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NAME

       ld - The GNU linker

SYNOPSIS

       ld [options] objfile ...

DESCRIPTION

       ld  combines a number of object and archive files, relocates their data
       and ties up symbol references. Usually the last  step  in  compiling  a
       program is to run ld.

       ld  accepts  Linker  Command  Language  files  written in a superset of
       AT&T’s Link Editor Command Language syntax,  to  provide  explicit  and
       total control over the linking process.

       This  man page does not describe the command language; see the ld entry
       in "info" for full details on the command language and on other aspects
       of the GNU linker.

       This version of ld uses the general purpose BFD libraries to operate on
       object files. This allows ld to read, combine, and write  object  files
       in  many  different  formats---for example, COFF or "a.out".  Different
       formats may be linked together to produce any available kind of  object
       file.

       Aside  from  its flexibility, the GNU linker is more helpful than other
       linkers in providing  diagnostic  information.   Many  linkers  abandon
       execution immediately upon encountering an error; whenever possible, ld
       continues executing, allowing you to identify other errors (or, in some
       cases, to get an output file in spite of the error).

       The GNU linker ld is meant to cover a broad range of situations, and to
       be as compatible as possible with other linkers.  As a result, you have
       many choices to control its behavior.

OPTIONS

       The  linker  supports a plethora of command-line options, but in actual
       practice few of them are used in any particular context.  For instance,
       a  frequent  use  of  ld  is  to  link  standard Unix object files on a
       standard, supported Unix system.  On such a  system,  to  link  a  file
       "hello.o":

               ld -o <output> /lib/crt0.o hello.o -lc

       This  tells ld to produce a file called output as the result of linking
       the file "/lib/crt0.o" with "hello.o" and the library  "libc.a",  which
       will come from the standard search directories.  (See the discussion of
       the -l option below.)

       Some of the command-line options to ld may be specified at any point in
       the command line.  However, options which refer to files, such as -l or
       -T, cause the file to be read at the point at which the option  appears
       in  the  command  line,  relative  to  the  object files and other file
       options.  Repeating non-file options with  a  different  argument  will
       either  have  no  further  effect, or override prior occurrences (those
       further to the left on the command line) of that option.  Options which
       may  be  meaningfully  specified  more  than  once  are  noted  in  the
       descriptions below.

       Non-option arguments are object files  or  archives  which  are  to  be
       linked  together.   They  may  follow,  precede,  or  be  mixed in with
       command-line options, except that an object file argument  may  not  be
       placed between an option and its argument.

       Usually  the  linker  is invoked with at least one object file, but you
       can specify other forms of binary input files using  -l,  -R,  and  the
       script  command  language.   If  no  binary  input  files  at  all  are
       specified, the linker does not  produce  any  output,  and  issues  the
       message No input files.

       If  the  linker  cannot recognize the format of an object file, it will
       assume that it is a linker script.  A  script  specified  in  this  way
       augments  the  main linker script used for the link (either the default
       linker script or the one specified by using -T).  This feature  permits
       the  linker  to link against a file which appears to be an object or an
       archive, but actually  merely  defines  some  symbol  values,  or  uses
       "INPUT"  or "GROUP" to load other objects.  Specifying a script in this
       way merely augments the main linker script,  with  the  extra  commands
       placed  after the main script; use the -T option to replace the default
       linker script entirely, but note the effect of the "INSERT" command.

       For options whose names are a  single  letter,  option  arguments  must
       either  follow  the option letter without intervening whitespace, or be
       given as separate  arguments  immediately  following  the  option  that
       requires them.

       For  options  whose  names are multiple letters, either one dash or two
       can  precede  the  option  name;   for   example,   -trace-symbol   and
       --trace-symbol  are  equivalent.  Note---there is one exception to this
       rule.  Multiple letter options that start with a  lower  case  ’o’  can
       only  be  preceded by two dashes.  This is to reduce confusion with the
       -o option.  So for example -omagic sets the output file name  to  magic
       whereas --omagic sets the NMAGIC flag on the output.

       Arguments  to multiple-letter options must either be separated from the
       option name by an equals  sign,  or  be  given  as  separate  arguments
       immediately  following  the  option  that  requires them.  For example,
       --trace-symbol  foo  and  --trace-symbol=foo  are  equivalent.   Unique
       abbreviations of the names of multiple-letter options are accepted.

       Note---if the linker is being invoked indirectly, via a compiler driver
       (e.g. gcc) then all the linker command line options should be  prefixed
       by -Wl, (or whatever is appropriate for the particular compiler driver)
       like this:

                 gcc -Wl,--startgroup foo.o bar.o -Wl,--endgroup

       This is important, because otherwise the compiler  driver  program  may
       silently drop the linker options, resulting in a bad link.

       Here  is  a  table of the generic command line switches accepted by the
       GNU linker:

       @file
           Read command-line options from file.  The options read are inserted
           in  place of the original @file option.  If file does not exist, or
           cannot be read, then the option will be treated literally, and  not
           removed.

           Options   in  file  are  separated  by  whitespace.   A  whitespace
           character may be included in an option by  surrounding  the  entire
           option in either single or double quotes.  Any character (including
           a backslash) may be included  by  prefixing  the  character  to  be
           included  with a backslash.  The file may itself contain additional
           @file options; any such options will be processed recursively.

       -akeyword
           This option is supported  for  HP/UX  compatibility.   The  keyword
           argument  must  be  one of the strings archive, shared, or default.
           -aarchive is functionally equivalent to -Bstatic, and the other two
           keywords are functionally equivalent to -Bdynamic.  This option may
           be used any number of times.

       -Aarchitecture
       --architecture=architecture
           In the current release of ld, this option is useful  only  for  the
           Intel  960  family of architectures.  In that ld configuration, the
           architecture argument identifies the particular architecture in the
           960  family,  enabling  some  safeguards and modifying the archive-
           library search path.

           Future releases of ld may support similar functionality  for  other
           architecture families.

       -b input-format
       --format=input-format
           ld  may be configured to support more than one kind of object file.
           If your ld is configured this way, you can use  the  -b  option  to
           specify  the  binary format for input object files that follow this
           option on the command line.  Even when ld is configured to  support
           alternative object formats, you don’t usually need to specify this,
           as ld should be configured to expect as a default input format  the
           most  usual format on each machine.  input-format is a text string,
           the name of a particular format supported  by  the  BFD  libraries.
           (You can list the available binary formats with objdump -i.)

           You  may  want  to use this option if you are linking files with an
           unusual binary format.  You can  also  use  -b  to  switch  formats
           explicitly  (when  linking  object  files of different formats), by
           including -b input-format before each group of object  files  in  a
           particular format.

           The   default   format  is  taken  from  the  environment  variable
           "GNUTARGET".

           You can also define the input  format  from  a  script,  using  the
           command "TARGET";

       -c MRI-commandfile
       --mri-script=MRI-commandfile
           For  compatibility  with linkers produced by MRI, ld accepts script
           files  written  in  an  alternate,  restricted  command   language,
           described  in  the  MRI  Compatible  Script Files section of GNU ld
           documentation.  Introduce MRI script files with the option -c;  use
           the  -T option to run linker scripts written in the general-purpose
           ld scripting language.  If MRI-cmdfile does not exist, ld looks for
           it in the directories specified by any -L options.

       -d
       -dc
       -dp These  three  options  are equivalent; multiple forms are supported
           for compatibility with other linkers.  They assign space to  common
           symbols  even  if a relocatable output file is specified (with -r).
           The script command "FORCE_COMMON_ALLOCATION" has the same effect.

       -e entry
       --entry=entry
           Use entry as the explicit symbol for beginning  execution  of  your
           program,  rather  than  the  default  entry  point.  If there is no
           symbol named entry, the linker will try to parse entry as a number,
           and  use  that as the entry address (the number will be interpreted
           in base 10; you may use a leading 0x for base 16, or  a  leading  0
           for base 8).

       --exclude-libs lib,lib,...
           Specifies a list of archive libraries from which symbols should not
           be automatically exported. The library names may  be  delimited  by
           commas or colons.  Specifying "--exclude-libs ALL" excludes symbols
           in all archive libraries from automatic  export.   This  option  is
           available  only for the i386 PE targeted port of the linker and for
           ELF targeted ports.  For i386 PE, symbols explicitly  listed  in  a
           .def  file  are still exported, regardless of this option.  For ELF
           targeted ports, symbols affected by this option will be treated  as
           hidden.

       -E
       --export-dynamic
           When  creating  a dynamically linked executable, add all symbols to
           the dynamic symbol table.  The dynamic symbol table is the  set  of
           symbols which are visible from dynamic objects at run time.

           If  you  do  not  use  this  option,  the dynamic symbol table will
           normally contain only those symbols which are  referenced  by  some
           dynamic object mentioned in the link.

           If  you  use "dlopen" to load a dynamic object which needs to refer
           back to the symbols defined by the program, rather than some  other
           dynamic object, then you will probably need to use this option when
           linking the program itself.

           You can also use the dynamic list to control what symbols should be
           added to the dynamic symbol table if the output format supports it.
           See the description of --dynamic-list.

       -EB Link big-endian objects.  This affects the default output format.

       -EL Link  little-endian  objects.   This  affects  the  default  output
           format.

       -f
       --auxiliary name
           When  creating  an ELF shared object, set the internal DT_AUXILIARY
           field to the specified name.  This tells the  dynamic  linker  that
           the  symbol  table  of  the  shared  object  should  be  used as an
           auxiliary filter on the symbol table of the shared object name.

           If you later link a program against this filter object, then,  when
           you  run  the program, the dynamic linker will see the DT_AUXILIARY
           field.  If the dynamic linker resolves any symbols from the  filter
           object,  it  will  first check whether there is a definition in the
           shared object name.  If there is one, it will be  used  instead  of
           the  definition  in the filter object.  The shared object name need
           not exist.  Thus the shared object name may be used to  provide  an
           alternative   implementation  of  certain  functions,  perhaps  for
           debugging or for machine specific performance.

           This option may be specified  more  than  once.   The  DT_AUXILIARY
           entries  will  be  created in the order in which they appear on the
           command line.

       -F name
       --filter name
           When creating an ELF shared  object,  set  the  internal  DT_FILTER
           field  to  the  specified name.  This tells the dynamic linker that
           the symbol table of the shared object which is being created should
           be  used as a filter on the symbol table of the shared object name.

           If you later link a program against this filter object, then,  when
           you  run  the  program,  the  dynamic linker will see the DT_FILTER
           field.  The dynamic linker will resolve symbols  according  to  the
           symbol  table  of  the filter object as usual, but it will actually
           link to the definitions found in the shared object name.  Thus  the
           filter  object  can  be  used  to  select  a  subset of the symbols
           provided by the object name.

           Some older linkers used the  -F  option  throughout  a  compilation
           toolchain  for  specifying  object-file  format  for both input and
           output object files.  The GNU linker uses other mechanisms for this
           purpose:  the -b, --format, --oformat options, the "TARGET" command
           in linker scripts, and the "GNUTARGET" environment  variable.   The
           GNU  linker  will  ignore  the  -F  option when not creating an ELF
           shared object.

       -fini name
           When creating an ELF executable or shared object,  call  NAME  when
           the  executable or shared object is unloaded, by setting DT_FINI to
           the address of the function.  By default, the linker  uses  "_fini"
           as the function to call.

       -g  Ignored.  Provided for compatibility with other tools.

       -Gvalue
       --gpsize=value
           Set  the  maximum  size  of  objects  to  be optimized using the GP
           register to size.  This is only meaningful for object file  formats
           such  as  MIPS ECOFF which supports putting large and small objects
           into different sections.  This is ignored  for  other  object  file
           formats.

       -hname
       -soname=name
           When  creating  an  ELF  shared  object, set the internal DT_SONAME
           field to the specified name.  When an executable is linked  with  a
           shared object which has a DT_SONAME field, then when the executable
           is run the dynamic linker will attempt to load  the  shared  object
           specified  by  the  DT_SONAME  field rather than the using the file
           name given to the linker.

       -i  Perform an incremental link (same as option -r).

       -init name
           When creating an ELF executable or shared object,  call  NAME  when
           the  executable  or  shared object is loaded, by setting DT_INIT to
           the address of the function.  By default, the linker  uses  "_init"
           as the function to call.

       -lnamespec
       --library=namespec
           Add the archive or object file specified by namespec to the list of
           files to link.  This option may be used any number  of  times.   If
           namespec  is of the form :filename, ld will search the library path
           for a file called filename, otherise it  will  search  the  library
           path for a file called libnamespec.a.

           On  systems  which support shared libraries, ld may also search for
           files other than libnamespec.a.  Specifically,  on  ELF  and  SunOS
           systems,   ld   will  search  a  directory  for  a  library  called
           libnamespec.so before searching for one called libnamespec.a.   (By
           convention,  a  ".so"  extension indicates a shared library.)  Note
           that this behavior  does  not  apply  to  :filename,  which  always
           specifies a file called filename.

           The  linker will search an archive only once, at the location where
           it is specified on the command line.   If  the  archive  defines  a
           symbol which was undefined in some object which appeared before the
           archive  on  the  command  line,  the  linker  will   include   the
           appropriate file(s) from the archive.  However, an undefined symbol
           in an object appearing later on the command line will not cause the
           linker to search the archive again.

           See  the -( option for a way to force the linker to search archives
           multiple times.

           You may list the same archive multiple times on the command line.

           This type of  archive  searching  is  standard  for  Unix  linkers.
           However, if you are using ld on AIX, note that it is different from
           the behaviour of the AIX linker.

       -Lsearchdir
       --library-path=searchdir
           Add path searchdir to the list of paths that  ld  will  search  for
           archive  libraries and ld control scripts.  You may use this option
           any number of times.  The directories are searched in the order  in
           which   they  are  specified  on  the  command  line.   Directories
           specified on the command  line  are  searched  before  the  default
           directories.  All -L options apply to all -l options, regardless of
           the order in which the options appear.

           If searchdir begins with "=", then the "=" will be replaced by  the
           sysroot prefix, a path specified when the linker is configured.

           The default set of paths searched (without being specified with -L)
           depends on which emulation mode ld is using, and in some cases also
           on how it was configured.

           The  paths  can  also  be  specified  in  a  link  script  with the
           "SEARCH_DIR" command.  Directories specified this way are  searched
           at  the  point  in  which  the linker script appears in the command
           line.

       -memulation
           Emulate  the  emulation  linker.   You  can  list   the   available
           emulations with the --verbose or -V options.

           If  the  -m  option  is  not  used, the emulation is taken from the
           "LDEMULATION" environment variable, if that is defined.

           Otherwise, the default emulation depends upon how  the  linker  was
           configured.

       -M
       --print-map
           Print  a  link  map  to  the  standard output.  A link map provides
           information about the link, including the following:

           *   Where object files are mapped into memory.

           *   How common symbols are allocated.

           *   All archive members included in the link, with a mention of the
               symbol which caused the archive member to be brought in.

           *   The values assigned to symbols.

               Note - symbols whose values are computed by an expression which
               involves a reference to a previous value of the same symbol may
               not  have  correct  result  displayed in the link map.  This is
               because the  linker  discards  intermediate  results  and  only
               retains   the   final  value  of  an  expression.   Under  such
               circumstances the linker will display the final value  enclosed
               by   square   brackets.   Thus  for  example  a  linker  script
               containing:

                          foo = 1
                          foo = foo * 4
                          foo = foo + 8

               will produce the following output in the link  map  if  the  -M
               option is used:

                          0x00000001                foo = 0x1
                          [0x0000000c]                foo = (foo * 0x4)
                          [0x0000000c]                foo = (foo + 0x8)

               See  Expressions  for  more  information  about  expressions in
               linker scripts.

       -n
       --nmagic
           Turn off page  alignment  of  sections,  and  mark  the  output  as
           "NMAGIC" if possible.

       -N
       --omagic
           Set  the text and data sections to be readable and writable.  Also,
           do not page-align the data segment,  and  disable  linking  against
           shared  libraries.   If the output format supports Unix style magic
           numbers, mark the output as "OMAGIC".  Note:  Although  a  writable
           text section is allowed for PE-COFF targets, it does not conform to
           the format specification published by Microsoft.

       --no-omagic
           This option negates most of the effects of the -N option.  It  sets
           the text section to be read-only, and forces the data segment to be
           page-aligned.  Note - this option does not enable  linking  against
           shared libraries.  Use -Bdynamic for this.

       -o output
       --output=output
           Use  output  as  the  name  for the program produced by ld; if this
           option is not specified, the name a.out is used  by  default.   The
           script command "OUTPUT" can also specify the output file name.

       -O level
           If  level  is  a  numeric values greater than zero ld optimizes the
           output.   This  might  take  significantly  longer  and   therefore
           probably  should  only  be  enabled  for  the final binary.  At the
           moment this option only  affects  ELF  shared  library  generation.
           Future  releases  of  the  linker may make more use of this option.
           Also currently there is no difference in the linker’s behaviour for
           different  non-zero  values  of this option.  Again this may change
           with future releases.

       -q
       --emit-relocs
           Leave relocation sections and contents in fully linked executables.
           Post link analysis and optimization tools may need this information
           in order to perform correct  modifications  of  executables.   This
           results in larger executables.

           This option is currently only supported on ELF platforms.

       --force-dynamic
           Force  the  output  file  to have dynamic sections.  This option is
           specific to VxWorks targets.

       -r
       --relocatable
           Generate relocatable output---i.e., generate an  output  file  that
           can  in  turn  serve  as input to ld.  This is often called partial
           linking.  As a side effect, in environments that  support  standard
           Unix  magic  numbers, this option also sets the output file’s magic
           number to "OMAGIC".  If this option is not specified,  an  absolute
           file  is produced.  When linking C++ programs, this option will not
           resolve references to constructors; to do that, use -Ur.

           When an input file does not have the  same  format  as  the  output
           file, partial linking is only supported if that input file does not
           contain any relocations.  Different output formats can have further
           restrictions; for example some "a.out"-based formats do not support
           partial linking with input files in other formats at all.

           This option does the same thing as -i.

       -R filename
       --just-symbols=filename
           Read symbol names and their addresses from  filename,  but  do  not
           relocate  it  or include it in the output.  This allows your output
           file to refer symbolically to absolute locations of memory  defined
           in other programs.  You may use this option more than once.

           For  compatibility  with  other  ELF  linkers,  if the -R option is
           followed by a directory name,  rather  than  a  file  name,  it  is
           treated as the -rpath option.

       -s
       --strip-all
           Omit all symbol information from the output file.

       -S
       --strip-debug
           Omit  debugger  symbol  information  (but not all symbols) from the
           output file.

       -t
       --trace
           Print the names of the input files as ld processes them.

       -T scriptfile
       --script=scriptfile
           Use scriptfile as the linker script.   This  script  replaces  ld’s
           default  linker  script  (rather than adding to it), so commandfile
           must specify everything necessary  to  describe  the  output  file.
           If  scriptfile  does not exist in the current directory, "ld" looks
           for it in the directories specified by any  preceding  -L  options.
           Multiple -T options accumulate.

       -dT scriptfile
       --default-script=scriptfile
           Use scriptfile as the default linker script.

           This   option  is  similar  to  the  --script  option  except  that
           processing of the script is delayed until after  the  rest  of  the
           command  line has been processed.  This allows options placed after
           the --default-script option on  the  command  line  to  affect  the
           behaviour  of  the  linker  script, which can be important when the
           linker command line cannot be directly controlled by the user.  (eg
           because the command line is being constructed by another tool, such
           as gcc).

       -u symbol
       --undefined=symbol
           Force symbol to be entered in  the  output  file  as  an  undefined
           symbol.  Doing this may, for example, trigger linking of additional
           modules from standard libraries.  -u may be repeated with different
           option  arguments  to  enter  additional  undefined  symbols.  This
           option is equivalent to the "EXTERN" linker script command.

       -Ur For anything other than C++ programs, this option is equivalent  to
           -r: it generates relocatable output---i.e., an output file that can
           in turn serve as input to ld.  When linking C++ programs, -Ur  does
           resolve references to constructors, unlike -r.  It does not work to
           use -Ur on files that were themselves linked  with  -Ur;  once  the
           constructor  table  has been built, it cannot be added to.  Use -Ur
           only for the last partial link, and -r for the others.

       --unique[=SECTION]
           Creates a separate output section for every input section  matching
           SECTION,  or  if the optional wildcard SECTION argument is missing,
           for every orphan input section.   An  orphan  section  is  one  not
           specifically mentioned in a linker script.  You may use this option
           multiple times on the command line;  It prevents the normal merging
           of  input  sections  with  the same name, overriding output section
           assignments in a linker script.

       -v
       --version
       -V  Display the version number for ld.  The -V option  also  lists  the
           supported emulations.

       -x
       --discard-all
           Delete all local symbols.

       -X
       --discard-locals
           Delete  all  temporary  local  symbols.   (These symbols start with
           system-specific local label prefixes, typically .L for ELF  systems
           or L for traditional a.out systems.)

       -y symbol
       --trace-symbol=symbol
           Print  the  name of each linked file in which symbol appears.  This
           option may be given any number of times.  On  many  systems  it  is
           necessary to prepend an underscore.

           This  option  is  useful  when you have an undefined symbol in your
           link but don’t know where the reference is coming from.

       -Y path
           Add path to the default library search path.   This  option  exists
           for Solaris compatibility.

       -z keyword
           The recognized keywords are:

           combreloc
               Combines multiple reloc sections and sorts them to make dynamic
               symbol lookup caching possible.

           defs
               Disallows undefined symbols in object files.  Undefined symbols
               in shared libraries are still allowed.

           execstack
               Marks the object as requiring executable stack.

           initfirst
               This  option  is only meaningful when building a shared object.
               It marks the object so that  its  runtime  initialization  will
               occur  before  the  runtime initialization of any other objects
               brought into the process  at  the  same  time.   Similarly  the
               runtime finalization of the object will occur after the runtime
               finalization of any other objects.

           interpose
               Marks the object that its symbol table  interposes  before  all
               symbols but the primary executable.

           lazy
               When  generating  an  executable  or shared library, mark it to
               tell the dynamic linker to defer function  call  resolution  to
               the  point  when  the function is called (lazy binding), rather
               than at load time.  Lazy binding is the default.

           loadfltr
               Marks  the object that its filters be processed immediately  at
               runtime.

           muldefs
               Allows multiple definitions.

           nocombreloc
               Disables multiple reloc sections combining.

           nocopyreloc
               Disables production of copy relocs.

           nodefaultlib
               Marks  the  object  that  the  search  for dependencies of this
               object will ignore any default library search paths.

           nodelete
               Marks the object shouldn’t be unloaded at runtime.

           nodlopen
               Marks the object not available to "dlopen".

           nodump
               Marks the object can not be dumped by "dldump".

           noexecstack
               Marks the object as not requiring executable stack.

           norelro
               Don’t create  an  ELF  "PT_GNU_RELRO"  segment  header  in  the
               object.

           now When  generating  an  executable  or shared library, mark it to
               tell the dynamic linker to resolve all symbols when the program
               is  started,  or  when  the  shared  library is linked to using
               dlopen, instead of deferring function call  resolution  to  the
               point when the function is first called.

           origin
               Marks the object may contain $ORIGIN.

           relro
               Create an ELF "PT_GNU_RELRO" segment header in the object.

           max-page-size=value
               Set the emulation maximum page size to value.

           common-page-size=value
               Set the emulation common page size to value.

           Other keywords are ignored for Solaris compatibility.

       -( archives -)
       --start-group archives --end-group
           The archives should be a list of archive files.  They may be either
           explicit file names, or -l options.

           The  specified  archives  are  searched  repeatedly  until  no  new
           undefined references are created.  Normally, an archive is searched
           only once in the order that it is specified on  the  command  line.
           If  a  symbol  in  that  archive  is needed to resolve an undefined
           symbol referred to by an object in an archive that appears later on
           the  command  line,  the  linker  would not be able to resolve that
           reference.   By  grouping  the  archives,  they  all  be   searched
           repeatedly until all possible references are resolved.

           Using  this  option has a significant performance cost.  It is best
           to use it only  when  there  are  unavoidable  circular  references
           between two or more archives.

       --accept-unknown-input-arch
       --no-accept-unknown-input-arch
           Tells the linker to accept input files whose architecture cannot be
           recognised.  The assumption is that the user knows  what  they  are
           doing  and deliberately wants to link in these unknown input files.
           This was the default behaviour of the linker, before release  2.14.
           The  default  behaviour from release 2.14 onwards is to reject such
           input files, and so the --accept-unknown-input-arch option has been
           added to restore the old behaviour.

       --as-needed
       --no-as-needed
           This  option  affects  ELF  DT_NEEDED  tags  for  dynamic libraries
           mentioned  on  the  command  line  after  the  --as-needed  option.
           Normally,  the  linker  will  add  a DT_NEEDED tag for each dynamic
           library mentioned on the command line, regardless  of  whether  the
           library  is  actually needed.  --as-needed causes DT_NEEDED tags to
           only be emitted for libraries that satisfy  some  symbol  reference
           from  regular  objects  which  is  undefined  at the point that the
           library was linked.  --no-as-needed restores the default behaviour.

       --add-needed
       --no-add-needed
           This  option  affects  the  treatment of dynamic libraries from ELF
           DT_NEEDED tags in dynamic libraries mentioned on the  command  line
           after  the --no-add-needed option.  Normally, the linker will add a
           DT_NEEDED  tag  for  each  dynamic  library  from  DT_NEEDED  tags.
           --no-add-needed  causes  DT_NEEDED  tags  will never be emitted for
           those libraries from  DT_NEEDED  tags.  --add-needed  restores  the
           default behaviour.

       -assert keyword
           This option is ignored for SunOS compatibility.

       -Bdynamic
       -dy
       -call_shared
           Link  against  dynamic  libraries.   This  is  only  meaningful  on
           platforms for which shared libraries are supported.  This option is
           normally  the default on such platforms.  The different variants of
           this option are for compatibility with various  systems.   You  may
           use  this  option  multiple  times  on the command line: it affects
           library searching for -l options which follow it.

       -Bgroup
           Set the "DF_1_GROUP" flag in the "DT_FLAGS_1" entry in the  dynamic
           section.   This causes the runtime linker to handle lookups in this
           object and its dependencies to be performed only inside the  group.
           --unresolved-symbols=report-all  is  implied.   This option is only
           meaningful on ELF platforms which support shared libraries.

       -Bstatic
       -dn
       -non_shared
       -static
           Do not link against shared libraries.  This is only  meaningful  on
           platforms  for which shared libraries are supported.  The different
           variants of this option are for compatibility with various systems.
           You  may  use  this  option  multiple times on the command line: it
           affects library searching for -l options  which  follow  it.   This
           option  also  implies --unresolved-symbols=report-all.  This option
           can be used with -shared.  Doing so means that a shared library  is
           being  created  but  that  all of the library’s external references
           must be resolved by pulling in entries from static libraries.

       -Bsymbolic
           When creating a shared library, bind references to  global  symbols
           to  the definition within the shared library, if any.  Normally, it
           is possible for a  program  linked  against  a  shared  library  to
           override  the definition within the shared library.  This option is
           only meaningful on ELF platforms which support shared libraries.

       -Bsymbolic-functions
           When creating a shared library, bind references to global  function
           symbols  to the definition within the shared library, if any.  This
           option is only meaningful on ELF  platforms  which  support  shared
           libraries.

       --dynamic-list=dynamic-list-file
           Specify  the  name  of  a dynamic list file to the linker.  This is
           typically used when creating shared libraries to specify a list  of
           global   symbols   whose  references  shouldn’t  be  bound  to  the
           definition within  the  shared  library,  or  creating  dynamically
           linked  executables  to  specify  a list of symbols which should be
           added to the symbol table in the executable.  This option  is  only
           meaningful on ELF platforms which support shared libraries.

           The  format  of  the  dynamic  list is the same as the version node
           without scope and node name.  See VERSION for more information.

       --dynamic-list-data
           Include all global data symbols to the dynamic list.

       --dynamic-list-cpp-new
           Provide the builtin dynamic list for C++ operator new  and  delete.
           It is mainly useful for building shared libstdc++.

       --dynamic-list-cpp-typeinfo
           Provide   the   builtin   dynamic   list   for   C++  runtime  type
           identification.

       --check-sections
       --no-check-sections
           Asks the linker not to check section addresses after they have been
           assigned  to  see  if  there are any overlaps.  Normally the linker
           will perform this check, and if  it  finds  any  overlaps  it  will
           produce  suitable  error messages.  The linker does know about, and
           does  make  allowances  for  sections  in  overlays.   The  default
           behaviour  can  be  restored  by  using  the  command  line  switch
           --check-sections.

       --cref
           Output a cross reference table.  If a  linker  map  file  is  being
           generated,  the  cross  reference table is printed to the map file.
           Otherwise, it is printed on the standard output.

           The format of the table is intentionally simple, so that it may  be
           easily processed by a script if necessary.  The symbols are printed
           out, sorted by name.  For each symbol, a  list  of  file  names  is
           given.   If  the  symbol  is  defined, the first file listed is the
           location of the definition.  The remaining files contain references
           to the symbol.

       --no-define-common
           This option inhibits the assignment of addresses to common symbols.
           The script command "INHIBIT_COMMON_ALLOCATION" has the same effect.

           The  --no-define-common  option  allows  decoupling the decision to
           assign addresses to Common symbols from the choice  of  the  output
           file type; otherwise a non-Relocatable output type forces assigning
           addresses  to  Common  symbols.   Using  --no-define-common  allows
           Common  symbols  that  are  referenced  from a shared library to be
           assigned addresses only in the main program.  This  eliminates  the
           unused duplicate space in the shared library, and also prevents any
           possible confusion over resolving to the wrong duplicate when there
           are  many dynamic modules with specialized search paths for runtime
           symbol resolution.

       --defsym symbol=expression
           Create a global symbol in the output file, containing the  absolute
           address given by expression.  You may use this option as many times
           as necessary to define multiple symbols in  the  command  line.   A
           limited  form of arithmetic is supported for the expression in this
           context: you may give a hexadecimal constant  or  the  name  of  an
           existing  symbol, or use "+" and "-" to add or subtract hexadecimal
           constants or symbols.  If  you  need  more  elaborate  expressions,
           consider  using  the  linker command language from a script.  Note:
           there should be no white space  between  symbol,  the  equals  sign
           ("="), and expression.

       --demangle[=style]
       --no-demangle
           These  options  control  whether  to demangle symbol names in error
           messages and other output.  When the linker is told to demangle, it
           tries  to  present  symbol  names  in a readable fashion: it strips
           leading underscores if they are used by the object file format, and
           converts  C++  mangled  symbol  names  into  user  readable  names.
           Different compilers have different mangling styles.   The  optional
           demangling  style  argument  can  be  used to choose an appropriate
           demangling style for your compiler.  The linker  will  demangle  by
           default unless the environment variable COLLECT_NO_DEMANGLE is set.
           These options may be used to override the default.

       --dynamic-linker file
           Set the name of the dynamic linker.  This is only  meaningful  when
           generating dynamically linked ELF executables.  The default dynamic
           linker is normally correct; don’t use this unless you know what you
           are doing.

       --fatal-warnings
       --no-fatal-warnings
           Treat  all  warnings  as  errors.   The  default  behaviour  can be
           restored with the option --no-fatal-warnings.

       --force-exe-suffix
           Make sure that an output file has a .exe suffix.

           If a successfully built fully linked output file does  not  have  a
           ".exe"  or ".dll" suffix, this option forces the linker to copy the
           output file to one of the same name  with  a  ".exe"  suffix.  This
           option  is  useful  when  using  unmodified  Unix  makefiles  on  a
           Microsoft Windows host, since some versions of Windows won’t run an
           image unless it ends in a ".exe" suffix.

       --gc-sections
       --no-gc-sections
           Enable  garbage collection of unused input sections.  It is ignored
           on targets that do not support this option.  The default  behaviour
           (of  not  performing  this  garbage  collection) can be restored by
           specifying --no-gc-sections on the command line.

           --gc-sections decides which input sections are  used  by  examining
           symbols  and  relocations.  The section containing the entry symbol
           and all sections containing symbols undefined on  the  command-line
           will  be  kept,  as  will sections containing symbols referenced by
           dynamic objects.  Note that when  building  shared  libraries,  the
           linker  must  assume  that  any visible symbol is referenced.  Once
           this initial set  of  sections  has  been  determined,  the  linker
           recursively   marks   as  used  any  section  referenced  by  their
           relocations.  See --entry and --undefined.

           This option can be set when doing  a  partial  link  (enabled  with
           option  -r).   In  this  case  the  root  of  symbols  kept must be
           explicitely specified either by an --entry or --undefined option or
           by a "ENTRY" command in the linker script.

       --print-gc-sections
       --no-print-gc-sections
           List  all  sections  removed by garbage collection.  The listing is
           printed on stderr.   This  option  is  only  effective  if  garbage
           collection  has  been  enabled  via the --gc-sections) option.  The
           default behaviour (of not listing the sections  that  are  removed)
           can be restored by specifying --no-print-gc-sections on the command
           line.

       --help
           Print a summary of the command-line options on the standard  output
           and exit.

       --target-help
           Print  a  summary  of  all  target specific options on the standard
           output and exit.

       -Map mapfile
           Print a link map to the file mapfile.  See the description  of  the
           -M option, above.

       --no-keep-memory
           ld  normally  optimizes  for speed over memory usage by caching the
           symbol tables of input files in memory.  This option  tells  ld  to
           instead  optimize  for memory usage, by rereading the symbol tables
           as necessary.  This may be required if ld runs out of memory  space
           while linking a large executable.

       --no-undefined
       -z defs
           Report  unresolved  symbol  references  from  regular object files.
           This is done even if the linker is creating a  non-symbolic  shared
           library.   The  switch  --[no-]allow-shlib-undefined  controls  the
           behaviour for  reporting  unresolved  references  found  in  shared
           libraries being linked in.

       --allow-multiple-definition
       -z muldefs
           Normally  when  a symbol is defined multiple times, the linker will
           report a fatal error. These options allow multiple definitions  and
           the first definition will be used.

       --allow-shlib-undefined
       --no-allow-shlib-undefined
           Allows  (the  default)  or  disallows  undefined  symbols in shared
           libraries.  This switch is similar to --no-undefined except that it
           determines the behaviour when the undefined symbols are in a shared
           library rather than a regular object file.  It does not affect  how
           undefined symbols in regular object files are handled.

           The  reason that --allow-shlib-undefined is the default is that the
           shared library being specified at link time may not be the same  as
           the  one  that  is  available  at  load  time, so the symbols might
           actually be resolvable at load time.  Plus there are some  systems,
           (eg  BeOS)  where  undefined symbols in shared libraries is normal.
           (The kernel patches them at load time to select which  function  is
           most  appropriate  for  the current architecture.  This is used for
           example to dynamically  select  an  appropriate  memset  function).
           Apparently  it  is  also  normal  for HPPA shared libraries to have
           undefined symbols.

       --no-undefined-version
           Normally when a symbol has an undefined version,  the  linker  will
           ignore it. This option disallows symbols with undefined version and
           a fatal error will be issued instead.

       --default-symver
           Create  and  use  a  default  symbol  version  (the   soname)   for
           unversioned exported symbols.

       --default-imported-symver
           Create   and   use  a  default  symbol  version  (the  soname)  for
           unversioned imported symbols.

       --no-warn-mismatch
           Normally ld will give an error if you try to  link  together  input
           files  that  are  mismatched  for some reason, perhaps because they
           have been  compiled  for  different  processors  or  for  different
           endiannesses.   This option tells ld that it should silently permit
           such possible errors.  This option should only be used  with  care,
           in  cases when you have taken some special action that ensures that
           the linker errors are inappropriate.

       --no-warn-search-mismatch
           Normally ld will give a warning if it finds an incompatible library
           during a library search.  This option silences the warning.

       --no-whole-archive
           Turn  off  the  effect of the --whole-archive option for subsequent
           archive files.

       --noinhibit-exec
           Retain the executable output file  whenever  it  is  still  usable.
           Normally,  the  linker  will  not  produce  an  output  file  if it
           encounters errors during the link process; it exits without writing
           an output file when it issues any error whatsoever.

       -nostdlib
           Only search library directories explicitly specified on the command
           line.  Library directories specified in linker  scripts  (including
           linker scripts specified on the command line) are ignored.

       --oformat output-format
           ld  may be configured to support more than one kind of object file.
           If your ld is configured this way, you can use the --oformat option
           to specify the binary format for the output object file.  Even when
           ld is configured to support alternative object formats,  you  don’t
           usually need to specify this, as ld should be configured to produce
           as a default output format the most usual format on  each  machine.
           output-format  is  a  text  string, the name of a particular format
           supported by the BFD libraries.  (You can list the available binary
           formats  with  objdump -i.)  The script command "OUTPUT_FORMAT" can
           also specify the output format, but this option overrides it.

       -pie
       --pic-executable
           Create a position independent executable.  This is  currently  only
           supported  on  ELF platforms.  Position independent executables are
           similar to shared libraries in  that  they  are  relocated  by  the
           dynamic  linker  to  the  virtual  address  the OS chooses for them
           (which can vary  between  invocations).   Like  normal  dynamically
           linked  executables they can be executed and symbols defined in the
           executable cannot be overridden by shared libraries.

       -qmagic
           This option is ignored for Linux compatibility.

       -Qy This option is ignored for SVR4 compatibility.

       --relax
           An option with machine dependent  effects.   This  option  is  only
           supported on a few targets.

           On some platforms, the --relax option performs global optimizations
           that become possible when the linker  resolves  addressing  in  the
           program,  such  as  relaxing  address  modes  and  synthesizing new
           instructions in the output object file.

           On some platforms these link time  global  optimizations  may  make
           symbolic debugging of the resulting executable impossible.  This is
           known to be the case for the Matsushita MN10200 and MN10300  family
           of processors.

           On  platforms where this is not supported, --relax is accepted, but
           ignored.

       --retain-symbols-file filename
           Retain only the symbols listed in the file filename, discarding all
           others.   filename  is simply a flat file, with one symbol name per
           line.  This option is especially useful in  environments  (such  as
           VxWorks)   where   a  large  global  symbol  table  is  accumulated
           gradually, to conserve run-time memory.

           --retain-symbols-file  does  not  discard  undefined  symbols,   or
           symbols needed for relocations.

           You  may  only  specify  --retain-symbols-file  once in the command
           line.  It overrides -s and -S.

       -rpath dir
           Add a directory to the runtime library search path.  This  is  used
           when  linking  an  ELF  executable with shared objects.  All -rpath
           arguments are concatenated and passed to the runtime linker,  which
           uses  them  to locate shared objects at runtime.  The -rpath option
           is also used when locating  shared  objects  which  are  needed  by
           shared objects explicitly included in the link; see the description
           of the -rpath-link option.  If -rpath is not used when  linking  an
           ELF   executable,   the   contents   of  the  environment  variable
           "LD_RUN_PATH" will be used if it is defined.

           The -rpath option may also be used on SunOS.  By default, on SunOS,
           the  linker  will  form  a  runtime  search patch out of all the -L
           options it is given.  If a  -rpath  option  is  used,  the  runtime
           search  path  will  be formed exclusively using the -rpath options,
           ignoring the -L options.  This can be useful when using gcc,  which
           adds many -L options which may be on NFS mounted file systems.

           For  compatibility  with  other  ELF  linkers,  if the -R option is
           followed by a directory name,  rather  than  a  file  name,  it  is
           treated as the -rpath option.

       -rpath-link DIR
           When  using  ELF  or SunOS, one shared library may require another.
           This happens when an "ld -shared" link includes a shared library as
           one of the input files.

           When   the  linker  encounters  such  a  dependency  when  doing  a
           non-shared, non-relocatable link,  it  will  automatically  try  to
           locate  the  required shared library and include it in the link, if
           it is not included explicitly.  In such  a  case,  the  -rpath-link
           option  specifies  the  first  set  of  directories to search.  The
           -rpath-link option may specify a sequence of directory names either
           by  specifying a list of names separated by colons, or by appearing
           multiple times.

           This option should be used with caution as it overrides the  search
           path  that  may  have  been hard compiled into a shared library. In
           such a case it is  possible  to  use  unintentionally  a  different
           search path than the runtime linker would do.

           The  linker  uses  the  following  search  paths to locate required
           shared libraries:

           1.  Any directories specified by -rpath-link options.

           2.  Any directories specified by -rpath  options.   The  difference
               between -rpath and -rpath-link is that directories specified by
               -rpath options are included  in  the  executable  and  used  at
               runtime,  whereas  the  -rpath-link option is only effective at
               link time. Searching -rpath in this way is  only  supported  by
               native  linkers  and  cross  linkers which have been configured
               with the --with-sysroot option.

           3.  On an ELF  system,  for  native  linkers,  if  the  -rpath  and
               -rpath-link  options  were not used, search the contents of the
               environment variable "LD_RUN_PATH".

           4.  On SunOS, if  the  -rpath  option  was  not  used,  search  any
               directories specified using -L options.

           5.  For a native linker, the search the contents of the environment
               variable "LD_LIBRARY_PATH".

           6.  For a native ELF linker, the  directories  in  "DT_RUNPATH"  or
               "DT_RPATH"   of  a  shared  library  are  searched  for  shared
               libraries needed by it. The "DT_RPATH" entries are  ignored  if
               "DT_RUNPATH" entries exist.

           7.  The default directories, normally /lib and /usr/lib.

           8.  For   a   native   linker   on  an  ELF  system,  if  the  file
               /etc/ld.so.conf exists, the list of directories found  in  that
               file.

           If  the required shared library is not found, the linker will issue
           a warning and continue with the link.

       -shared
       -Bshareable
           Create a shared library.  This is currently only supported on  ELF,
           XCOFF and SunOS platforms.  On SunOS, the linker will automatically
           create a shared library if the -e option is not used and there  are
           undefined symbols in the link.

       --sort-common [= ascendingdescending]
           This  option  tells  ld  to sort the common symbols by alignment in
           ascending  or  descending  order  when  it  places  them   in   the
           appropriate  output sections.  The symbol alignments considered are
           sixteen-byte  or  larger,  eight-byte,  four-byte,  two-byte,   and
           one-byte.  This is to prevent gaps between symbols due to alignment
           constraints.  If no sorting order  is  specified,  then  descending
           order is assumed.

       --sort-section name
           This  option  will  apply  "SORT_BY_NAME"  to  all wildcard section
           patterns in the linker script.

       --sort-section alignment
           This option will apply "SORT_BY_ALIGNMENT" to all wildcard  section
           patterns in the linker script.

       --split-by-file [size]
           Similar  to  --split-by-reloc  but creates a new output section for
           each input file when size is reached.  size defaults to a size of 1
           if not given.

       --split-by-reloc [count]
           Tries  to  creates  extra  sections  in  the output file so that no
           single  output  section  in  the  file  contains  more  than  count
           relocations.  This is useful when generating huge relocatable files
           for downloading into certain real time kernels with the COFF object
           file   format;   since   COFF  cannot  represent  more  than  65535
           relocations in a single section.  Note that this will fail to  work
           with  object  file formats which do not support arbitrary sections.
           The  linker  will  not  split  up  individual  input  sections  for
           redistribution,  so  if  a  single input section contains more than
           count  relocations  one  output  section  will  contain  that  many
           relocations.  count defaults to a value of 32768.

       --stats
           Compute  and  display statistics about the operation of the linker,
           such as execution time and memory usage.

       --sysroot=directory
           Use directory as  the  location  of  the  sysroot,  overriding  the
           configure-time  default.   This option is only supported by linkers
           that were configured using --with-sysroot.

       --traditional-format
           For some targets, the output of ld is different in some  ways  from
           the output of some existing linker.  This switch requests ld to use
           the traditional format instead.

           For example, on SunOS, ld combines duplicate entries in the  symbol
           string table.  This can reduce the size of an output file with full
           debugging information by over 30 percent.  Unfortunately, the SunOS
           "dbx"  program  can  not  read  the resulting program ("gdb" has no
           trouble).  The --traditional-format switch tells ld to not  combine
           duplicate entries.

       --section-start sectionname=org
           Locate  a  section in the output file at the absolute address given
           by org.  You may use this option as  many  times  as  necessary  to
           locate multiple sections in the command line.  org must be a single
           hexadecimal integer; for compatibility with other linkers, you  may
           omit  the  leading  0x  usually associated with hexadecimal values.
           Note: there should be  no  white  space  between  sectionname,  the
           equals sign ("="), and org.

       -Tbss org
       -Tdata org
       -Ttext org
           Same  as  --section-start,  with  ".bss", ".data" or ".text" as the
           sectionname.

       --unresolved-symbols=method
           Determine  how  to  handle  unresolved  symbols.   There  are  four
           possible values for method:

           ignore-all
               Do not report any unresolved symbols.

           report-all
               Report all unresolved symbols.  This is the default.

           ignore-in-object-files
               Report   unresolved   symbols  that  are  contained  in  shared
               libraries, but ignore them if they  come  from  regular  object
               files.

           ignore-in-shared-libs
               Report  unresolved symbols that come from regular object files,
               but ignore them if they come from shared libraries.   This  can
               be  useful  when creating a dynamic binary and it is known that
               all the shared libraries that  it  should  be  referencing  are
               included on the linker’s command line.

           The  behaviour  for  shared  libraries  on  their  own  can also be
           controlled by the --[no-]allow-shlib-undefined option.

           Normally the  linker  will  generate  an  error  message  for  each
           reported unresolved symbol but the option --warn-unresolved-symbols
           can change this to a warning.

       --dll-verbose
       --verbose
           Display the version number for ld and list  the  linker  emulations
           supported.   Display  which  input  files can and cannot be opened.
           Display the linker script being used by the linker.

       --version-script=version-scriptfile
           Specify the name of a  version  script  to  the  linker.   This  is
           typically used when creating shared libraries to specify additional
           information about the  version  hierarchy  for  the  library  being
           created.   This  option  is  only meaningful on ELF platforms which
           support shared libraries.

       --warn-common
           Warn when a common symbol is combined with another common symbol or
           with  a symbol definition.  Unix linkers allow this somewhat sloppy
           practise, but linkers on some other operating systems do not.  This
           option  allows you to find potential problems from combining global
           symbols.  Unfortunately, some C libraries use this practise, so you
           may  get some warnings about symbols in the libraries as well as in
           your programs.

           There are three kinds of global  symbols,  illustrated  here  by  C
           examples:

           int i = 1;
               A definition, which goes in the initialized data section of the
               output file.

           extern int i;
               An undefined reference, which does not allocate  space.   There
               must be either a definition or a common symbol for the variable
               somewhere.

           int i;
               A common symbol.  If  there  are  only  (one  or  more)  common
               symbols  for a variable, it goes in the uninitialized data area
               of the output file.  The linker merges multiple common  symbols
               for  the  same  variable  into a single symbol.  If they are of
               different sizes, it picks the largest size.  The linker turns a
               common  symbol  into a declaration, if there is a definition of
               the same variable.

           The --warn-common option can produce five kinds of warnings.   Each
           warning consists of a pair of lines: the first describes the symbol
           just encountered, and the  second  describes  the  previous  symbol
           encountered  with  the  same  name.  One or both of the two symbols
           will be a common symbol.

           1.  Turning a common symbol into  a  reference,  because  there  is
               already a definition for the symbol.

                       <file>(<section>): warning: common of ‘<symbol>’
                          overridden by definition
                       <file>(<section>): warning: defined here

           2.  Turning  a  common  symbol  into  a  reference, because a later
               definition for the symbol is encountered.  This is the same  as
               the previous case, except that the symbols are encountered in a
               different order.

                       <file>(<section>): warning: definition of ‘<symbol>’
                          overriding common
                       <file>(<section>): warning: common is here

           3.  Merging a common  symbol  with  a  previous  same-sized  common
               symbol.

                       <file>(<section>): warning: multiple common
                          of ‘<symbol>’
                       <file>(<section>): warning: previous common is here

           4.  Merging a common symbol with a previous larger common symbol.

                       <file>(<section>): warning: common of ‘<symbol>’
                          overridden by larger common
                       <file>(<section>): warning: larger common is here

           5.  Merging  a common symbol with a previous smaller common symbol.
               This is the same as the previous case, except that the  symbols
               are encountered in a different order.

                       <file>(<section>): warning: common of ‘<symbol>’
                          overriding smaller common
                       <file>(<section>): warning: smaller common is here

       --warn-constructors
           Warn  if any global constructors are used.  This is only useful for
           a few object file formats.  For  formats  like  COFF  or  ELF,  the
           linker can not detect the use of global constructors.

       --warn-multiple-gp
           Warn  if  multiple global pointer values are required in the output
           file.  This is only meaningful for certain processors, such as  the
           Alpha.  Specifically, some processors put large-valued constants in
           a special section.  A special register (the global pointer)  points
           into  the  middle  of this section, so that constants can be loaded
           efficiently via a base-register relative  addressing  mode.   Since
           the  offset  in base-register relative mode is fixed and relatively
           small (e.g., 16 bits), this limits the maximum size of the constant
           pool.   Thus,  in  large  programs,  it  is  often necessary to use
           multiple global pointer values in order to be able to  address  all
           possible  constants.   This  option  causes  a warning to be issued
           whenever this case occurs.

       --warn-once
           Only warn once for each undefined  symbol,  rather  than  once  per
           module which refers to it.

       --warn-section-align
           Warn  if  the  address  of  an output section is changed because of
           alignment.  Typically, the  alignment  will  be  set  by  an  input
           section.   The  address  will  only be changed if it not explicitly
           specified; that is, if the "SECTIONS" command does  not  specify  a
           start address for the section.

       --warn-shared-textrel
           Warn if the linker adds a DT_TEXTREL to a shared object.

       --warn-unresolved-symbols
           If  the  linker  is  going  to report an unresolved symbol (see the
           option --unresolved-symbols) it will normally  generate  an  error.
           This option makes it generate a warning instead.

       --error-unresolved-symbols
           This  restores  the linker’s default behaviour of generating errors
           when it is reporting unresolved symbols.

       --whole-archive
           For  each  archive  mentioned  on  the  command  line   after   the
           --whole-archive option, include every object file in the archive in
           the link, rather than searching the archive for the required object
           files.  This is normally used to turn an archive file into a shared
           library, forcing every object  to  be  included  in  the  resulting
           shared library.  This option may be used more than once.

           Two  notes when using this option from gcc: First, gcc doesn’t know
           about this option, so you have to use -Wl,-whole-archive.   Second,
           don’t  forget  to  use  -Wl,-no-whole-archive  after  your  list of
           archives, because gcc will add its own list  of  archives  to  your
           link and you may not want this flag to affect those as well.

       --wrap symbol
           Use  a  wrapper  function  for  symbol.  Any undefined reference to
           symbol  will  be  resolved  to  "__wrap_symbol".    Any   undefined
           reference to "__real_symbol" will be resolved to symbol.

           This  can  be used to provide a wrapper for a system function.  The
           wrapper function should be called "__wrap_symbol".  If it wishes to
           call the system function, it should call "__real_symbol".

           Here is a trivial example:

                   void *
                   __wrap_malloc (size_t c)
                   {
                     printf ("malloc called with %zu\n", c);
                     return __real_malloc (c);
                   }

           If you link other code with this file using --wrap malloc, then all
           calls to "malloc" will call the function  "__wrap_malloc"  instead.
           The  call  to "__real_malloc" in "__wrap_malloc" will call the real
           "malloc" function.

           You may wish to provide a "__real_malloc" function as well, so that
           links  without the --wrap option will succeed.  If you do this, you
           should not put the definition of "__real_malloc" in the  same  file
           as  "__wrap_malloc";  if you do, the assembler may resolve the call
           before the linker has a chance to wrap it to "malloc".

       --eh-frame-hdr
           Request   creation   of    ".eh_frame_hdr"    section    and    ELF
           "PT_GNU_EH_FRAME" segment header.

       --enable-new-dtags
       --disable-new-dtags
           This  linker  can create the new dynamic tags in ELF. But the older
           ELF   systems   may   not   understand   them.   If   you   specify
           --enable-new-dtags, the dynamic tags will be created as needed.  If
           you specify  --disable-new-dtags,  no  new  dynamic  tags  will  be
           created.  By  default,  the  new dynamic tags are not created. Note
           that those options are only available for ELF systems.

       --hash-size=number
           Set the default size of the linker’s hash tables to a prime  number
           close  to  number.   Increasing this value can reduce the length of
           time it takes the linker to perform its tasks, at  the  expense  of
           increasing  the  linker’s  memory requirements.  Similarly reducing
           this value can reduce the memory requirements  at  the  expense  of
           speed.

       --hash-style=style
           Set the type of linker’s hash table(s).  style can be either "sysv"
           for  classic  ELF  ".hash"  section,  "gnu"  for  new   style   GNU
           ".gnu.hash"  section or "both" for both the classic ELF ".hash" and
           new style GNU ".gnu.hash" hash tables.  The default is "sysv".

       --reduce-memory-overheads
           This option reduces memory  requirements  at  ld  runtime,  at  the
           expense  of  linking  speed.  This was introduced to select the old
           O(n^2) algorithm for link map file generation, rather than the  new
           O(n) algorithm which uses about 40% more memory for symbol storage.

           Another effect of the switch is to set the default hash table  size
           to  1021,  which  again saves memory at the cost of lengthening the
           linker’s run time.  This is not done  however  if  the  --hash-size
           switch has been used.

           The  --reduce-memory-overheads switch may be also be used to enable
           other tradeoffs in future versions of the linker.

       --build-id
       --build-id=style
           Request creation of ".note.gnu.build-id"  ELF  note  section.   The
           contents  of the note are unique bits identifying this linked file.
           style can be "uuid" to use 128 random bits, "sha1" to use a 160-bit
           SHA1  hash  on the normative parts of the output contents, "md5" to
           use a 128-bit MD5  hash  on  the  normative  parts  of  the  output
           contents,  or "0xhexstring" to use a chosen bit string specified as
           an even number  of  hexadecimal  digits  ("-"  and  ":"  characters
           between  digit  pairs are ignored).  If style is omitted, "sha1" is
           used.

           The "md5" and "sha1" styles produces an identifier that  is  always
           the  same in an identical output file, but will be unique among all
           nonidentical output files.  It is not intended to be compared as  a
           checksum  for  the  file’s  contents.  A linked file may be changed
           later by other tools, but the build ID bit string  identifying  the
           original linked file does not change.

           Passing "none" for style disables the setting from any "--build-id"
           options earlier on the command line.

       The i386 PE linker supports the -shared option, which causes the output
       to   be  a  dynamically  linked  library  (DLL)  instead  of  a  normal
       executable.  You should name the  output  "*.dll"  when  you  use  this
       option.   In  addition,  the linker fully supports the standard "*.def"
       files, which may be specified on the linker command line like an object
       file  (in  fact, it should precede archives it exports symbols from, to
       ensure that they get linked in, just like a normal object file).

       In addition to the options common to all targets, the  i386  PE  linker
       support  additional  command line options that are specific to the i386
       PE target.  Options that take values may be separated from their values
       by either a space or an equals sign.

       --add-stdcall-alias
           If  given, symbols with a stdcall suffix (@nn) will be exported as-
           is and also with the suffix stripped.  [This option is specific  to
           the i386 PE targeted port of the linker]

       --base-file file
           Use  file as the name of a file in which to save the base addresses
           of all the relocations needed for  generating  DLLs  with  dlltool.
           [This is an i386 PE specific option]

       --dll
           Create  a  DLL  instead  of a regular executable.  You may also use
           -shared or specify a "LIBRARY"  in  a  given  ".def"  file.   [This
           option is specific to the i386 PE targeted port of the linker]

       --enable-stdcall-fixup
       --disable-stdcall-fixup
           If  the link finds a symbol that it cannot resolve, it will attempt
           to do "fuzzy linking" by looking for another  defined  symbol  that
           differs  only  in  the format of the symbol name (cdecl vs stdcall)
           and will resolve that symbol by linking to the match.  For example,
           the  undefined  symbol  "_foo"  might  be  linked  to  the function
           "_foo@12", or the undefined symbol "_bar@16" might be linked to the
           function  "_bar".   When the linker does this, it prints a warning,
           since it normally should have failed to link, but sometimes  import
           libraries  generated from third-party dlls may need this feature to
           be usable.  If you specify --enable-stdcall-fixup, this feature  is
           fully  enabled  and  warnings  are  not  printed.   If  you specify
           --disable-stdcall-fixup,  this  feature  is   disabled   and   such
           mismatches  are  considered to be errors.  [This option is specific
           to the i386 PE targeted port of the linker]

       --export-all-symbols
           If given, all global symbols in the objects used  to  build  a  DLL
           will  be  exported  by  the  DLL.  Note that this is the default if
           there otherwise wouldn’t be any exported symbols.  When symbols are
           explicitly  exported  via  DEF  files  or  implicitly  exported via
           function attributes, the default is to  not  export  anything  else
           unless  this  option is given.  Note that the symbols "DllMain@12",
           "DllEntryPoint@0", "DllMainCRTStartup@12",  and  "impure_ptr"  will
           not  be  automatically exported.  Also, symbols imported from other
           DLLs will not be re-exported, nor will symbols specifying the DLL’s
           internal  layout  such  as  those beginning with "_head_" or ending
           with "_iname".  In addition, no symbols from "libgcc",  "libstd++",
           "libmingw32",  or  "crtX.o"  will be exported.  Symbols whose names
           begin with "__rtti_" or "__builtin_" will not be exported, to  help
           with  C++  DLLs.   Finally,  there  is an extensive list of cygwin-
           private symbols that are not exported (obviously, this  applies  on
           when building DLLs for cygwin targets).  These cygwin-excludes are:
           "_cygwin_dll_entry@12",                    "_cygwin_crt0_common@8",
           "_cygwin_noncygwin_dll_entry@12",      "_fmode",     "_impure_ptr",
           "cygwin_attach_dll",     "cygwin_premain0",      "cygwin_premain1",
           "cygwin_premain2",  "cygwin_premain3", and "environ".  [This option
           is specific to the i386 PE targeted port of the linker]

       --exclude-symbols symbol,symbol,...
           Specifies a list of  symbols  which  should  not  be  automatically
           exported.   The  symbol names may be delimited by commas or colons.
           [This option is specific to  the  i386  PE  targeted  port  of  the
           linker]

       --file-alignment
           Specify the file alignment.  Sections in the file will always begin
           at file offsets which are multiples of this number.  This  defaults
           to  512.   [This option is specific to the i386 PE targeted port of
           the linker]

       --heap reserve
       --heap reserve,commit
           Specify the number of bytes of memory to  reserve  (and  optionally
           commit)  to  be  used as heap for this program.  The default is 1Mb
           reserved, 4K committed.  [This option is specific to  the  i386  PE
           targeted port of the linker]

       --image-base value
           Use  value as the base address of your program or dll.  This is the
           lowest memory location that will be used when your program  or  dll
           is  loaded.  To reduce the need to relocate and improve performance
           of your dlls, each should  have  a  unique  base  address  and  not
           overlap  any  other dlls.  The default is 0x400000 for executables,
           and 0x10000000 for dlls.  [This option is specific to the  i386  PE
           targeted port of the linker]

       --kill-at
           If  given, the stdcall suffixes (@nn) will be stripped from symbols
           before they are exported.  [This option is specific to the i386  PE
           targeted port of the linker]

       --large-address-aware
           If given, the appropriate bit in the "Characteristics" field of the
           COFF header is  set  to  indicate  that  this  executable  supports
           virtual addresses greater than 2 gigabytes.  This should be used in
           conjunction with the /3GB or /USERVA=value megabytes switch in  the
           "[operating systems]" section of the BOOT.INI.  Otherwise, this bit
           has no effect.  [This option is specific to PE  targeted  ports  of
           the linker]

       --major-image-version value
           Sets  the  major  number  of  the  "image version".  Defaults to 1.
           [This option is specific to  the  i386  PE  targeted  port  of  the
           linker]

       --major-os-version value
           Sets  the  major number of the "os version".  Defaults to 4.  [This
           option is specific to the i386 PE targeted port of the linker]

       --major-subsystem-version value
           Sets the major number of the "subsystem version".  Defaults  to  4.
           [This  option  is  specific  to  the  i386  PE targeted port of the
           linker]

       --minor-image-version value
           Sets the minor number of  the  "image  version".   Defaults  to  0.
           [This  option  is  specific  to  the  i386  PE targeted port of the
           linker]

       --minor-os-version value
           Sets the minor number of the "os version".  Defaults to  0.   [This
           option is specific to the i386 PE targeted port of the linker]

       --minor-subsystem-version value
           Sets  the  minor number of the "subsystem version".  Defaults to 0.
           [This option is specific to  the  i386  PE  targeted  port  of  the
           linker]

       --output-def file
           The  linker will create the file file which will contain a DEF file
           corresponding to the DLL the linker is generating.  This  DEF  file
           (which  should  be  called "*.def") may be used to create an import
           library  with  "dlltool"  or  may  be  used  as  a   reference   to
           automatically  or  implicitly  exported  symbols.   [This option is
           specific to the i386 PE targeted port of the linker]

       --out-implib file
           The linker will create the file file which will contain  an  import
           lib  corresponding to the DLL the linker is generating. This import
           lib (which should be called "*.dll.a" or "*.a" may be used to  link
           clients against the generated DLL; this behaviour makes it possible
           to skip a separate "dlltool" import library creation  step.   [This
           option is specific to the i386 PE targeted port of the linker]

       --enable-auto-image-base
           Automatically  choose  the  image  base  for  DLLs,  unless  one is
           specified using the  "--image-base"  argument.   By  using  a  hash
           generated  from  the  dllname to create unique image bases for each
           DLL, in-memory collisions and relocations which can  delay  program
           execution  are  avoided.   [This  option is specific to the i386 PE
           targeted port of the linker]

       --disable-auto-image-base
           Do not automatically generate a unique image base.  If there is  no
           user-specified  image  base  ("--image-base") then use the platform
           default.  [This option is specific to the i386 PE targeted port  of
           the linker]

       --dll-search-prefix string
           When linking dynamically to a dll without an import library, search
           for "<string><basename>.dll" in preference to  "lib<basename>.dll".
           This  behaviour  allows easy distinction between DLLs built for the
           various  "subplatforms":  native,  cygwin,  uwin,  pw,  etc.    For
           instance,  cygwin  DLLs  typically  use  "--dll-search-prefix=cyg".
           [This option is specific to  the  i386  PE  targeted  port  of  the
           linker]

       --enable-auto-import
           Do  sophisticated  linking of "_symbol" to "__imp__symbol" for DATA
           imports from DLLs, and create the necessary thunking  symbols  when
           building the import libraries with those DATA exports. Note: Use of
           the ’auto-import’ extension will cause  the  text  section  of  the
           image  file  to  be made writable. This does not conform to the PE-
           COFF format specification published by Microsoft.

           Note - use of the ’auto-import’ extension will also cause read only
           data  which  would normally be placed into the .rdata section to be
           placed into the .data section instead.  This is in  order  to  work
           around   a   problem   with   consts   that   is   described  here:
           http://www.cygwin.com/ml/cygwin/2004-09/msg01101.html

           Using ’auto-import’ generally will ’just work’ -- but sometimes you
           may see this message:

           "variable   ’<var>’   can’t   be  auto-imported.  Please  read  the
           documentation for ld’s "--enable-auto-import" for details."

           This message occurs when some (sub)expression accesses  an  address
           ultimately  given  by the sum of two constants (Win32 import tables
           only allow one).  Instances where this may occur  include  accesses
           to  member  fields of struct variables imported from a DLL, as well
           as using a constant index into an array variable  imported  from  a
           DLL.   Any multiword variable (arrays, structs, long long, etc) may
           trigger this error condition.  However,  regardless  of  the  exact
           data type of the offending exported variable, ld will always detect
           it, issue the warning, and exit.

           There are several ways to address this  difficulty,  regardless  of
           the data type of the exported variable:

           One way is to use --enable-runtime-pseudo-reloc switch. This leaves
           the task of adjusting references in your client  code  for  runtime
           environment,  so  this  method  works only when runtime environment
           supports this feature.

           A second solution is to force  one  of  the  ’constants’  to  be  a
           variable  --  that  is, unknown and un-optimizable at compile time.
           For arrays, there are two possibilities: a) make the  indexee  (the
           array’s  address)  a  variable,  or  b) make the ’constant’ index a
           variable.  Thus:

                   extern type extern_array[];
                   extern_array[1] -->
                      { volatile type *t=extern_array; t[1] }

           or

                   extern type extern_array[];
                   extern_array[1] -->
                      { volatile int t=1; extern_array[t] }

           For structs (and most other multiword data types) the  only  option
           is  to  make  the  struct  itself  (or  the  long long, or the ...)
           variable:

                   extern struct s extern_struct;
                   extern_struct.field -->
                      { volatile struct s *t=&extern_struct; t->field }

           or

                   extern long long extern_ll;
                   extern_ll -->
                     { volatile long long * local_ll=&extern_ll; *local_ll }

           A third method of  dealing  with  this  difficulty  is  to  abandon
           ’auto-import’   for   the   offending   symbol  and  mark  it  with
           "__declspec(dllimport)".  However, in practise that requires  using
           compile-time  #defines  to indicate whether you are building a DLL,
           building  client  code  that  will  link  to  the  DLL,  or  merely
           building/linking  to  a  static  library.    In  making  the choice
           between the various methods of resolving the ’direct  address  with
           constant  offset’  problem,  you should consider typical real-world
           usage:

           Original:

                   --foo.h
                   extern int arr[];
                   --foo.c
                   #include "foo.h"
                   void main(int argc, char **argv){
                     printf("%d\n",arr[1]);
                   }

           Solution 1:

                   --foo.h
                   extern int arr[];
                   --foo.c
                   #include "foo.h"
                   void main(int argc, char **argv){
                     /* This workaround is for win32 and cygwin; do not "optimize" */
                     volatile int *parr = arr;
                     printf("%d\n",parr[1]);
                   }

           Solution 2:

                   --foo.h
                   /* Note: auto-export is assumed (no __declspec(dllexport)) */
                   #if (defined(_WIN32) ││ defined(__CYGWIN__)) && \
                     !(defined(FOO_BUILD_DLL) ││ defined(FOO_STATIC))
                   #define FOO_IMPORT __declspec(dllimport)
                   #else
                   #define FOO_IMPORT
                   #endif
                   extern FOO_IMPORT int arr[];
                   --foo.c
                   #include "foo.h"
                   void main(int argc, char **argv){
                     printf("%d\n",arr[1]);
                   }

           A fourth way to avoid this problem is to re-code  your  library  to
           use  a  functional  interface  rather than a data interface for the
           offending  variables  (e.g.  set_foo()   and   get_foo()   accessor
           functions).   [This option is specific to the i386 PE targeted port
           of the linker]

       --disable-auto-import
           Do  not  attempt  to  do  sophisticated  linking  of  "_symbol"  to
           "__imp__symbol"  for  DATA  imports  from  DLLs.   [This  option is
           specific to the i386 PE targeted port of the linker]

       --enable-runtime-pseudo-reloc
           If your code contains expressions described in --enable-auto-import
           section,  that is, DATA imports from DLL with non-zero offset, this
           switch will create a vector of ’runtime pseudo  relocations’  which
           can  be  used  by  runtime environment to adjust references to such
           data in your client code.  [This option is specific to the i386  PE
           targeted port of the linker]

       --disable-runtime-pseudo-reloc
           Do  not  create pseudo relocations for non-zero offset DATA imports
           from DLLs.  This is the default.  [This option is specific  to  the
           i386 PE targeted port of the linker]

       --enable-extra-pe-debug
           Show  additional debug info related to auto-import symbol thunking.
           [This option is specific to  the  i386  PE  targeted  port  of  the
           linker]

       --section-alignment
           Sets  the  section alignment.  Sections in memory will always begin
           at addresses which are a multiple  of  this  number.   Defaults  to
           0x1000.   [This  option is specific to the i386 PE targeted port of
           the linker]

       --stack reserve
       --stack reserve,commit
           Specify the number of bytes of memory to  reserve  (and  optionally
           commit)  to  be used as stack for this program.  The default is 2Mb
           reserved, 4K committed.  [This option is specific to  the  i386  PE
           targeted port of the linker]

       --subsystem which
       --subsystem which:major
       --subsystem which:major.minor
           Specifies the subsystem under which your program will execute.  The
           legal values for which are "native", "windows", "console", "posix",
           and  "xbox".   You  may  optionally set the subsystem version also.
           Numeric values are  also  accepted  for  which.   [This  option  is
           specific to the i386 PE targeted port of the linker]

       The  68HC11  and 68HC12 linkers support specific options to control the
       memory bank switching mapping and trampoline code generation.

       --no-trampoline
           This option disables the generation of  trampoline.  By  default  a
           trampoline is generated for each far function which is called using
           a "jsr" instruction (this happens when a pointer to a far  function
           is taken).

       --bank-window name
           This  option  indicates to the linker the name of the memory region
           in the MEMORY specification that describes the memory bank  window.
           The definition of such region is then used by the linker to compute
           paging and addresses within the memory window.

       The  following  options  are  supported  to  control  handling  of  GOT
       generation when linking for 68K targets.

       --got=type
           This  option  tells  the linker which GOT generation scheme to use.
           type should be one of single, negative, multigot  or  target.   For
           more information refer to the Info entry for ld.

ENVIRONMENT

       You  can  change  the  behaviour  of  ld with the environment variables
       "GNUTARGET", "LDEMULATION" and "COLLECT_NO_DEMANGLE".

       "GNUTARGET" determines the input-file object format if you don’t use -b
       (or  its  synonym  --format).  Its value should be one of the BFD names
       for an input format.  If there is no "GNUTARGET" in the environment, ld
       uses  the  natural  format  of  the  target.  If  "GNUTARGET" is set to
       "default" then BFD attempts to discover the input format  by  examining
       binary input files; this method often succeeds, but there are potential
       ambiguities, since there is no method of ensuring that the magic number
       used   to   specify   object-file  formats  is  unique.   However,  the
       configuration procedure for BFD on each system places the  conventional
       format  for  that  system  first in the search-list, so ambiguities are
       resolved in favor of convention.

       "LDEMULATION" determines the default emulation if you don’t use the  -m
       option.   The emulation can affect various aspects of linker behaviour,
       particularly the default linker script.  You  can  list  the  available
       emulations  with  the --verbose or -V options.  If the -m option is not
       used, and the "LDEMULATION" environment variable is  not  defined,  the
       default emulation depends upon how the linker was configured.

       Normally,  the  linker will default to demangling symbols.  However, if
       "COLLECT_NO_DEMANGLE" is set in the environment, then it  will  default
       to  not  demangling  symbols.   This  environment variable is used in a
       similar fashion by the "gcc" linker wrapper program.  The  default  may
       be overridden by the --demangle and --no-demangle options.

SEE ALSO

       ar(1),  nm(1),  objcopy(1), objdump(1), readelf(1) and the Info entries
       for binutils and ld.

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright (c) 1991, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 2000,  2001,  2002,
       2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission  is  granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version  1.1  or
       any  later  version  published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
       Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with  no  Back-Cover
       Texts.   A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
       Free Documentation License".