Provided by: groff-base_1.18.1.1-20_i386 bug


       groff - front-end for the groff document formatting system


       groff [-abcegilpstzCEGNRSUVXZ] [-d cs] [-f fam] [-F dir] [-I dir]
             [-L arg] [-m name] [-M dir] [-n num] [-o list] [-P arg] [-r cn]
             [-T dev] [-w name] [-W name] [file ...]
       groff -h | --help
       groff -v | --version [option ...]

       The  command line is parsed according to the usual GNU convention.  The
       whitespace between a command line option and its argument is  optional.
       Options can be grouped behind a single - (minus character).  A filename
       of - (minus character) denotes the standard input.


       This document describes the groff program, the main front-end  for  the
       groff document formatting system.  The groff program and macro suite is
       the implementation  of  a  roff(7)  system  within  the  free  software
       collection GNU 〈〉.  The groff system has all features
       of the classical roff, but adds many extensions.

       The groff program allows to control the whole groff system  by  command
       line  options.   This  is  a  great simplification in comparison to the
       classical case (which uses pipes only).


       As groff is a wrapper program for troff both programs share  a  set  of
       options.  But the groff program has some additional, native options and
       gives a new meaning to some troff options.  On the other hand, not  all
       troff options can be fed into groff.

   Native groff Options
       The  following options either do not exist for troff or are differently
       interpreted by groff.

       -e     Preprocess with eqn.

       -g     Preprocess with grn.

       -G     Preprocess with grap.

       -h --help
              Print a help message.

       -I dir Add search directory for soelim(1).  This option implies the  -s

       -l     Send  the output to a spooler program for printing.  The command
              that should be used for this is specified by the  print  command
              in  the  device  description  file,  see groff_font(5).  If this
              command is not present, the output  is  piped  into  the  lpr(1)
              program by default.  See options -L and -X.

       -L arg Pass  arg  to  the spooler program.  Several arguments should be
              passed with a separate -L option each.  Note that groff does not
              prepend - (a minus sign) to arg before passing it to the spooler

       -N     Don’t allow newlines within eqn delimiters.  This is the same as
              the -N option in eqn.

       -p     Preprocess with pic.

       -P -option
       -P -option -P arg
              Pass  -option  or  -option arg to the postprocessor.  The option
              must be specified with the necessary preceding minus sign(s) ‘-’
              or ‘--’ because groff does not prepend any dashes before passing
              it to the postprocessor.  For example, to pass a  title  to  the
              gxditview postprocessor, the shell command

              sh# groff -X -P -title -P ’groff it’ foo

              is equivalent to

              sh# groff -X -Z foo | gxditview -title ’groff it’ -

       -R     Preprocess  with  refer.   No  mechanism is provided for passing
              arguments to refer because most refer  options  have  equivalent
              language  elements  that  can  be specified within the document.
              See refer(1) for more details.

       -s     Preprocess with soelim.

       -S     Safer mode.  Pass the -S option to pic and disable the following
              troff requests: .open, .opena, .pso, .sy, and .pi.  For security
              reasons, safer mode is enabled by default.

       -t     Preprocess with tbl.

       -T dev Set output device to dev.  The  possible  values  in  groff  are
              ascii,  cp1047,  dvi, html, latin1, lbp, lj4, ps, utf8, X75, and
              X100.   Additionally,  X75-12  and  X100-12  are  available  for
              documents which use 12pt as the base document size.  The default
              device is ps.

       -U     Unsafe mode.  Reverts to the (old) unsafe behaviour; see  option

       -v --version
              Output version information of groff and of all programs that are
              run by it; that is, the given command  line  is  parsed  in  the
              usual way, passing -v to all subprograms.

       -V     Output  the  pipeline  that  would be run by groff (as a wrapper
              program), but do not execute it.

       -X     Use gxditview  instead  of  using  the  usual  postprocessor  to
              (pre)view a document.  The printing spooler behavior as outlined
              with options -l and  -L  is  carried  over  to  gxditview(1)  by
              determining   an   argument  for  the  -printCommand  option  of
              gxditview(1).  This  sets  the  default  Print  action  and  the
              corresponding  menu  entry to that value.  -X only produces good
              results with -Tps, -TX75, -TX75-12, -TX100, and -TX100-12.   The
              default resolution for previewing -Tps output is 75dpi; this can
              be changed by passing the -resolution option to  gxditview,  for

              sh# groff -X -P-resolution -P100 -man foo.1

       -z     Suppress output generated by troff.  Only error messages will be

       -Z     Do not postprocess the output of troff that is  normally  called
              automatically by groff.  This will print the intermediate output
              to standard output; see groff_out(5).

   Transparent Options
       The following options are transparently handed over  to  the  formatter
       program  troff that is called by groff subsequently.  These options are
       described in more detail in troff(1).

       -a     ascii approximation of output.

       -b     backtrace on error or warning.

       -c     disable color output.

       -C     enable compatibility mode.

       -d cs
       -d name=s
              define string.

       -E     disable troff error messages.

       -f fam set default font family.

       -F dir set path for font DESC files.

       -i     process standard input after the specified input files.

       -m name
              include  macro  file  name.tmac   (or;   see   also

       -M dir path for macro files.

       -n num number the first page num.

       -o list
              output only pages in list.

       -r cn
       -r name=n
              set number register.

       -w name
              enable warning name.

       -W name
              disable warning name.


       The  groff  system implements the infrastructure of classical roff; see
       roff(7) for a survey on how a roff system works in general.  Due to the
       front-end  programs  available  within the groff system, using groff is
       much easier than classical roff.  This section gives an overview of the
       parts  that  constitute  the groff system.  It complements roff(7) with
       groff-specific features.  This section can be regarded as  a  guide  to
       the documentation around the groff system.

       The  groff program is a wrapper around the troff(1) program.  It allows
       to specify the preprocessors by command line options and  automatically
       runs  the  postprocessor  that  is appropriate for the selected device.
       Doing so, the sometimes tedious piping mechanism of  classical  roff(7)
       can be avoided.

       The  grog(1) program can be used for guessing the correct groff command
       line to format a file.

       The groffer(1) program is an allround-viewer for groff  files  and  man

       The   groff   preprocessors  are  reimplementations  of  the  classical
       preprocessors with moderate extensions.  The preprocessors  distributed
       with the groff package are

       eqn(1) for mathematical formulæ,

       grn(1) for including gremlin(1) pictures,

       pic(1) for drawing diagrams,

              for bibliographic references,

              for including macro files from standard locations,


       tbl(1) for tables.

       Besides   these,   there  are  some  internal  preprocessors  that  are
       automatically run with some devices.  These aren’t visible to the user.

   Macro Packages
       Macro  packages  can  be  included  by  option  -m.   The  groff system
       implements and extends all classical macro packages in a compatible way
       and  adds  some  packages  of  its  own.  Actually, the following macro
       packages come with groff:

       man    The traditional man page format; see groff_man(7).   It  can  be
              specified on the command line as -man or -m man.

       mandoc The  general  package for man pages; it automatically recognizes
              whether the documents uses  the  man  or  the  mdoc  format  and
              branches   to  the  corresponding  macro  package.   It  can  be
              specified on the command line as -mandoc or -m mandoc.

       mdoc   The BSD-style man page format; see  groff_mdoc(7).   It  can  be
              specified on the command line as -mdoc or -m mdoc.

       me     The  classical  me  document format; see groff_me(7).  It can be
              specified on the command line as -me or -m me.

       mm     The classical mm document format; see groff_mm(7).   It  can  be
              specified on the command line as -mm or -m mm.

       ms     The  classical  ms  document format; see groff_ms(7).  It can be
              specified on the command line as -ms or -m ms.

       www    HTML-like macros for inclusion in arbitrary groff documents; see

       Details  on  the naming of macro files and their placement can be found
       in groff_tmac(5).

   Programming Language
       General concepts common to all roff programming languages are described
       in roff(7).

       The  groff extensions to the classical troff language are documented in

       The groff language as a whole is described in  the  (still  incomplete)
       groff  info  file;  a  short  (but  complete) reference can be found in

       The central roff formatter within the groff  system  is  troff(1).   It
       provides the features of both the classical troff and nroff, as well as
       the groff extensions.  The command line option -C switches  troff  into
       compatibility  mode  which  tries  to emulate classical roff as much as

       There is  a  shell  script  nroff(1)  that  emulates  the  behavior  of
       classical  nroff.   It  tries to automatically select the proper output
       encoding, according to the current locale.

       The formatter program generates intermediate output; see  groff_out(7).

       In  roff,  the  output  targets  are called devices.  A device can be a
       piece of hardware, e.g. a printer, or a software file format.  A device
       is specified by the option -T.  The groff devices are as follows.

       ascii  Text output using the ascii(7) character set.

       cp1047 Text  output  using the EBCDIC code page IBM cp1047 (e.g. OS/390

       nippon Text output using the Japanese-EUC character set.

       dvi    TeX DVI format.

       html   HTML output.

       ascii8 For typewriter-like devices.  Unlike ascii, this device is 8 bit
              clean.   This  device  is intended to be used for codesets other
              than ASCII and ISO-8859-1.

       latin1 Text output using the ISO Latin-1 (ISO  8859-1)  character  set;
              see iso_8859_1(7).

       lbp    Output  for  Canon  CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and LBP-8 series laser

       lj4    HP LaserJet4-compatible (or other PCL5-compatible) printers.

       ps     PostScript output; suitable for  printers  and  previewers  like

       utf8   Text  output  using  the  Unicode (ISO 10646) character set with
              UTF-8 encoding; see unicode(7).

       X75    75dpi  X  Window  System  output  suitable  for  the  previewers
              xditview(1x)  and  gxditview(1).   A variant for a 12pt document
              base font is X75-12.

       X100   100dpi X  Window  System  output  suitable  for  the  previewers
              xditview(1x)  and  gxditview(1).   A variant for a 12pt document
              base font is X100-12.

       The postprocessor to be used for a device is specified by  the  postpro
       command in the device description file; see groff_font(5).  This can be
       overridden with the -X option.

       The default device is ps.

       groff provides 3 hardware postprocessors:

              for some Canon printers,

              for printers compatible to the HP LaserJet 4 and PCL5,

              for text output using various encodings, e.g.  on  text-oriented
              terminals or line-printers.

       Today,  most  printing  or drawing hardware is handled by the operating
       system, by device drivers, or by software interfaces, usually accepting
       PostScript.  Consequently, there isn’t an urgent need for more hardware
       device postprocessors.

       The groff software devices for  conversion  into  other  document  file
       formats are

              for the DVI format,

              for HTML format,

              for PostScript.

       Combined  with  the  many existing free conversion tools this should be
       sufficient to convert a troff document into virtually any existing data

       The following utility programs around groff are available.

              Add  information  to  troff  font description files for use with

              Create font description files for PostScript device.

              General viewer program for groff files and man pages.

              The groff X viewer, the GNU version of xditview.

              Create font description files for lj4 device.

              Make inverted index for bibliographic databases.

              Search bibliographic databases.

              Interactively search bibliographic databases.

              Translate a PostScript font in .pfb format to ASCII.

              Create font description files for TeX DVI device.

              roff viewer distributed with X window.


       Normally, the path separator in the following environment variables  is
       the  colon;  this  may  vary  depending  on  the operating system.  For
       example, DOS and Windows use a semicolon instead.

              This search path, followed by $PATH, will be used  for  commands
              that are executed by groff.  If it is not set then the directory
              where the groff binaries were installed is prepended to PATH.

              When there is a need to run different  roff  implementations  at
              the same time groff provides the facility to prepend a prefix to
              most of its programs that could provoke name  clashings  at  run
              time  (default  is to have none).  Historically, this prefix was
              the character g, but it can be anything.   For  example,  gtroff
              stood  for groff’s troff, gtbl for the groff version of tbl.  By
              setting GROFF_COMMAND_PREFIX to different values, the  different
              roff installations can be addressed.  More exactly, if it is set
              to prefix xxx then groff as a wrapper  program  will  internally
              call  xxxtroff  instead  of  troff.   This  also  applies to the
              preprocessors eqn, grn, pic, refer,  tbl,  soelim,  and  to  the
              utilities  indxbib  and lookbib.  This feature does not apply to
              any programs different from the ones above (most  notably  groff
              itself) since they are unique to the groff package.

              A  list  of  directories  in  which  to  search  for the devname
              directory in addition to the default  ones.   See  troff(1)  and
              groff_font(5) for more details.

              A  list  of  directories  in  which to search for macro files in
              addition  to  the  default  directories.    See   troff(1)   and
              groff_tmac(5) for more details.

              The directory in which temporary files will be created.  If this
              is  not  set  but  the  environment  variable  TMPDIR   instead,
              temporary  files  will  be  created  in  the  directory $TMPDIR.
              Otherwise  temporary  files  will  be  created  in  /tmp.    The
              refer(1),  groffer(1),  grohtml(1),  and  grops(1)  commands use
              temporary files.

              Preset the default device.  If this is not set the ps device  is
              used  as default.  This device name is overwritten by the option


       There are some directories in which groff  installs  all  of  its  data
       files.   Due  to  different  installation habits on different operating
       systems, their locations are not absolutely fixed, but  their  function
       is clearly defined and coincides on all systems.

   groff Macro Directory
       This  contains  all  information  related to macro packages.  Note that
       more than a single directory is searched for those files as  documented
       in  groff_tmac(5).   For  the  groff installation corresponding to this
       document, it is located at /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac.  The following
       files contained in the groff macro directory have a special meaning:

              Initialization  file  for  troff.   This is interpreted by troff
              before reading the macro sets and any input.

              Final startup file for troff, it is parsed after all macro  sets
              have been read.

              Macro file for macro package name.

   groff Font Directory
       This  contains  all  information  related to output devices.  Note that
       more than a single directory is searched for those files; see troff(1).
       For  the  groff  installation  corresponding  to  this  document, it is
       located at /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font.  The following files contained
       in the groff font directory have a special meaning:

              Device description file for device name, see groff_font(5).

              Font file for font F of device name.


       The  following  example illustrates the power of the groff program as a
       wrapper around troff.

       To process a roff file using the preprocessors tbl and pic and  the  me
       macro set, classical troff had to be called by

       sh# pic | tbl | troff -me -Tlatin1 | grotty

       Using groff, this pipe can be shortened to the equivalent command

       sh# groff -p -t -me -T latin1

       An  even  easier  way  to  call  this  is  to  use grog(1) to guess the
       preprocessor and macro options and execute the  generated  command  (by
       specifying shell left quotes)

       sh# ‘grog -Tlatin1‘

       The simplest way is to view the contents in an automated way by calling

       sh# groffer


       On EBCDIC hosts (e.g. OS/390 Unix), output  devices  ascii  and  latin1
       aren’t available.  Similarly, output for EBCDIC code page cp1047 is not
       available on ASCII based operating systems.

       Report bugs to  Include a  complete,  self-contained
       example that will allow the bug to be reproduced, and say which version
       of groff you are using.


       Information on how to get groff and related information is available at
       the  GNU  website 〈〉.  The most recent
       released version of groff is available for anonymous ftp at  the  groff
       development          site          〈

       Three groff mailing lists are available:
              for reporting bugs,
              for general discussion of groff,
              a  read-only  list  showing  logs  of  commitments  to  the  CVS

       Details  on CVS access and much more can be found in the file README at
       the top directory of the groff source package.

       There is a free implementation of the grap preprocessor, written by Ted
       Faber  〈〉.   The  actual  version can be found at the
       grap   website   〈〉.
       This is the only grap version supported by groff.


       Copyright © 1989, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This  document  is  distributed  under  the  terms of the FDL (GNU Free
       Documentation License) version 1.1 or later.  You should have  received
       a  copy  of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the
       GNU copyleft site 〈〉.

       This document is based on the original groff man page written by  James
       Clark  〈〉.  It was rewritten, enhanced, and put under the
       FDL license by Bernd Warken 〈〉.   It  is  maintained  by
       Werner Lemberg 〈〉.

       groff  is  a GNU free software project.  All parts of the groff package
       are protected  by  GNU  copyleft  licenses.   The  software  files  are
       distributed  under  the  terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL),
       while the documentation files mostly use  the  GNU  Free  Documentation
       License (FDL).


       The groff info file contains all information on the groff system within
       a single document.  Beneath the detailed documentation of all  aspects,
       it provides examples and background information.  See info(1) on how to
       read it.

       Due to its complex structure, the groff  system  has  many  man  pages.
       They can be read with man(1) or groffer(1).

       Introduction, history and further readings:

       Viewer for groff files:
              groffer(1), gxditview(1), xditview(1x).

       Wrapper programs for formatters:
              groff(1), grog(1).

       Roff preprocessors:
              eqn(1), grn(1), pic(1), refer(1), soelim(1), tbl(1), grap(1).

       Roff language with the groff extensions:
              groff(7), groff_char(7), groff_diff(7), groff_font(5).

       Roff formatter programs:
              nroff(1), troff(1), ditroff(7).

       The intermediate output language:

       Postprocessors for the output devices:
              grodvi(1),    grohtml(1),    grolbp(1),   grolj4(1),   grops(1),

       Groff macro packages and macro-specific utilities:
              groff_tmac(5),   groff_man(7),    groff_mdoc(7),    groff_me(7),
              groff_mm(7),     groff_mmse(7),    groff_mom(7),    groff_ms(7),
              groff_www(7), mmroff(7).

       The following utilities are available:
              addftinfo(1),     afmtodit(1),     eqn2graph(1),     groffer(1),
              gxditview(1),  hpftodit(1),  indxbib(1), lookbib(1), pfbtops(1),
              pic2graph(1), tfmtodit(1).