the GIT_DIFF_OPTS
       environment variables.

       What the -p option produces is slightly different from the traditional
       diff format.

        1.  It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like this:

               diff --git a/file1 b/file2
           The a/ and b/ filenames are the same unless rename/copy is
           involved. Especially, even for a creation or a deletion, /dev/null
           is _not_ used in place of a/ or b/ filenames.

           When rename/copy is involved, file1 and file2 show the name of the
           source file of the rename/copy and the name of the file that
           rename/copy produces, respectively.

        2.  It is followed by one or more extended header lines:

               old mode <mode>
               new mode <mode>
               deleted file mode <mode>
               new file mode <mode>
               copy from <path>
               copy to <path>
               rename from <path>
               rename to <path>
               similarity index <number>
               dissimilarity index <number>
               index <hash>..<hash> <mode>

        3.  TAB, LF, double quote and backslash characters in pathnames are
           represented as \t, \n, \" and \\, respectively. If there is need
           for such substitution then the whole pathname is put in double
       The similarity index is the percentage of unchanged lines, and the
       dissimilarity index is the percentage of changed lines. It is a rounded
       down integer, followed by a percent sign. The similarity index value of
       100% is thus reserved for two equal files, while 100% dissimilarity
       means that no line from the old file made it into the new one.


       "git-diff-tree", "git-diff-files" and "git-diff" can take -c or --cc
       option to produce combined diff. For showing a merge commit with "git
       log -p", this is the default format. A combined diff format looks like

           diff --combined describe.c
           index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
           --- a/describe.c
           +++ b/describe.c
           @@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
                   return (a_date > b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;

           - static void describe(char *arg)
            -static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
           ++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
            +      unsigned char sha1[20];
            +      struct commit *cmit;
                   struct commit_list *list;
                   static int initialized = 0;
                   struct commit_name *n;

            +      if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) < 0)
            +              usage(describe_usage);
            +      cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
            +      if (!cmit)
            +              usage(describe_usage);
                   if (!initialized) {
                           initialized = 1;

        1.  It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like this
           (when -c option is used):

               diff --combined file
           or like this (when --cc option is used):

               diff --c file

        2.  It is followed by one or more extended header lines (this example
           shows a merge with two parents):

               index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>
               mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>
               new file mode <mode>
               deleted file mode <mode>,<mode>
           The mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode> line appears only if at least one of
           the <mode> is different from the rest. Extended headers with
           information about detected contents movement (renames and copying
           detection) are designed to work with diff of two <tree-ish> and are
           not used by combined diff format.

        3.  It is followed by two-line from-file/to-file header

               --- a/file
               +++ b/file
           Similar to two-line header for traditional unified diff format,
           /dev/null is used to signal created or deleted files.

        4.  Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from
           accidentally feeding it to patch -p1. Combined diff format was
           created for review of merge commit changes, and was not meant for
           apply. The change is similar to the change in the extended index

               @@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@
           There are (number of parents + 1) @ characters in the chunk header
           for combined diff format.
       Unlike the traditional unified diff format, which shows two files A and
       B with a single column that has - (minus — appears in A but removed in
       B), + (plus — missing in A but added to B), or " " (space — unchanged)
       prefix, this format compares two or more files file1, file2,... with
       one file X, and shows how X differs from each of fileN. One column for
       each of fileN is prepended to the output line to note how X´s line is
       different from it.

       A - character in the column N means that the line appears in fileN but
       it does not appear in the result. A + character in the column N means
       that the line appears in the last file, and fileN does not have that
       line (in other words, the line was added, from the point of view of
       that parent).

       In the above example output, the function signature was changed from
       both files (hence two - removals from both file1 and file2, plus ++ to
       mean one line that was added does not appear in either file1 nor
       file2). Also two other lines are the same from file1 but do not appear
       in file2 (hence prefixed with +).

       When shown by git diff-tree -c, it compares the parents of a merge
       commit with the merge result (i.e. file1..fileN are the parents). When
       shown by git diff-files -c, it compares the two unresolved merge
       parents with the working tree file (i.e. file1 is stage 2 aka "our
       version", file2 is stage 3 aka "their version").


       git log --no-merges
           Show the whole commit history, but skip any merges

       git log v2.6.12.. include/scsi drivers/scsi
           Show all commits since version v2.6.12 that changed any file in the
           include/scsi or drivers/scsi subdirectories

       git log --since="2 weeks ago" -- gitk
           Show the changes during the last two weeks to the file gitk. The
           "--" is necessary to avoid confusion with the branch named gitk

       git log --name-status release..test
           Show the commits that are in the "test" branch but not yet in the
           "release" branch, along with the list of paths each commit

       git log --follow builtin-rev-list.c
           Shows the commits that changed builtin-rev-list.c, including those
           commits that occurred before the file was given its present name.


       At the core level, git is character encoding agnostic.

       ·   The pathnames recorded in the index and in the tree objects are
           treated as uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL bytes. What
           readdir(2) returns are what are recorded and compared with the data
           git keeps track of, which in turn are expected to be what lstat(2)
           and creat(2) accepts. There is no such thing as pathname encoding

       ·   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequence of
           bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.

       ·   The commit log messages are uninterpreted sequence of non-NUL
       Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in
       UTF-8, both the core and git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8
       on projects. If all participants of a particular project find it more
       convenient to use legacy encodings, git does not forbid it. However,
       there are a few things to keep in mind.

        1.   git-commit-tree (hence, git-commit which uses it) issues a
           warning if the commit log message given to it does not look like a
           valid UTF-8 string, unless you explicitly say your project uses a
           legacy encoding. The way to say this is to have i18n.commitencoding
           in .git/config file, like this:

                       commitencoding = ISO-8859-1
           Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of
           i18n.commitencoding in its encoding header. This is to help other
           people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the
           commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

        2.   git-log, git-show and friends looks at the encoding header of a
           commit object, and tries to re-code the log message into UTF-8
           unless otherwise specified. You can specify the desired output
           encoding with i18n.logoutputencoding in .git/config file, like

                       logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1
           If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
           i18n.commitencoding is used instead.
       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message
       when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level,
       because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.


       Written by Linus Torvalds <>


       Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list


       Part of the git(1) suite