Provided by: rsync_3.0.3-2ubuntu1_i386 bug


       rsync — a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool


       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.


       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
       can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
       that  control  every  aspect  of  its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of the set of files to be copied.  It is famous  for  its
       delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of data sent over
       the network by sending only the differences between  the  source  files
       and  the  existing  files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync  finds  files  that  need to be transferred using a “quick check”
       algorithm (by default) that looks for files that have changed  in  size
       or   in  last-modified  time.   Any  changes  in  the  other  preserved
       attributes (as requested by options) are made on the  destination  file
       directly  when  the quick check indicates that the file’s data does not
       need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support  for  copying  links,  devices,  owners,   groups,   and

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a  CVS  exclude  mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal  for


       Rsync  copies  files either to or from a remote host, or locally on the
       current host (it does not support  copying  files  between  two  remote

       There  are  two  different  ways  for rsync to contact a remote system:
       using a remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or  rsh)  or
       contacting   an  rsync  daemon  directly  via  TCP.   The  remote-shell
       transport is used whenever the source or destination  path  contains  a
       single  colon  (:) separator after a host specification.  Contacting an
       rsync daemon directly happens  when  the  source  or  destination  path
       contains  a  double colon (::) separator after a host specification, OR
       when an rsync:// URL is specified (see  also  the  “USING  RSYNC-DAEMON
       FEATURES  VIA  A  REMOTE-SHELL  CONNECTION” section for an exception to
       this latter rule).

       As a special case, if a  single  source  arg  is  specified  without  a
       destination,  the  files  are listed in an output format similar to “ls

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).


       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once  installed,  you  can use rsync to any machine that you can access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
       daemon-mode  protocol).   For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh
       for its communications, but it  may  have  been  configured  to  use  a
       different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You  can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment  variable.

       Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the source and destination


       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must  specify  a  source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

              rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the  files
       already  exist  on  the  remote  system  then  the  rsync remote-update
       protocol is used to update the file by sending  only  the  differences.
       See the tech report for details.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local  machine.
       The  files  are  transferred  in  “archive”  mode,  which  ensures that
       symbolic links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc.  are
       preserved  in  the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to
       reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid  creating
       an  additional  directory level at the destination.  You can think of a
       trailing / on a source as meaning “copy the contents of this directory”
       as  opposed  to  “copy  the  directory  by name”, but in both cases the
       attributes  of  the  containing  directory  are  transferred   to   the
       containing  directory  on the destination.  In other words, each of the
       following commands copies the files in the same  way,  including  their
       setting of the attributes of /dest/foo:

              rsync -av /src/foo /dest
              rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note  also  that  host  and  module references don’t require a trailing
       slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these copy the remote directory’s contents into “/dest”:

              rsync -av host: /dest
              rsync -av host::module /dest

       You  can  also  use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
       destination don’t have a ‘:’ in the name. In this case it behaves  like
       an improved copy command.

       Finally,  you  can  list  all  the  (listable) modules available from a
       particular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.


       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done  by
       specifying  additional remote-host args in the same style as the first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

              rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the  SRC,  like
       these examples:

              rsync -av host:’dir1/file1 dir2/file2’ /dest
              rsync host::’modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2’ /dest

       This  word-splitting  still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but
       is not as easy to use as the first method.

       If you need to transfer a filename that contains  whitespace,  you  can
       either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you’ll need to escape
       the whitespace in a way that the remote  shell  will  understand.   For

              rsync -av host:’file\ name\ with\ spaces’ /dest


       It  is  also  possible  to  use  rsync  without  a  remote shell as the
       transport.  In this case you will directly connect to  a  remote  rsync
       daemon,  typically  using  TCP  port 873.  (This obviously requires the
       daemon to be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING  AN
       RSYNC  DAEMON  TO  ACCEPT  CONNECTIONS section below for information on

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it  with  a  remote  shell
       except that:

       o      you  either  use  a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
              separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the “path” is actually a module name.

       o      the  remote  daemon  may  print  a  message  of the day when you

       o      if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then  the  list
              of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if  you  specify  no  local  destination  then  a listing of the
              specified files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named “src”:

           rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some modules on the remote daemon may require  authentication.  If  so,
       you  will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid the
       password prompt by setting the environment variable  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to
       the  password you want to use or using the --password-file option. This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING: On some systems  environment  variables  are  visible  to  all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You  may  establish  the  connection  via  a  web  proxy by setting the
       environment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port  pair  pointing  to
       your  web proxy.  Note that your web proxy’s configuration must support
       proxy connections to port 873.

       You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as  a  proxy
       by  setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands
       you wish to run in place of making a  direct  socket  connection.   The
       string  may contain the escape “%H” to represent the hostname specified
       in the rsync command (so use “%%” if you need  a  single  “%”  in  your
       string).  For example:

         export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG=’ssh proxyhost nc %H 873’
         rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
         rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which forwards  all  data  to  port  873  (the  rsync  daemon)  on  the
       targethost (%H).


       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as named modules) without actually allowing any new socket  connections
       into  a  system  (other  than what is already required to allow remote-
       shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to  a  host  using  a  remote
       shell  and  then  spawning a single-use “daemon” server that expects to
       read its config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This  can  be
       useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer’s data, but since
       the daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be  able
       to  use  features  such as chroot or change the uid used by the daemon.
       (For another way to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider  using  ssh  to
       tunnel  a  local  port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync
       daemon on that remote host to only allow connections from “localhost”.)

       From  the  user’s  perspective,  a  daemon  transfer via a remote-shell
       connection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal  rsync-
       daemon transfer, with the only exception being that you must explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.   (Setting  the  RSYNC_RSH  in the environment will not turn on
       this functionality.)  For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the  user@  prefix  in  front  of the host is specifying the rsync-user
       value (for a module that  requires  user-based  authentication).   This
       means  that  you  must give the ’-l user’ option to ssh when specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
       --rsh option:

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The  “ssh-user” will be used at the ssh level; the “rsync-user” will be
       used to log-in to the “module”.


       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
       inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).   For  full  information  on  how  to  start  a daemon that will
       handling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page —
       that  is  the  config  file  for  the  daemon, and it contains the full
       details for how to run the  daemon  (including  stand-alone  and  inetd

       If  you’re  using  one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
       there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.


       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wife’s home directory, which consists  of  large  MS  Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

              rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine

       To synchronize my samba source  trees  I  use  the  following  Makefile

                   rsync -avuzb --exclude ’*~’ samba:samba/ .
                   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
           sync: get put

       this  allows  me  to  sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn’t very efficient.

       I  mirror  a  directory  between  my “old” and “new” ftp sites with the

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.


       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete description.

        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
            --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
        -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
        -a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
            --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
        -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
        -R, --relative              use relative path names
            --no-implied-dirs       don’t send implied dirs with --relative
        -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
            --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
            --suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
        -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver
            --inplace               update destination files in-place
            --append                append data onto shorter files
            --append-verify         --append w/old data in file checksum
        -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
        -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
        -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir
            --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
            --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
        -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to dir into referent dir
        -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
        -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
        -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
        -E, --executability         preserve executability
            --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
        -A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies -p)
        -X, --xattrs                preserve extended attributes
        -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
        -g, --group                 preserve group
            --devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
            --specials              preserve special files
        -D                          same as --devices --specials
        -t, --times                 preserve modification times
        -O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories from --times
            --super                 receiver attempts super-user activities
            --fake-super            store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
        -S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently
        -n, --dry-run               perform a trial run with no changes made
        -W, --whole-file            copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
        -x, --one-file-system       don’t cross filesystem boundaries
        -B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
        -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
            --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
            --existing              skip creating new files on receiver
            --ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
            --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
            --del                   an alias for --delete-during
            --delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
            --delete-before         receiver deletes before transfer (default)
            --delete-during         receiver deletes during xfer, not before
            --delete-delay          find deletions during, delete after
            --delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not before
            --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
            --ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
            --force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
            --max-delete=NUM        don’t delete more than NUM files
            --max-size=SIZE         don’t transfer any file larger than SIZE
            --min-size=SIZE         don’t transfer any file smaller than SIZE
            --partial               keep partially transferred files
            --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
            --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
        -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
            --numeric-ids           don’t map uid/gid values by user/group name
            --timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds
            --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
        -I, --ignore-times          don’t skip files that match size and time
            --size-only             skip files that match in size
            --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
        -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
        -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
            --compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
            --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
            --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
        -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
            --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
            --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
        -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
        -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
        -F                          same as --filter=’dir-merge /.rsync-filter’
                                    repeated: --filter=’- .rsync-filter’
            --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
            --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
            --include=PATTERN       don’t exclude files matching PATTERN
            --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
            --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
        -0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
        -s, --protect-args          no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
            --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
            --port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
            --blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
            --stats                 give some file-transfer stats
        -8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
        -h, --human-readable        output numbers in a human-readable format
            --progress              show progress during transfer
        -P                          same as --partial --progress
        -i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
            --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
            --log-file=FILE         log what we’re doing to the specified FILE
            --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
            --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password from FILE
            --list-only             list the files instead of copying them
            --bwlimit=KBPS          limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
            --write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
            --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
            --read-batch=FILE       read a batched update from FILE
            --protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
            --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
            --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
            --version               print version number
       (-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync  can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options
       are accepted:

            --daemon                run as an rsync daemon
            --address=ADDRESS       bind to the specified address
            --bwlimit=KBPS          limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
            --config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
            --no-detach             do not detach from the parent
            --port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
            --log-file=FILE         override the "log file" setting
            --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
        -h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)


       rsync uses the GNU long options  package.  Many  of  the  command  line
       options  have  two  variants,  one short and one long.  These are shown
       below, separated by commas. Some options only have a long variant.  The
       ‘=’  for  options  that take a parameter is optional; whitespace can be
       used instead.

       --help Print a short help page  describing  the  options  available  in
              rsync  and exit.  For backward-compatibility with older versions
              of rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h  option
              without any other args.

              print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
              This  option  increases  the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently. A single
              -v  will  give  you  information  about  what  files  are  being
              transferred and a brief summary at the end. Two  -v  flags  will
              give  you  information  on  what  files  are  being  skipped and
              slightly more information at the end. More  than  two  -v  flags
              should only be used if you are debugging rsync.

              Note that the names of the transferred files that are output are
              done using a default --out-format of  “%n%L”,  which  tells  you
              just  the  name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it
              points.  At the single -v level  of  verbosity,  this  does  not
              mention when a file gets its attributes changed.  If you ask for
              an itemized list of changed attributes (either --itemize-changes
              or  adding “%i” to the --out-format setting), the output (on the
              client) increases to mention all items that are changed  in  any
              way.  See the --out-format option for more details.

       -q, --quiet
              This  option  decreases  the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer, notably  suppressing  information  messages
              from  the remote server. This flag is useful when invoking rsync
              from cron.

              This option affects the information that is output by the client
              at the start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
              of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of  modules
              that  the daemon sends in response to the “rsync host::” request
              (due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option
              if you want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

       -I, --ignore-times
              Normally  rsync  will  skip  any files that are already the same
              size and have the  same  modification  timestamp.   This  option
              turns  off  this “quick check” behavior, causing all files to be

              This modifies rsync’s “quick check” algorithm for finding  files
              that  need  to  be  transferred, changing it from the default of
              transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-
              modified  time  to  just  looking for files that have changed in
              size.  This is useful when starting to  use  rsync  after  using
              another  mirroring  system  which  may  not  preserve timestamps

              When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats  the  timestamps  as
              being  equal  if  they  differ by no more than the modify-window
              value.  This is normally 0 (for an exact  match),  but  you  may
              find it useful to set this to a larger value in some situations.
              In particular, when transferring to or from an  MS  Windows  FAT
              filesystem  (which represents times with a 2-second resolution),
              --modify-window=1 is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1

       -c, --checksum
              This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed
              and are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync  uses
              a “quick check” that (by default) checks if each file’s size and
              time of last modification match between the sender and receiver.
              This  option  changes this to compare a 128-bit MD4 checksum for
              each file that has a matching size.   Generating  the  checksums
              means  that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O reading all
              the data in the files in the transfer (and this is prior to  any
              reading  that  will  be done to transfer changed files), so this
              can slow things down significantly.

              The sending side generates its checksums while it is  doing  the
              file-system  scan  that  builds the list of the available files.
              The receiver generates its checksums when  it  is  scanning  for
              changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same size
              as the corresponding sender’s file:  files with either a changed
              size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

              Note  that  rsync always verifies that each transferred file was
              correctly reconstructed on the  receiving  side  by  checking  a
              whole-file   checksum   that   is   generated  as  the  file  is
              transferred, but that automatic after-the-transfer  verification
              has  nothing  to do with this option’s before-the-transfer “Does
              this file need to be updated?” check.

       -a, --archive
              This is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying  you
              want  recursion  and want to preserve almost everything (with -H
              being a notable omission).  The  only  exception  to  the  above
              equivalence  is when --files-from is specified, in which case -r
              is not implied.

              Note that  -a  does  not  preserve  hardlinks,  because  finding
              multiply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify

              You may turn off one or more implied options  by  prefixing  the
              option  name with “no-”.  Not all options may be prefixed with a
              “no-”: only options that are  implied  by  other  options  (e.g.
              --no-D,  --no-perms)  or  have  different  defaults  in  various
              circumstances    (e.g.    --no-whole-file,     --no-blocking-io,
              --no-dirs).  You may specify either the short or the long option
              name after  the  “no-”  prefix  (e.g.  --no-R  is  the  same  as

              For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don’t want -o
              (--owner), instead of converting  -a  into  -rlptgD,  you  could
              specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The  order  of  the options is important:  if you specify --no-r
              -a, the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite  of
              -a  --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the --files-from
              option are NOT positional, as it affects the  default  state  of
              several  options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see the
              --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
              This tells rsync to  copy  directories  recursively.   See  also
              --dirs (-d).

              Beginning  with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now
              an incremental scan that uses much less memory than  before  and
              begins  the  transfer  after  the  scanning  of  the  first  few
              directories have been completed.   This  incremental  scan  only
              affects  our  recursion  algorithm,  and  does not change a non-
              recursive transfer.  It is also only possible when both ends  of
              the transfer are at least version 3.0.0.

              Some  options require rsync to know the full file list, so these
              options disable the incremental recursion mode.  These  include:
              --delete-before,    --delete-after,    --prune-empty-dirs,   and
              --delay-updates.  Because of this, the default delete mode  when
              you  specify  --delete  is now --delete-during when both ends of
              the connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or  --delete-during
              to  request  this  improved deletion mode explicitly).  See also
              the --delete-delay option that is a  better  choice  than  using

              Incremental    recursion    can    be    disabled    using   the
              --no-inc-recursive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       -R, --relative
              Use  relative  paths.  This  means  that  the  full  path  names
              specified on the command line are sent to the server rather than
              just the last parts  of  the  filenames.  This  is  particularly
              useful  when  you  want to send several different directories at
              the same time. For example, if you used this command:

                 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the  remote
              machine. If instead you used

                 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              then  a  file  named  /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the
              remote machine, preserving its  full  path.   These  extra  path
              elements  are  called  “implied directories” (i.e. the “foo” and
              the “foo/bar” directories in the above example).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync  always  sends  these  implied
              directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
              element is really a symlink on the sending side.  This  prevents
              some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
              file that you didn’t realize had a symlink in its path.  If  you
              want  to  duplicate  a  server-side  symlink,  include  both the
              symlink via its path, and referent directory via its real  path.
              If  you’re  dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you
              may need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

              It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
              is  sent as implied directories for each path you specify.  With
              a modern rsync on the sending side (beginning with  2.6.7),  you
              can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

                 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              That  would  create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine.  (Note
              that the dot must be followed by a slash, so “/foo/.” would  not
              be  abbreviated.)   (2) For older rsync versions, you would need
              to use a chdir to limit the  source  path.   For  example,  when
              pushing files:

                 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

              (Note  that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so
              that the “cd”  command  doesn’t  remain  in  effect  for  future
              commands.)   If  you’re  pulling  files from an older rsync, use
              this idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

                 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

              This option affects  the  default  behavior  of  the  --relative
              option.   When  it  is  specified, the attributes of the implied
              directories from the  source  names  are  not  included  in  the
              transfer.   This  means  that the corresponding path elements on
              the destination system are left unchanged if they exist, and any
              missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
              This even  allows  these  implied  path  elements  to  have  big
              differences,  such  as  being  a  symlink  to a directory on the
              receiving side.

              For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from  entry  told
              rsync  to  transfer  the  file  “path/foo/file”, the directories
              “path” and “path/foo” are implied when --relative is  used.   If
              “path/foo”  is a symlink to “bar” on the destination system, the
              receiving rsync would ordinarily delete “path/foo”, recreate  it
              as  a  directory,  and  receive the file into the new directory.
              With   --no-implied-dirs,   the    receiving    rsync    updates
              “path/foo/file”  using  the  existing path elements, which means
              that the file ends up being created in “path/bar”.  Another  way
              to   accomplish   this   link   preservation   is   to  use  the
              --keep-dirlinks option  (which  will  also  affect  symlinks  to
              directories in the rest of the transfer).

              When  pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need
              to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path
              you   request  and  you  wish  the  implied  directories  to  be
              transferred as normal directories.

       -b, --backup
              With this option, preexisting destination files are  renamed  as
              each  file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where the
              backup file goes and what (if any) suffix  gets  appended  using
              the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

              Note   that   if   you   don’t  specify  --backup-dir,  (1)  the
              --omit-dir-times option will be implied, and (2) if --delete  is
              also  in  effect  (without  --delete-excluded), rsync will add a
              “protect” filter-rule for the backup suffix to the  end  of  all
              your  existing  excludes  (e.g.  -f "Pp *~").  This will prevent
              previously backed-up files from being deleted.  Note that if you
              are  supplying  your  own filter rules, you may need to manually
              insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in  the
              list  so  that  it  has  a  high enough priority to be effective
              (e.g., if your rules specify a trailing  inclusion/exclusion  of
              ‘*’, the auto-added rule would never be reached).

              In  combination  with  the  --backup option, this tells rsync to
              store all backups in the specified directory  on  the  receiving
              side.   This  can  be  used  for  incremental  backups.  You can
              additionally specify a backup suffix using the  --suffix  option
              (otherwise  the  files backed up in the specified directory will
              keep their original filenames).

              This option allows you to override  the  default  backup  suffix
              used with the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if
              no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty  string.

       -u, --update
              This  forces  rsync  to  skip  any  files  which  exist  on  the
              destination and have a modified time  that  is  newer  than  the
              source   file.    (If   an   existing  destination  file  has  a
              modification time equal to the source file’s, it will be updated
              if the sizes are different.)

              Note  that this does not affect the copying of symlinks or other
              special files.  Also, a difference of file  format  between  the
              sender  and receiver is always considered to be important enough
              for an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In  other
              words, if the source has a directory where the destination has a
              file, the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

              This option changes how rsync transfers a file when  the  file’s
              data  needs  to  be  updated:  instead  of the default method of
              creating a new copy of the file and moving it into place when it
              is  complete,  rsync instead writes the updated data directly to
              the destination file.

              This has several effects: (1) in-use binaries cannot be  updated
              (either  the  OS  will  prevent this from happening, or binaries
              that attempt to swap-in their data will misbehave or crash), (2)
              the  file’s  data  will  be  in an inconsistent state during the
              transfer, (3) a file’s data may be left in an inconsistent state
              after  the  transfer  if  the  transfer  is interrupted or if an
              update fails, (4) a file that does not  have  write  permissions
              can  not  be  updated,  and (5) the efficiency of rsync’s delta-
              transfer  algorithm  may  be  reduced  if  some  data   in   the
              destination  file  is  overwritten  before it can be copied to a
              position later in the file (one exception  to  this  is  if  you
              combine  this  option with --backup, since rsync is smart enough
              to use the backup file as the basis file for the transfer).

              WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are
              being  accessed  by  others,  so be careful when choosing to use
              this for a copy.

              This option is useful for transfer of large  files  with  block-
              based  changes  or  appended  data, and also on systems that are
              disk bound, not network bound.

              The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
              not  delete  the  file),  but  conflicts  with --partial-dir and
              --delay-updates.   Prior  to  rsync  2.6.4  --inplace  was  also
              incompatible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This  causes  rsync  to update a file by appending data onto the
              end of the file, which  presumes  that  the  data  that  already
              exists  on the receiving side is identical with the start of the
              file on the sending side.  If a file needs to be transferred and
              its  size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size on
              the sender, the file is skipped.  This does not  interfere  with
              the   updating   of   a   file’s  non-content  attributes  (e.g.
              permissions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to  be
              transferred,  nor does it affect the updating of any non-regular
              files.  Implies --inplace, but does not conflict  with  --sparse
              (since it is always extending a file’s length).

              This  works just like the --append option, but the existing data
              on the receiving side is  included  in  the  full-file  checksum
              verification  step,  which will cause a file to be resent if the
              final  verification  step  fails  (rsync  uses  a  normal,  non-
              appending --inplace transfer for the resend).

              Note:  prior  to  rsync  3.0.0,  the --append option worked like
              --append-verify, so if you are interacting with an  older  rsync
              (or  the  transfer  is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying
              either append option will initiate an --append-verify  transfer.

       -d, --dirs
              Tell  the  sending  side  to  include  any  directories that are
              encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory’s contents are not
              copied unless the directory name specified is “.” or ends with a
              trailing slash (e.g. “.”, “dir/.”, “dir/”, etc.).  Without  this
              option   or   the   --recursive  option,  rsync  will  skip  all
              directories it encounters (and output a message to  that  effect
              for  each  one).   If  you  specify both --dirs and --recursive,
              --recursive takes precedence.

              The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option  or  the
              --list-only  option  (including an implied --list-only usage) if
              --recursive wasn’t specified (so that directories  are  seen  in
              the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
              this off.

              There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
              (or   --old-d)   that   tells   rsync  to  use  a  hack  of  “-r
              --exclude=’/*/*’” to  get  an  older  rsync  to  list  a  single
              directory without recursing.

       -l, --links
              When  symlinks  are  encountered,  recreate  the  symlink on the

       -L, --copy-links
              When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to  (the
              referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
              of rsync, this option also had the side-effect  of  telling  the
              receiving   side   to  follow  symlinks,  such  as  symlinks  to
              directories.  In a modern rsync such as this one, you’ll need to
              specify  --keep-dirlinks  (-K)  to get this extra behavior.  The
              only exception is when sending files to an rsync that is too old
              to  understand  -K — in that case, the -L option will still have
              the side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

              This tells rsync to copy the referent  of  symbolic  links  that
              point  outside  the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks are also
              treated like ordinary files, and so  are  any  symlinks  in  the
              source  path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no
              additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

              This tells rsync  to  ignore  any  symbolic  links  which  point
              outside the copied tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored.
              Using this  option  in  conjunction  with  --relative  may  give
              unexpected results.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
              This  option  causes  the  sending  side to treat a symlink to a
              directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
              you  don’t  want  symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as
              they would be using --copy-links.

              Without  this  option,  if  the  sending  side  has  replaced  a
              directory with a symlink to a directory, the receiving side will
              delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
              a  directory  hierarchy  (as  long  as --force or --delete is in

              See  also  --keep-dirlinks  for  an  analogous  option  for  the
              receiving side.

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
              This  option  causes  the receiving side to treat a symlink to a
              directory as though it were a real directory,  but  only  if  it
              matches  a real directory from the sender.  Without this option,
              the receiver’s symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real

              For  example,  suppose  you  transfer  a  directory  “foo”  that
              contains a file “file”, but “foo”  is  a  symlink  to  directory
              “bar”  on  the  receiver.  Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
              deletes symlink “foo”, recreates it as a directory, and receives
              the  file  into  the  new  directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the
              receiver keeps the symlink and “file” ends up in “bar”.

              One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust
              all  the  symlinks  in  the  copy!   If  it  is  possible for an
              untrusted user to create their own symlink to any directory, the
              user  could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink with
              a real directory and affect the content  of  whatever  directory
              the  symlink  references.  For backup copies, you are better off
              using something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify
              your receiving hierarchy.

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending

       -H, --hard-links
              This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in  the  transfer
              and link together the corresponding files on the receiving side.
              Without this option,  hard-linked  files  in  the  transfer  are
              treated as though they were separate files.

              When  you are updating a non-empty destination, this option only
              ensures that files that are hard-linked together on  the  source
              are  hard-linked  together  on  the  destination.   It  does NOT
              currently endeavor to break already existing hard links  on  the
              destination  that  do not exist between the source files.  Note,
              however, that if one or more  extra-linked  files  have  content
              changes,  they  will  become unlinked when updated (assuming you
              are not using the --inplace option).

              Note that rsync can only detect hard links  between  files  that
              are  inside  the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file that has
              extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer,  that
              linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
              option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how
              your  files  are  being  updated so that you are certain that no
              unintended changes happen due to lingering hard links  (and  see
              the --inplace option for more caveats).

              If  incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may
              transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
              link  for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This
              does  not  affect  the  accuracy  of  the  transfer,  just   its
              efficiency.   One  way  to  avoid this is to disable incremental
              recursion using the --no-inc-recursive option.

       -p, --perms
              This option causes the receiving rsync to  set  the  destination
              permissions to be the same as the source permissions.  (See also
              the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync  considers  to
              be the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

              o      Existing  files  (including  updated  files) retain their
                     existing permissions, though the  --executability  option
                     might change just the execute permission for the file.

              o      New  files  get their “normal” permission bits set to the
                     source  file’s  permissions  masked  with  the  receiving
                     directory’s  default  permissions  (either  the receiving
                     process’s umask, or the  permissions  specified  via  the
                     destination  directory’s  default ACL), and their special
                     permission bits disabled except in the case where  a  new
                     directory   inherits   a   setgid  bit  from  its  parent

              Thus,  when  --perms  and  --executability  are  both  disabled,
              rsync’s  behavior  is  the  same  as  that  of  other  file-copy
              utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In summary: to give destination files (both  old  and  new)  the
              source   permissions,  use  --perms.   To  give  new  files  the
              destination-default permissions (while  leaving  existing  files
              unchanged),  make  sure  that  the --perms option is off and use
              --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures  that  all  non-masked  bits  get
              enabled).   If you’d care to make this latter behavior easier to
              type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
              line  in  the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z option,
              and includes --no-g to use the default group of the  destination

                 rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

              You  could  then  use  this new option in a command such as this

                 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

              (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or  it  will  re-
              enable the two “--no-*” options mentioned above.)

              The  preservation  of  the  destination’s  setgid  bit on newly-
              created directories when --perms  is  off  was  added  in  rsync
              2.6.7.   Older  rsync  versions  erroneously preserved the three
              special permission bits for newly-created files when --perms was
              off,  while overriding the destination’s setgid bit setting on a
              newly-created directory.  Default ACL observance  was  added  to
              the  ACL  patch  for  rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled)
              rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in
              mind  that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
              these behaviors.)

       -E, --executability
              This option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or  non-
              executability)  of regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A
              regular file is considered to be executable if at least one  ‘x’
              is  turned  on in its permissions.  When an existing destination
              file’s executability differs  from  that  of  the  corresponding
              source  file,  rsync modifies the destination file’s permissions
              as follows:

              o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns  off  all  its
                     ‘x’ permissions.

              o      To  make  a  file  executable,  rsync  turns  on each ‘x’
                     permission  that  has  a  corresponding  ‘r’   permission

              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
              This  option  causes  rsync to update the destination ACLs to be
              the same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

              The source and destination  systems  must  have  compatible  ACL
              entries  for this option to work properly.  See the --fake-super
              option for a way  to  backup  and  restore  ACLs  that  are  not

       -X, --xattrs
              This   option   causes  rsync  to  update  the  remote  extended
              attributes to be the same as the local ones.

              For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces,  a  copy
              being   done  by  a  super-user  copies  all  namespaces  except
              system.*.  A normal user only copies the user.*  namespace.   To
              be  able  to  backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal
              user, see the --fake-super option.

              This option tells rsync to apply  one  or  more  comma-separated
              “chmod”  strings to the permission of the files in the transfer.
              The resulting value is treated as though it was the  permissions
              that  the  sending  side supplied for the file, which means that
              this option can seem to have no  effect  on  existing  files  if
              --perms is not enabled.

              In  addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in the
              chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply
              to  a  directory  by prefixing it with a ‘D’, or specify an item
              that should only apply to a file by prefixing  it  with  a  ‘F’.
              For example:


              It  is  also  legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each
              additional option is just appended to the  list  of  changes  to

              See   the  --perms  and  --executability  options  for  how  the
              resulting permission value can be applied to the  files  in  the

       -o, --owner
              This  option  causes  rsync  to set the owner of the destination
              file to be the  same  as  the  source  file,  but  only  if  the
              receiving  rsync  is  being  run as the super-user (see also the
              --super and --fake-super options).   Without  this  option,  the
              owner  of  new  and/or transferred files are set to the invoking
              user on the receiving side.

              The preservation of ownership will associate matching  names  by
              default,  but  may  fall  back  to  using  the ID number in some
              circumstances (see also the  --numeric-ids  option  for  a  full

       -g, --group
              This  option  causes  rsync  to set the group of the destination
              file to be the same  as  the  source  file.   If  the  receiving
              program  is  not running as the super-user (or if --no-super was
              specified), only groups that the invoking user on the  receiving
              side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
              group is set to the default group of the invoking  user  on  the
              receiving side.

              The  preservation  of  group information will associate matching
              names by default, but may fall back to using the  ID  number  in
              some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full

              This option causes rsync to transfer character and block  device
              files  to  the  remote  system  to recreate these devices.  This
              option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not  run  as  the
              super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
              sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
              This tells rsync to transfer modification times along  with  the
              files  and  update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
              option is not used, the optimization that  excludes  files  that
              have  not  been  modified cannot be effective; in other words, a
              missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
              used  -I, causing all files to be updated (though rsync’s delta-
              transfer algorithm will make the update fairly efficient if  the
              files  haven’t  actually  changed,  you’re much better off using

       -O, --omit-dir-times
              This tells rsync to  omit  directories  when  it  is  preserving
              modification  times  (see  --times).   If  NFS  is  sharing  the
              directories on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use  -O.
              This   option   is   inferred   if   you  use  --backup  without

              This tells the receiving side to attempt  super-user  activities
              even if the receiving rsync wasn’t run by the super-user.  These
              activities include: preserving users  via  the  --owner  option,
              preserving  all  groups (not just the current user’s groups) via
              the --groups option,  and  copying  devices  via  the  --devices
              option.   This  is useful for systems that allow such activities
              without being the super-user, and also  for  ensuring  that  you
              will get errors if the receiving side isn’t being running as the
              super-user.  To turn off super-user activities,  the  super-user
              can use --no-super.

              When   this   option  is  enabled,  rsync  simulates  super-user
              activities by saving/restoring  the  privileged  attributes  via
              special  extended  attributes that are attached to each file (as
              needed).  This includes the file’s owner and group (if it is not
              the default), the file’s device info (device & special files are
              created as empty text files), and any permission  bits  that  we
              won’t allow to be set on the real file (e.g.  the real file gets
              u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the  owner’s  access
              (since  the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
              files we create can always be accessed/changed by  the  creating
              user).   This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified)
              and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

              This is a good way to backup data without  using  a  super-user,
              and to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

              The  --fake-super  option only affects the side where the option
              is  used.   To  affect  the  remote  side  of   a   remote-shell
              connection, specify an rsync path:

                rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --fake-super" /src/ host:/dest/

              Since  there  is  only  one  “side” in a local copy, this option
              affects both the sending and receiving of files.  You’ll need to
              specify  a  copy  using  “localhost”  if you need to avoid this,
              possibly  using  the  “lsh”  shell  script  (from  the   support
              directory)  as  a  substitute  for  an  actual remote shell (see

              This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

              See also the “fake super” setting in  the  daemon’s  rsyncd.conf

       -S, --sparse
              Try  to  handle  sparse  files  efficiently so they take up less
              space on the destination.  Conflicts with --inplace because it’s
              not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

              NOTE:  Don’t  use  this option when the destination is a Solaris
              “tmpfs” filesystem. It doesn’t seem to handle  seeks  over  null
              regions correctly and ends up corrupting the files.

       -n, --dry-run
              This  makes  rsync  perform  a  trial  run that doesn’t make any
              changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run).  It
              is  most  commonly  used  in  combination with the -v, --verbose
              and/or -i,  --itemize-changes  options  to  see  what  an  rsync
              command is going to do before one actually runs it.

              The  output  of  --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the
              same on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
              trickery  and  system call failures); if it isn’t, that’s a bug.
              Other output is the same to the extent practical, but may differ
              in some areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send the actual data
              for file transfers, so --progress  has  no  effect,  the  “bytes
              sent”,  “bytes  received”,  “literal  data”,  and “matched data”
              statistics are too small, and the “speedup” value is  equivalent
              to a run where no file transfers are needed.

       -W, --whole-file
              With  this  option  rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm is not used
              and the whole file is sent as-is instead.  The transfer  may  be
              faster  if  this  option  is used when the bandwidth between the
              source and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth  to
              disk  (especially  when  the  “disk”  is  actually  a  networked
              filesystem).  This is the  default  when  both  the  source  and
              destination are specified as local paths.

       -x, --one-file-system
              This  tells  rsync  to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
              recursing.  This does not limit the user’s  ability  to  specify
              items  to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync’s recursion
              through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
              and  also  the  analogous recursion on the receiving side during
              deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a “bind” mount to
              the same device as being on the same filesystem.

              If   this  option  is  repeated,  rsync  omits  all  mount-point
              directories from the copy.   Otherwise,  it  includes  an  empty
              directory   at   each   mount-point  it  encounters  (using  the
              attributes  of  the  mounted  directory  because  those  of  the
              underlying mount-point directory are inaccessible).

              If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
              --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device
              is  treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are
              unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This tells rsync to skip creating files (including  directories)
              that  do  not  exist  yet on the destination.  If this option is
              combined with the --ignore-existing option,  no  files  will  be
              updated  (which  can  be  useful if all you want to do is delete
              extraneous files).

              This tells rsync to skip updating files that  already  exist  on
              the  destination  (this does not ignore existing directories, or
              nothing would get done).  See also --existing.

              This option can be useful for  those  doing  backups  using  the
              --link-dest  option when they need to continue a backup run that
              got interrupted.  Since a --link-dest run is copied into  a  new
              directory  hierarchy  (when it is used properly), using --ignore
              existing will ensure that the already-handled  files  don’t  get
              tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked
              files).  This does mean that this option is only looking at  the
              existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

              This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the sending side the files
              (meaning non-directories) that are a part of  the  transfer  and
              have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

              This  tells  rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
              side (ones that aren’t on the sending side), but  only  for  the
              directories  that  are  being synchronized.  You must have asked
              rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. “dir” or “dir/”) without
              using  a  wildcard  for  the directory’s contents (e.g. “dir/*”)
              since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus  gets
              a  request  to  transfer individual files, not the files’ parent
              directory.  Files that  are  excluded  from  transfer  are  also
              excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
              option or mark the rules as only matching on  the  sending  side
              (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have  no  effect  unless
              --recursive  was  enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will
              also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
              whose contents are being copied.

              This  option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a very
              good idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n)  to
              see what files are going to be deleted.

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
              any files at the destination  will  be  automatically  disabled.
              This  is  to  prevent temporary filesystem failures (such as NFS
              errors) on the sending side causing a massive deletion of  files
              on   the   destination.    You   can   override  this  with  the
              --ignore-errors option.

              The  --delete  option  may  be  combined   with   one   of   the
              --delete-WHEN    options    without   conflict,   as   well   as
              --delete-excluded.   However,  if  none  of  the   --delete-WHEN
              options  are  specified,  rsync  will choose the --delete-during
              algorithm when talking to an  rsync  3.0.0  or  newer,  and  the
              --delete-before  algorithm  when talking to an older rsync.  See
              also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  done
              before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for
              more details on file-deletion.

              Deleting before the transfer is helpful  if  the  filesystem  is
              tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
              the transfer possible.   However,  it  does  introduce  a  delay
              before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
              transfer to timeout  (if  --timeout  was  specified).   It  also
              forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
              that requires rsync to scan all the files in the  transfer  into
              memory at once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during, --del
              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              incrementally as the transfer happens.  This is a faster  method
              than choosing the before- or after-transfer algorithm, but it is
              only supported beginning with rsync version 2.6.4.  See --delete
              (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Request  that  the  file-deletions  on  the  receiving  side  be
              computed  during  the  transfer,  and  then  removed  after  the
              transfer completes.  If the number of removed files overflows an
              internal buffer,  a  temporary  file  will  be  created  on  the
              receiving  side  to hold the names (it is removed while open, so
              you shouldn’t see it during the transfer).  If the  creation  of
              the  temporary  file fails, rsync will try to fall back to using
              --delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive  is  doing  an
              incremental scan).

              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              after the transfer has completed.  This is  useful  if  you  are
              sending  new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer
              and you want their exclusions to  take  effect  for  the  delete
              phase  of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use the
              old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync  to
              scan  all  the  files  in  the transfer into memory at once (see
              --recursive).  See --delete (which is implied) for more  details
              on file-deletion.

              In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
              not on the sending side, this tells rsync  to  also  delete  any
              files  on  the receiving side that are excluded (see --exclude).
              See the FILTER RULES  section  for  a  way  to  make  individual
              exclusions  behave  this  way  on the receiver, and for a way to
              protect files from --delete-excluded.  See  --delete  (which  is
              implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Tells  --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are
              I/O errors.

              This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when  it
              is  to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant if
              deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

              Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
              when  using  --delete-after,  and  it  used to be non-functional
              unless the --recursive option was also enabled.

              This  tells  rsync  not  to  delete  more  than  NUM  files   or
              directories.  If that limit is exceeded, a warning is output and
              rsync exits with an error code of 25 (new for 3.0.0).

              Also new for version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be
              warned  about  any  extraneous  files in the destination without
              removing  any  of  them.   Older  clients  interpreted  this  as
              “unlimited”,  so  if  you don’t know what version the client is,
              you can use the less  obvious  --max-delete=-1  as  a  backward-
              compatible  way  to specify that no deletions be allowed (though
              older versions didn’t warn when the limit was exceeded).

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that  is  larger
              than  the  specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed with a
              string to indicate a size multiplier, and may  be  a  fractional
              value (e.g. “--max-size=1.5m”).

              The  suffixes  are  as  follows:  “K”  (or  “KiB”) is a kibibyte
              (1024), “M” (or “MiB”) is a mebibyte (1024*1024),  and  “G”  (or
              “GiB”)   is  a  gibibyte  (1024*1024*1024).   If  you  want  the
              multiplier to be 1000 instead of 1024, use “KB”, “MB”, or  “GB”.
              (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
              the suffix ends in either “+1” or “-1”, the value will be offset
              by one byte in the indicated direction.

              Examples:    --max-size=1.5mb-1    is    1499999    bytes,   and
              --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is  smaller
              than  the  specified  SIZE,  which  can help in not transferring
              small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for a  description
              of SIZE.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
              This  forces  the  block  size  used  in  rsync’s delta-transfer
              algorithm to a fixed value.  It is normally  selected  based  on
              the  size  of each file being updated.  See the technical report
              for details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
              This option allows you to choose  an  alternative  remote  shell
              program  to  use  for communication between the local and remote
              copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to  use  ssh  by
              default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If  this  option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
              remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on  the
              remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be transmitted through that
              remote shell connection, rather than  through  a  direct  socket
              connection  to  a  running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See
              the section “USING  RSYNC-DAEMON  FEATURES  VIA  A  REMOTE-SHELL
              CONNECTION” above.

              Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
              COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single  argument.   You  must
              use  spaces  (not  tabs  or  other  whitespace)  to separate the
              command and args from each other, and you can use single- and/or
              double-quotes  to  preserve  spaces  in  an  argument  (but  not
              backslashes).   Note  that  doubling  a  single-quote  inside  a
              single-quoted  string  gives  you  a  single-quote; likewise for
              double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which  quotes
              your  shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some

                  -e ’ssh -p 2234’
                  -e ’ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"’

              (Note that ssh users  can  alternately  customize  site-specific
              connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

              You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
              environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as

              See  also  the  --blocking-io  option  which is affected by this

              Use this to specify what program is to  be  run  on  the  remote
              machine  to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
              default           remote-shell’s           path            (e.g.
              --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that  PROGRAM is run
              with the help of a shell, so it can be any program,  script,  or
              command  sequence  you’d  care  to  run,  so long as it does not
              corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync  is  using  to

              One  tricky  example  is to set a different default directory on
              the remote machine for use  with  the  --relative  option.   For

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -C, --cvs-exclude
              This  is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
              that you often don’t want to transfer between systems. It uses a
              similar  algorithm  to  CVS  to  determine  if  a file should be

              The exclude list is initialized to exclude the  following  items
              (these  initial  items are marked as perishable — see the FILTER
              RULES section):

                     RCS  SCCS  CVS  CVS.adm   RCSLOG   cvslog.*   tags   TAGS
                     .make.state  .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak
                     *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so  *.exe
                     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .bzr/

              then,  files  listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
              and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable  (all
              cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

              Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
              .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed  therein.
              Unlike rsync’s filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
              whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

              If you’re combining -C with your own --filter rules, you  should
              note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own
              rules, regardless of where the -C was  placed  on  the  command-
              line.   This  makes  them  a  lower  priority than any rules you
              specified explicitly.  If you want to control  where  these  CVS
              excludes  get  inserted  into your filter rules, you should omit
              the -C as  a  command-line  option  and  use  a  combination  of
              --filter=:C  and  --filter=-C (either on your command-line or by
              putting the “:C” and “-C” rules into a  filter  file  with  your
              other  rules).   The  first  option  turns  on the per-directory
              scanning for the .cvsignore file.  The second option does a one-
              time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
              This  option  allows  you  to  add  rules to selectively exclude
              certain files from the list of files to be transferred. This  is
              most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

              You  may use as many --filter options on the command line as you
              like to build up the list of files to exclude.   If  the  filter
              contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
              the rule to rsync as a single argument.   The  text  below  also
              mentions  that  you  can  use an underscore to replace the space
              that separates a rule from its arg.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this

       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
              your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this

                 --filter=’dir-merge /.rsync-filter’

              This  tells  rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
              that have been sprinkled through the  hierarchy  and  use  their
              rules  to  filter the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
              it is a shorthand for this rule:

                 --filter=’exclude .rsync-filter’

              This filters out the .rsync-filter  files  themselves  from  the

              See  the  FILTER  RULES  section for detailed information on how
              these options work.

              This option is a simplified form of  the  --filter  option  that
              defaults  to  an  exclude rule and does not allow the full rule-
              parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this

              This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies
              a FILE that contains exclude patterns  (one  per  line).   Blank
              lines  in  the  file  and  lines  starting  with  ‘;’ or ‘#’ are
              ignored.  If FILE is -, the list  will  be  read  from  standard

              This  option  is  a  simplified form of the --filter option that
              defaults to an include rule and does not allow  the  full  rule-
              parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See  the  FILTER  RULES section for detailed information on this

              This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies
              a  FILE  that  contains  include patterns (one per line).  Blank
              lines in the file  and  lines  starting  with  ‘;’  or  ‘#’  are
              ignored.   If  FILE  is  -,  the list will be read from standard

              Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of  files
              to  transfer  (as read from the specified FILE or - for standard
              input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of  rsync  to  make
              transferring just the specified files and directories easier:

              o      The  --relative  (-R)  option is implied, which preserves
                     the path information that is specified for each  item  in
                     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
                     that off).

              o      The --dirs (-d) option  is  implied,  which  will  create
                     directories  specified  in  the  list  on the destination
                     rather than  noisily  skipping  them  (use  --no-dirs  or
                     --no-d if you want to turn that off).

              o      The  --archive  (-a)  option’s  behavior  does  not imply
                     --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if  you  want

              o      These  side-effects change the default state of rsync, so
                     the position of the --files-from option on  the  command-
                     line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g.
                     -a works the same before or after --files-from,  as  does
                     --no-R and all other options).

              The  filenames  that  are read from the FILE are all relative to
              the source dir — any leading slashes are  removed  and  no  “..”
              references  are  allowed  to go higher than the source dir.  For
              example, take this command:

                 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

              If /tmp/foo contains the string  “bin”  (or  even  “/bin”),  the
              /usr/bin  directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote
              host.  If it contains “bin/”  (note  the  trailing  slash),  the
              immediate  contents of the directory would also be sent (without
              needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file — this  began  in
              version  2.6.4).   In  both cases, if the -r option was enabled,
              that dir’s entire hierarchy would also be transferred  (keep  in
              mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
              since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that  the  effect  of
              the  (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only
              the path info that is read from the file — it does not force the
              duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

              In  addition,  the --files-from file can be read from the remote
              host instead of the local host if you specify a “host:” in front
              of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
              short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of “:” to mean “use the
              remote end of the transfer”.  For example:

                 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

              This  would  copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list
              file that was located on the remote “src” host.

       -0, --from0
              This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from  a  file
              are  terminated  by  a  null  (’\0’) character, not a NL, CR, or
              CR+LF.     This    affects    --exclude-from,    --include-from,
              --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule.
              It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names  read  from  a
              .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

              If  the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the
              --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to  another,
              the filenames will be translated from the sending host’s charset
              to the receiving host’s charset.

       -s, --protect-args
              This option sends all filenames and some options to  the  remote
              rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them.  This
              means that spaces are not split in names, and  any  non-wildcard
              special  characters  are  not  translated  (such  as ~, $, ;, &,
              etc.).  Wildcards are expanded  on  the  remote  host  by  rsync
              (instead of the shell doing it).

              If  you  use  this  option  with  --iconv, the args will also be
              translated from the local  to  the  remote  character-set.   The
              translation  happens  before  wild-cards are expanded.  See also
              the --files-from option.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
              This option instructs rsync to use DIR as  a  scratch  directory
              when  creating  temporary copies of the files transferred on the
              receiving  side.   The  default  behavior  is  to  create   each
              temporary   file   in  the  same  directory  as  the  associated
              destination file.

              This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
              does  not  have  enough free space to hold a copy of the largest
              file in the transfer.  In  this  case  (i.e.  when  the  scratch
              directory  is  on a different disk partition), rsync will not be
              able to rename each received temporary file over the top of  the
              associated  destination  file,  but  instead  must  copy it into
              place.  Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of  the
              destination  file,  which  means  that the destination file will
              contain truncated data during this copy.  If this were not  done
              this  way  (even if the destination file were first removed, the
              data locally copied to  a  temporary  file  in  the  destination
              directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
              the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
              open),  and  thus  there might not be enough room to fit the new
              version on the disk at the same time.

              If you are using this option for reasons other than  a  shortage
              of   disk   space,   you   may  wish  to  combine  it  with  the
              --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all copied  files
              get  put  into  subdirectories  in  the  destination  hierarchy,
              awaiting the end of the transfer.  If you don’t have enough room
              to   duplicate   all  the  arriving  files  on  the  destination
              partition, another way to tell  rsync  that  you  aren’t  overly
              concerned  about  disk  space is to use the --partial-dir option
              with a relative path; because this tells rsync that it is OK  to
              stash off a copy of a single file in a subdir in the destination
              hierarchy, rsync will use the partial-dir as a staging  area  to
              bring  over  the copied file, and then rename it into place from
              there. (Specifying a --partial-dir with an  absolute  path  does
              not have this side-effect.)

       -y, --fuzzy
              This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
              any destination file that is  missing.   The  current  algorithm
              looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
              file  that  has  an  identical  size  and  modified-time,  or  a
              similarly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file
              to try to speed up the transfer.

              Note that the use of the --delete option might get  rid  of  any
              potential  fuzzy-match  files,  so  either use --delete-after or
              specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

              This option instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  on  the  destination
              machine  as an additional hierarchy to compare destination files
              against doing  transfers  (if  the  files  are  missing  in  the
              destination  directory).   If  a  file  is  found in DIR that is
              identical to the sender’s file, the file will NOT be transferred
              to  the  destination  directory.   This is useful for creating a
              sparse backup of just files that have changed  from  an  earlier

              Beginning  in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
              may be provided, which will cause rsync to search  the  list  in
              the  order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a match is found
              that differs only in attributes, a local copy is  made  and  the
              attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
              one of the DIRs  will  be  selected  to  try  to  speed  up  the

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

              This option behaves like --compare-dest,  but  rsync  will  also
              copy  unchanged  files found in DIR to the destination directory
              using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
              destination  while leaving existing files intact, and then doing
              a  flash-cutover  when  all   files   have   been   successfully

              Multiple  --copy-dest  directories  may  be provided, which will
              cause rsync to search the list in the  order  specified  for  an
              unchanged  file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from one
              of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is  relative  to  the  destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This  option  behaves  like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are
              hard linked from DIR to the destination  directory.   The  files
              must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
              possibly  ownership)  in  order  for  the  files  to  be  linked
              together.  An example:

                rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
              be provided, which will cause rsync to search the  list  in  the
              order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a match is found that
              differs only in  attributes,  a  local  copy  is  made  and  the
              attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
              one of the DIRs  will  be  selected  to  try  to  speed  up  the

              This  option  works  best when copying into an empty destination
              hierarchy, as rsync treats existing files as definitive  (so  it
              never  looks  in  the  link-dest  dirs  when  a destination file
              already exists), and  as  malleable  (so  it  might  change  the
              attributes  of  a  destination file, which affects all the hard-
              linked versions).

              Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times,  rsync
              will not link any files together because it only links identical
              files together as a substitute for transferring the file,  never
              as an additional check after the file is updated.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had  a  bug  that  could
              prevent  --link-dest  from working properly for a non-super-user
              when -o was specified (or implied by -a).  You  can  work-around
              this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

       -z, --compress
              With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it  is  sent
              to  the  destination  machine,  which reduces the amount of data
              being transmitted  —  something  that  is  useful  over  a  slow

              Note  that  this  option  typically  achieves better compression
              ratios than can be achieved by using a compressing remote  shell
              or  a  compressing  transport  because it takes advantage of the
              implicit information in the matching data blocks  that  are  not
              explicitly sent over the connection.

              See  the  --skip-compress  option  for  the default list of file
              suffixes that will not be compressed.

              Explicitly set the compression level  to  use  (see  --compress)
              instead  of  letting  it  default.   If  NUM  is  non-zero,  the
              --compress option is implied.

              Override the list of file suffixes that will not be  compressed.
              The  LIST  should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot)
              separated by slashes (/).

              You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file  should
              be skipped.

              Simple  character-class matching is supported: each must consist
              of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
              classes, such as “[:alpha:]”, are supported).

              The  characters  asterisk  (*)  and  question-mark  (?)  have no
              special meaning.

              Here’s an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1  of
              the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


              The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this
              (several of these are newly added for 3.0.0):


              This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list  in  all
              but  one  situation:  a  copy  from a daemon rsync will add your
              skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files  (and  its
              list may be configured to a different default).

              With  this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs
              rather than using user and group names and mapping them at  both

              By  default  rsync  will  use  the  username  and  groupname  to
              determine what ownership to give files. The special  uid  0  and
              the  special  group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even
              if the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

              If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
              match  on  the  destination system, then the numeric ID from the
              source system is used instead.  See also  the  comments  on  the
              “use  chroot” setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information
              on how the chroot setting affects rsync’s ability to look up the
              names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

              This  option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds.
              If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
              exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.

              This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will
              wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.   If  the
              timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.

              By  default  rsync  will  bind  to  the  wildcard  address  when
              connecting to an rsync daemon.  The --address option allows  you
              to  specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.  See
              also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use  rather  than
              the  default  of  873.  This is only needed if you are using the
              double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon  (since
              the  URL  syntax  has a way to specify the port as a part of the
              URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This option can provide endless fun for people who like to  tune
              their  systems  to  the  utmost degree. You can set all sorts of
              socket options which may make  transfers  faster  (or  slower!).
              Read  the  man page for the setsockopt() system call for details
              on some of the options you may be able to  set.  By  default  no
              special  socket options are set. This only affects direct socket
              connections to a remote rsync daemon.  This option  also  exists
              in the --daemon mode section.

              This  tells  rsync  to  use blocking I/O when launching a remote
              shell transport.  If the remote shell is either  rsh  or  remsh,
              rsync  defaults  to using blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to
              using non-blocking I/O.  (Note  that  ssh  prefers  non-blocking

       -i, --itemize-changes
              Requests  a  simple  itemized list of the changes that are being
              made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
              the  same  as  specifying --out-format=%i %n%L’.  If you repeat
              the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
              receiving  rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with
              older versions of rsync, but that also turns on  the  output  of
              other verbose messages).

              The  “%i”  escape  has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.
              The general format is like the string YXcstpoguax,  where  Y  is
              replaced  by the type of update being done, X is replaced by the
              file-type, and the other letters represent attributes  that  may
              be output if they are being modified.

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

              o      A  < means that a file is being transferred to the remote
                     host (sent).

              o      A > means that a file is being transferred to  the  local
                     host (received).

              o      A  c  means that a local change/creation is occurring for
                     the item (such as the creation  of  a  directory  or  the
                     changing of a symlink, etc.).

              o      A  h  means  that the item is a hard link to another item
                     (requires --hard-links).

              o      A . means that the item is not being updated  (though  it
                     might have attributes that are being modified).

              o      A  *  means  that  the  rest  of the itemized-output area
                     contains a message (e.g. “deleting”).

              The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d  for  a
              directory,  an  L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a
              special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

              The other letters in the string above  are  the  actual  letters
              that  will be output if the associated attribute for the item is
              being updated or a “.” for no change.  Three exceptions to  this
              are:  (1)  a newly created item replaces each letter with a “+”,
              (2) an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3)  an
              unknown  attribute  replaces  each  letter  with a “?” (this can
              happen when talking to an older rsync).

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

              o      A  c  means  either  that  a regular file has a different
                     checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device,
                     or  special  file  has a changed value.  Note that if you
                     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change
                     flag  will be present only for checksum-differing regular

              o      A s means the size of a regular  file  is  different  and
                     will be updated by the file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is being
                     updated to the sender’s  value  (requires  --times).   An
                     alternate  value  of  T  means that the modification time
                     will be set to the transfer time, which  happens  when  a
                     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a
                     symlink is changed and the receiver can’t set  its  time.
                     (Note:  when  using  an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see
                     the s flag combined with t instead of the proper  T  flag
                     for this time-setting failure.)

              o      A  p  means  the  permissions are different and are being
                     updated to the sender’s value (requires --perms).

              o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
                     the  sender’s  value  (requires  --owner  and  super-user

              o      A g means the group is different and is being updated  to
                     the sender’s value (requires --group and the authority to
                     set the group).

              o      The u slot is reserved for future use.

              o      The a means that the ACL information changed.

              o      The x  means  that  the  extended  attribute  information

              One  other  output  is  possible:  when deleting files, the “%i”
              will output the string “*deleting” for each item that  is  being
              removed  (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync
              that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as  a  verbose

              This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
              to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text  string
              containing  embedded  single-character escape sequences prefixed
              with a percent (%) character.  For a list of the possible escape
              characters,  see  the  “log  format”  setting in the rsyncd.conf

              Specifying this option will mention each file,  dir,  etc.  that
              gets  updated  in  a  significant  way  (a  transferred  file, a
              recreated symlink/device, or a touched directory).  In addition,
              if  the  itemize-changes  escape (%i) is included in the string,
              the logging of names increases  to  mention  any  item  that  is
              changed  in  any  way (as long as the receiving side is at least
              2.6.4).  See the --itemize-changes option for a  description  of
              the output of “%i”.

              The --verbose option implies a format of “%n%L”, but you can use
              --out-format without --verbose if you like, or you can  override
              the format of its per-file output using this option.

              Rsync  will  output  the  out-format  string  prior  to a file’s
              transfer  unless  one  of  the  transfer-statistic  escapes   is
              requested,  in  which case the logging is done at the end of the
              file’s transfer.  When  this  late  logging  is  in  effect  and
              --progress is also specified, rsync will also output the name of
              the file being transferred prior  to  its  progress  information
              (followed, of course, by the out-format output).

              This  option  causes  rsync  to  log what it is doing to a file.
              This is similar to the logging that a daemon does,  but  can  be
              requested  for  the client side and/or the server side of a non-
              daemon transfer.  If specified  as  a  client  option,  transfer
              logging will be enabled with a default format of “%i %n%L”.  See
              the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

              Here’s a example command that requests the remote  side  to  log
              what is happening:

                rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --log-file=/tmp/rlog" src/ dest/

              This  is  very  useful  if you need to debug why a connection is
              closing unexpectedly.

              This allows you to specify exactly what  per-update  logging  is
              put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must
              also be specified for this option to have any effect).   If  you
              specify  an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in
              the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see
              the “log format” setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This  tells  rsync  to  print a verbose set of statistics on the
              file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync’s delta-
              transfer algorithm is for your data.

              The current statistics are as follows:

              o      Number  of  files  is  the  count  of all “files” (in the
                     generic sense),  which  includes  directories,  symlinks,

              o      Number  of files transferred is the count of normal files
                     that were updated via rsync’s  delta-transfer  algorithm,
                     which does not include created dirs, symlinks, etc.

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
                     transfer.  This does not count any size  for  directories
                     or  special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
                     sizes for just the transferred files.

              o      Literal  data  is  how much unmatched file-update data we
                     had to send to  the  receiver  for  it  to  recreate  the
                     updated files.

              o      Matched  data  is  how much data the receiver got locally
                     when recreating the updated files.

              o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
                     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
                     in-memory size for the file list due to some  compressing
                     of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

              o      File  list  generation time is the number of seconds that
                     the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
                     modern  rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

              o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
                     sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

              o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
                     sent from the client side to the server side.

              o      Total bytes received is  the  count  of  all  non-message
                     bytes  that  rsync  received  by the client side from the
                     server side.  “Non-message” bytes  means  that  we  don’t
                     count  the  bytes  for  a verbose message that the server
                     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
              This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters  unescaped  in
              the  output  instead  of  trying  to test them to see if they’re
              valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.   All
              control   characters   (but  never  tabs)  are  always  escaped,
              regardless of this option’s setting.

              The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to  output  a  literal
              backslash  (\)  and  a  hash  (#),  followed  by exactly 3 octal
              digits.  For example, a newline  would  output  as  “\#012”.   A
              literal backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it
              is followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
              Output numbers in a more human-readable format.  This makes  big
              numbers output using larger units, with a K, M, or G suffix.  If
              this option was specified once, these  units  are  K  (1000),  M
              (1000*1000),  and G (1000*1000*1000); if the option is repeated,
              the units are powers of 1024 instead of 1000.

              By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file  if
              the  transfer  is  interrupted. In some circumstances it is more
              desirable  to  keep  partially  transferred  files.  Using   the
              --partial  option  tells  rsync  to  keep the partial file which
              should make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the  file  much

              A  better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is
              to specify a DIR that will be used  to  hold  the  partial  data
              (instead  of  writing  it  out to the destination file).  On the
              next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir  as  data
              to  speed  up  the resumption of the transfer and then delete it
              after it has served its purpose.

              Note  that  if  --whole-file  is  specified  (or  implied),  any
              partial-dir  file that is found for a file that is being updated
              will simply be removed (since rsync  is  sending  files  without
              using rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm).

              Rsync  will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir —
              not the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative  path
              (such  as  “--partial-dir=.rsync-partial”)  to have rsync create
              the partial-directory in the destination file’s  directory  when
              needed,  and  then  remove  it  again  when  the partial file is

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
              an  exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.  This
              will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
              on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
              of partial-dir items on the receiving  side.   An  example:  the
              above  --partial-dir  option would add the equivalent of “-f-p
              .rsync-partial/’” at the end of any other filter rules.

              If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
              your  own  exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because
              (1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the  end  of  your
              other  rules,  or  (2)  you may wish to override rsync’s exclude
              choice.  For instance, if you want to make  rsync  clean-up  any
              left-over  partial-dirs  that  may  be  lying around, you should
              specify --delete-after and add a “risk” filter rule, e.g.  -fR
              .rsync-partial/’.      (Avoid     using    --delete-before    or
              --delete-during unless you don’t need rsync to use  any  of  the
              left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)

              IMPORTANT:  the  --partial-dir  should  not be writable by other
              users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID “/tmp”.

              You can also set the  partial-dir  value  the  RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
              environment  variable.  Setting this in the environment does not
              force --partial to be  enabled,  but  rather  it  affects  where
              partial  files  go  when  --partial is specified.  For instance,
              instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
              you  could  set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment
              and then just use the -P option  to  turn  on  the  use  of  the
              .rsync-tmp  dir  for partial transfers.  The only times that the
              --partial option does not look for this  environment  value  are
              (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with
              --partial-dir), and (2) when --delay-updates was specified  (see

              For   the  purposes  of  the  daemon-config’s  “refuse  options”
              setting, --partial-dir does not imply  --partial.   This  is  so
              that  a  refusal of the --partial option can be used to disallow
              the overwriting of destination files with  a  partial  transfer,
              while  still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

              This option puts the temporary file from each updated file  into
              a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
              all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.   This
              attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
              By default the files are placed into a directory named  “.~tmp~”
              in  each  file’s  destination directory, but if you’ve specified
              the --partial-dir option, that directory will be  used  instead.
              See  the  comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion
              of how this “.~tmp~” dir will be excluded from the transfer, and
              what  you  can do if you want rsync to cleanup old “.~tmp~” dirs
              that might  be  lying  around.   Conflicts  with  --inplace  and

              This  option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
              file transferred) and also requires enough free  disk  space  on
              the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
              files.  Note also that you should not use an  absolute  path  to
              --partial-dir  unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files
              in the transfer having the same  name  (since  all  the  updated
              files  will  be  put  into  a  single  directory  if the path is
              absolute) and (2) there are no mount  points  in  the  hierarchy
              (since  the  delayed  updates will fail if they can’t be renamed
              into place).

              See also the “atomic-rsync” perl script in the “support”  subdir
              for  an  update  algorithm  that  is  even  more atomic (it uses
              --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
              This option tells the  receiving  rsync  to  get  rid  of  empty
              directories  from  the  file-list,  including nested directories
              that  have  no  non-directory  children.   This  is  useful  for
              avoiding the creation of a bunch of useless directories when the
              sending rsync is recursively scanning a hierarchy of files using
              include/exclude/filter rules.

              Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
              affects what directories get deleted when a  delete  is  active.
              However,  keep  in  mind that excluded files and directories can
              prevent existing items from being deleted  (because  an  exclude
              hides source files and protects destination files).

              You  can  prevent  the pruning of certain empty directories from
              the file-list by using a global “protect” filter.  For instance,
              this  option would ensure that the directory “emptydir” was kept
              in the file-list:

              --filter ’protect emptydir/’

              Here’s an example that copies all .pdf  files  in  a  hierarchy,
              only  creating the necessary destination directories to hold the
              .pdf  files,  and  ensures  that  any  superfluous   files   and
              directories in the destination are removed (note the hide filter
              of non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

              rsync -avm --del --include=’*.pdf’ -f ’hide,! */’ src/ dest

              If you didn’t want to remove superfluous destination files,  the
              more  time-honored  options  of  “--include=*/--exclude=*’”
              would work fine in place of the hide-filter  (if  that  is  more
              natural to you).

              This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
              progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user  something  to
              watch.  Implies --verbose if it wasn’t already specified.

              While  rsync  is  transferring  a  regular  file,  it  updates a
              progress line that looks like this:

                    782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

              In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes  or
              63% of the sender’s file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
              of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish  in
              4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

              These  statistics  can  be  misleading if rsync’s delta-transfer
              algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender’s file consists
              of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
              will probably drop dramatically when the receiver  gets  to  the
              literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
              finish than the receiver  estimated  as  it  was  finishing  the
              matched part of the file.

              When  the  file  transfer  finishes, rsync replaces the progress
              line with a summary line that looks like this:

                   1238099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfer#5, to-check=169/396)

              In this example, the file was 1238099 bytes long in  total,  the
              average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
              per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete,  it  was
              the  5th  transfer  of  a  regular file during the current rsync
              session, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to  check
              (to  see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396
              total files in the file-list.

       -P     The -P  option  is  equivalent  to  --partial  --progress.   Its
              purpose  is  to make it much easier to specify these two options
              for a long transfer that may be interrupted.

              This option allows you to provide  a  password  in  a  file  for
              accessing an rsync daemon.  The file must not be world readable.
              It should contain just the password as a single line.

              This option does  not  supply  a  password  to  a  remote  shell
              transport  such  as  ssh;  to  learn how to do that, consult the
              remote shell’s documentation.  When accessing  an  rsync  daemon
              using  a  remote  shell as the transport, this option only comes
              into effect after the remote shell finishes  its  authentication
              (i.e.  if  you  have  also  specified a password in the daemon’s
              config file).

              This option will cause the source files to be listed instead  of
              transferred.   This  option  is  inferred  if  there is a single
              source arg and no destination specified, so its main  uses  are:
              (1)  to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into
              a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to specify  more  than
              one  source  arg  (note:  be  sure  to include the destination).
              Caution: keep in mind that a source  arg  with  a  wild-card  is
              expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to
              try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

              Compatibility  note:   when requesting a remote listing of files
              from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may  encounter
              an  error  if  you  ask  for  a  non-recursive listing.  This is
              because  a  file  listing  implies   the   --dirs   option   w/o
              --recursive,  and older rsyncs don’t have that option.  To avoid
              this problem, either specify the --no-dirs option (if you  don’t
              need  to expand a directory’s content), or turn on recursion and
              exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude=/*/*’.

              This option allows you to specify a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
              kilobytes  per  second. This option is most effective when using
              rsync with large files (several megabytes and up).  Due  to  the
              nature  of  rsync  transfers,  blocks  of data are sent, then if
              rsync determines the transfer was too fast, it will wait  before
              sending  the  next data block. The result is an average transfer
              rate equaling the specified limit. A value of zero specifies  no

              Record  a  file  that  can later be applied to another identical
              destination with --read-batch. See the “BATCH MODE” section  for
              details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

              Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the
              destination system when  creating  the  batch.   This  lets  you
              transport  the  changes to the destination system via some other
              means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to  some
              portable  media:  if this media fills to capacity before the end
              of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
              destination  and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the
              changes  (as  long  as  you  don’t  mind  a  partially   updated
              destination system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

              Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
              remote system  because  this  allows  the  batched  data  to  be
              diverted  from  the sender into the batch file without having to
              flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender  is
              remote, and thus can’t write the batch).

              Apply  all  of  the  changes  stored  in FILE, a file previously
              generated by --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch  data  will
              be  read  from standard input.  See the “BATCH MODE” section for

              Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful  for
              creating  a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
              of rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used  with  the
              --write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
              run the --read-batch option, you should use “--protocol=28” when
              creating  the  batch file to force the older protocol version to
              be used in the batch file (assuming you can’t upgrade the  rsync
              on the reading system).

              Rsync  can  convert  filenames between character sets using this
              option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of “.” tells rsync to look up  the
              default  character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you
              can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and  a
              remote   charset   separated   by   a   comma   in   the   order
              --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.   This  order
              ensures  that  the  option  will  stay  the  same whether you’re
              pushing or pulling  files.   Finally,  you  can  specify  either
              --no-iconv  or a CONVERT_SPEC of “-” to turn off any conversion.
              The default setting of this option  is  site-specific,  and  can
              also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

              For  a  list  of  what  charset  names  your local iconv library
              supports, you can run “iconv --list”.

              If you  specify  the  --protect-args  option  (-s),  rsync  will
              translate the filenames you specify on the command-line that are
              being sent to  the  remote  host.   See  also  the  --files-from

              Note  that  rsync  does not do any conversion of names in filter
              files (including include/exclude files).  It is  up  to  you  to
              ensure  that  you’re specifying matching rules that can match on
              both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
              include/exclude  rules  if there are filename differences on the
              two sides that need to be accounted for.

              When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon  that  allows
              it,  the  daemon  uses  the  charset  specified in its “charset”
              configuration parameter regardless of  the  remote  charset  you
              actually  pass.   Thus,  you  may  feel free to specify just the
              local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6  when  creating  sockets.   This
              only affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as
              the outgoing socket when directly contacting  an  rsync  daemon.
              See also these options in the --daemon mode section.

              If  rsync  was  complied  without  support  for IPv6, the --ipv6
              option will have no effect.  The --version output will tell  you
              if this is the case.

              Set  the  MD4  checksum  seed  to  the integer NUM.  This 4 byte
              checksum seed is included in each block and  file  MD4  checksum
              calculation.   By  default the checksum seed is generated by the
              server and defaults to the current time() .  This option is used
              to   set   a   specific  checksum  seed,  which  is  useful  for
              applications that want repeatable block and file  checksums,  or
              in  the  case  where the user wants a more random checksum seed.
              Note that setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use  the  default  of
              time() for checksum seed.


       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

              This  tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you
              start running may be accessed using an rsync  client  using  the
              host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

              If  standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is
              being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from  the  current
              terminal  and  become a background daemon.  The daemon will read
              the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by  a  client
              and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man
              page for more details.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
              daemon  with  the  --daemon option.  The --address option allows
              you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to  bind  to.
              This  makes  virtual  hosting  possible  in conjunction with the
              --config option.  See also the “address” global  option  in  the
              rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This  option  allows  you  to specify a maximum transfer rate in
              kilobytes per second for the data the daemon sends.  The  client
              can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but their requested
              value will be rounded down if they try to exceed  it.   See  the
              client version of this option (above) for some extra details.

              This  specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This
              is only relevant when --daemon is  specified.   The  default  is
              /etc/rsyncd.conf  unless  the  daemon  is  running over a remote
              shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that
              case  the  default  is  rsyncd.conf  in  the  current  directory
              (typically $HOME).

              When running as a daemon, this option  instructs  rsync  to  not
              detach  itself  and become a background process.  This option is
              required when running as a service on Cygwin, and  may  also  be
              useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
              or  AIX’s  System  Resource  Controller.   --no-detach  is  also
              recommended when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has
              no effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number for  the  daemon  to
              listen  on  rather than the default of 873.  See also the “port”
              global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option tells the rsync daemon to  use  the  given  log-file
              name instead of using the “log file” setting in the config file.

              This option tells the rsync  daemon  to  use  the  given  FORMAT
              string  instead  of using the “log format” setting in the config
              file.  It also enables “transfer logging” unless the  string  is
              empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

              This  overrides  the  socket  options setting in the rsyncd.conf
              file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information the daemon  logs
              during  its  startup  phase.   After  the  client  connects, the
              daemon’s verbosity level will be controlled by the options  that
              the  client used and the “max verbosity” setting in the module’s
              config section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to  prefer  IPv4/IPv6  when  creating  the  incoming
              sockets   that   the   rsync  daemon  will  use  to  listen  for
              connections.  One of these options  may  be  required  in  older
              versions  of  Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if
              you see an “address already in use” error when nothing  else  is
              using  the  port,  try specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting
              the daemon).

              If rsync was complied  without  support  for  IPv6,  the  --ipv6
              option  will have no effect.  The --version output will tell you
              if this is the case.

       -h, --help
              When  specified  after  --daemon,  print  a  short   help   page
              describing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.


       The  filter  rules  allow  for  flexible  selection  of  which files to
       transfer (include) and which files to skip (exclude).  The rules either
       directly  specify  include/exclude  patterns  or  they specify a way to
       acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a  file).

       As  the  list  of  files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks
       each name  to  be  transferred  against  the  list  of  include/exclude
       patterns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on:  if it is
       an exclude pattern, then that file is skipped;  if  it  is  an  include
       pattern  then  that  filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is
       found, then the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list  of  filter  rules  as  specified  on  the
       command-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:


       You  have  your  choice  of  using  either short or long RULE names, as
       described below.  If you use a short-named rule, the ‘,’ separating the
       RULE  from  the  MODIFIERS  is  optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that
       follows (when present) must come after either  a  single  space  or  an
       underscore (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

              exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
              include, + specifies an include pattern.
              merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
              dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
              hide,  H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
              show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
              protect,  P  specifies  a  pattern  for  protecting  files  from
              risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
              clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When  rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are
       comment lines that start with a “#”.

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full  range  of  rule  parsing as described above — they only allow the
       specification of include/exclude patterns plus a “!” token to clear the
       list  (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file).
       If a pattern does not begin with “- ” (dash,  space)  or  “+  ”  (plus,
       space),  then  the  rule will be interpreted as if “+ ” (for an include
       option) or “- ” (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A
       --filter  option, on the other hand, must always contain either a short
       or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take  one
       rule/pattern  each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
       the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option,  or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.


       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the “+”,
       “-”, etc. filter rules (as  introduced  in  the  FILTER  RULES  section
       above).   The  include/exclude  rules  each  specify  a pattern that is
       matched  against  the  names  of  the  files  that  are  going  to   be
       transferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if  the  pattern  starts  with  a  /  then  it  is anchored to a
              particular spot in the  hierarchy  of  files,  otherwise  it  is
              matched  against  the end of the pathname.  This is similar to a
              leading ^ in regular expressions.  Thus  “/foo”  would  match  a
              name of “foo” at either the “root of the transfer” (for a global
              rule) or in the  merge-file’s  directory  (for  a  per-directory
              rule).   An  unqualified  “foo”  would  match  a  name  of “foo”
              anywhere  in  the  tree  because  the   algorithm   is   applied
              recursively  from  the  top  down;  it  behaves  as if each path
              component gets a turn at being the end of  the  filename.   Even
              the  unanchored  “sub/foo”  would  match  at  any  point  in the
              hierarchy where a “foo”  was  found  within  a  directory  named
              “sub”.   See  the  section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS
              for a full discussion of how to specify a pattern  that  matches
              at the root of the transfer.

       o      if  the  pattern  ends  with  a  /  then  it  will  only match a
              directory, not a regular file, symlink, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match  and  wildcard
              matching  by checking if the pattern contains one of these three
              wildcard characters: ‘*’, ‘?’, and ‘[’ .

       o      a  ‘*’  matches  any  non-empty  path  component  (it  stops  at

       o      use ’**’ to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a ‘?’ matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a   ‘[’   introduces   a  character  class,  such  as  [a-z]  or

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash  can  be  used  to  escape  a
              wildcard   character,  but  it  is  matched  literally  when  no
              wildcards are present.

       o      if the pattern contains a / (not counting a  trailing  /)  or  a
              “**”,  then  it  is matched against the full pathname, including
              any leading directories. If the pattern doesn’t contain a / or a
              “**”, then it is matched only against the final component of the
              filename.  (Remember that the algorithm is  applied  recursively
              so  “full  filename”  can actually be any portion of a path from
              the starting directory on down.)

       o      a trailing “dir_name/***” will match both the directory  (as  if
              “dir_name/”  had been specified) and everything in the directory
              (as if “dir_name/**” had been  specified).   This  behavior  was
              added in version 2.6.7.

       Note  that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by
       -a), every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down,  so
       include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent’s
       full name (e.g. to include “/foo/bar/baz” the subcomponents “/foo”  and
       “/foo/bar” must not be excluded).  The exclude patterns actually short-
       circuit the directory traversal stage when rsync  finds  the  files  to
       send.   If  a  pattern  excludes  a particular parent directory, it can
       render a deeper include  pattern  ineffectual  because  rsync  did  not
       descend  through  that  excluded  section  of  the  hierarchy.  This is
       particularly important when using a trailing ‘*’ rule.   For  instance,
       this won’t work:

              + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
              + /file-is-included
              - *

       This  fails  because the parent directory “some” is excluded by the ‘*’
       rule, so rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the  “some”  or
       “some/path” directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories in
       the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule:  “+  */”  (put  it
       somewhere   before   the   “-   *”   rule),   and   perhaps   use   the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules  for  all the parent dirs that need to be visited.  For instance,
       this set of rules works fine:

              + /some/
              + /some/path/
              + /some/path/this-file-is-found
              + /file-also-included
              - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      “- *.o” would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      “- /foo” would exclude a file (or directory) named  foo  in  the
              transfer-root directory

       o      “- foo/” would exclude any directory named foo

       o      “-  /foo/*/bar” would exclude any file named bar which is at two
              levels  below  a  directory  named  foo  in  the   transfer-root

       o      “-  /foo/**/bar”  would  exclude  any file named bar two or more
              levels  below  a  directory  named  foo  in  the   transfer-root

       o      The  combination of “+ */”, “+ *.c”, and “- *” would include all
              directories and C source files but nothing else  (see  also  the
              --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The  combination  of  “+  foo/”,  “+ foo/bar.c”, and “- *” would
              include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo  directory
              must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the “*”)


       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
       merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in  the  FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There  are  two  kinds of merged files — single-instance (‘.’) and per-
       directory (‘:’).  A single-instance merge file is read  one  time,  and
       its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the “.”
       rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan  every  directory
       that  it  traverses  for  the named file, merging its contents when the
       file exists into the current  list  of  inherited  rules.   These  per-
       directory  rule files must be created on the sending side because it is
       the sending side that is being  scanned  for  the  available  files  to
       transfer.   These  rule  files  may  also need to be transferred to the
       receiving side if you want them to affect what files don’t get  deleted

       Some examples:

              merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
              . /etc/rsync/default.rules
              dir-merge .per-dir-filter
              dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
              :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A  -  specifies  that  the  file  should consist of only exclude
              patterns,  with  no  other  rule-parsing  except   for   in-file

       o      A  +  specifies  that  the  file  should consist of only include
              patterns,  with  no  other  rule-parsing  except   for   in-file

       o      A  C  is a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS-
              compatible manner.  This turns on ‘n’, ‘w’, and  ’-’,  but  also
              allows  the  list-clearing  token  (!)  to  be specified.  If no
              filename is provided, “.cvsignore” is assumed.

       o      A e will exclude the merge-file name  from  the  transfer;  e.g.
              “dir-merge,e  .rules” is like “dir-merge .rules” and “- .rules”.

       o      An  n  specifies  that  the   rules   are   not   inherited   by

       o      A  w  specifies  that  the  rules  are  word-split on whitespace
              instead of the  normal  line-splitting.   This  also  turns  off
              comments.   Note:  the  space that separates the prefix from the
              rule is treated specially, so “- foo + bar”  is  parsed  as  two
              rules (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn’t also disabled).

       o      You  may  also  specify  any of the modifiers for the “+” or “-”
              rules (below) in order to have the rules that are read  in  from
              the  file  default  to  having that modifier set.  For instance,
              “merge,-/ .excl” would treat the contents of .excl as  absolute-
              path  excludes,  while  “dir-merge,s .filt” and “:sC” would each
              make all their per-directory rules apply  only  on  the  sending

       The following modifiers are accepted after a “+” or “-”:

       o      A  /  specifies  that the include/exclude rule should be matched
              against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
              “-/  /etc/passwd”  would  exclude  the  passwd file any time the
              transfer was sending files from the “/etc”  directory,  and  “-/
              subdir/foo” would always exclude “foo” when it is in a dir named
              “subdir”, even if “foo” is at the root of the current  transfer.

       o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the
              pattern fails to match.  For instance, “-! */” would exclude all

       o      A  C  is  used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
              should be inserted as excludes in place of  the  “-C”.   No  arg
              should follow.

       o      An  s  is  used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending
              side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it  prevents  files
              from  being  transferred.   The  default is for a rule to affect
              both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
              default  rules  become  sender-side only.  See also the hide (H)
              and show (S) rules,  which  are  an  alternate  way  to  specify
              sending-side includes/excludes.

       o      An  r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving
              side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
              from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
              the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an  alternate  way
              to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A  p  indicates  that  a  rule is perishable, meaning that it is
              ignored in directories that are being  deleted.   For  instance,
              the -C option’s default rules that exclude things like “CVS” and
              “*.o” are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory
              that  was  removed  on  the  source  from  being  deleted on the

       Per-directory  rules  are  inherited  in  all  subdirectories  of   the
       directory  where  the  merge-file was found unless the ‘n’ modifier was
       used.  Each subdirectory’s rules are prefixed  to  the  inherited  per-
       directory rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher
       priority than the inherited rules.  The entire set of  dir-merge  rules
       are grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so
       it is possible  to  override  dir-merge  rules  via  a  rule  that  got
       specified  earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing
       rule (“!”) is read from  a  per-directory  file,  it  only  clears  the
       inherited rules for the current merge file.

       Another  way  to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being
       inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored  rules  in  a
       per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file’s directory, so
       a pattern “/foo” would only match the file “foo” in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here’s  an  example  filter  file  which  you’d specify via --filter=".

              merge /home/user/.global-filter
              - *.gz
              dir-merge .rules
              + *.[ch]
              - *.o

       This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter  file  at
       the  start of the list and also turns the “.rules” filename into a per-
       directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to  the  start  of  the
       directory  scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
       directory  of  the  first  transfer  directory, rsync will scan all the
       parent dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for  the
       indicated  per-directory  file.   For instance, here is a common filter
       (see -F):

              --filter=’: /.rsync-filter’

       That rule tells rsync  to  scan  for  the  file  .rsync-filter  in  all
       directories  from  the  root  down  through the parent directory of the
       transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file in
       the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer.  (Note: for an
       rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module’s “path”.)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

              rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=’: ../../.rsync-filter’ /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=’: .rsync-filter’ /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The first two commands above will look for “.rsync-filter” in  “/”  and
       “/src”   before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for  the  file  in
       “/src/path” and  its  subdirectories.   The  last  command  avoids  the
       parent-dir  scan  and  only looks for the “.rsync-filter” files in each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a “.cvsignore” in your patterns,
       you  should  use  the  rule  “:C”,  which  creates  a  dir-merge of the
       .cvsignore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.   You  can  use
       this  to  affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option’s inclusion of the
       per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your  rules  by  putting
       the  “:C”  wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync
       would add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of  all
       your  other  rules  (giving  it a lower priority than your command-line
       rules).  For example:

              cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter=’. -’ a/ b
              + foo.o
              - *.old
              rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude=’*.old’ a/ b

       Both of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each  one  will  merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather
       than at the end.  This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the
       rules  that  follow  the  :C  instead  of being subservient to all your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions,   the  contents  of  $HOME/.cvsignore,  and  the  value  of
       $CVSIGNORE) you should omit the  -C  command-line  option  and  instead
       insert a “-C” rule into your filter rules; e.g. “--filter=-C”.


       You  can clear the current include/exclude list by using the “!” filter
       rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The  “current”
       list  is  either  the  global list of rules (if the rule is encountered
       while parsing the filter options)  or  a  set  of  per-directory  rules
       (which  are  inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use
       this to clear out the parent’s rules).


       As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are  anchored  at
       the “root of the transfer” (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are anchored at the merge-file’s  directory).   If  you  think  of  the
       transfer  as  a  subtree  of  names  that are being sent from sender to
       receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to  be  duplicated
       in  the  destination  directory.  This root governs where patterns that
       start with a / match.

       Because the matching is relative to  the  transfer-root,  changing  the
       trailing  slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative
       option affects the path you need to use in your matching  (in  addition
       to  changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let’s say that we want to match two source files, one with an  absolute
       path of “/home/me/foo/bar”, and one with a path of “/home/you/bar/baz”.
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing “me”)
              +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing “you”)
              Target file: /dest/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
              +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The  easiest  way to see what name you should filter is to just look at
       the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the  name  (use
       the --dry-run option if you’re not yet ready to copy any files).


       Without  a  delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
       sending side,  so  you  can  feel  free  to  exclude  the  merge  files
       themselves  without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the ‘e’
       modifier adds this exclude for you, as seen  in  these  two  equivalent

              rsync -av --filter=’: .excl’ --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
              rsync -av --filter=’:e .excl’ host:src/dir /dest

       However,  if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want
       some files to be excluded from being deleted, you’ll need  to  be  sure
       that  the  receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way
       is to include the per-directory merge files in  the  transfer  and  use
       --delete-after,  because  this ensures that the receiving side gets all
       the same exclude rules as the sending side before it  tries  to  delete

              rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you’ll need
       to either specify some global exclude  rules  (i.e.  specified  on  the
       command  line), or you’ll need to maintain your own per-directory merge
       files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is  this  (assume
       that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=’: .rules’ --filter=’. /my/extra.rules’
          --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In  the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the
       transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are  subservient  to  the
       rules  merged  from  the .rules files because they were specified after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side is  excluding  the  .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically  exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don’t
       get deleted) and then put rules into the local files  to  control  what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

           rsync -av --filter=’:e /.rsync-filter’ --delete \
               host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest


       Batch  mode  can  be  used  to  apply  the  same set of updates to many
       identical systems. Suppose one has a tree  which  is  replicated  on  a
       number  of  hosts.   Now  suppose  some  changes have been made to this
       source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts.
       In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch
       option to apply the changes made to the  source  tree  to  one  of  the
       destination  trees.   The write-batch option causes the rsync client to
       store in a “batch file” all  the  information  needed  to  repeat  this
       operation against other, identical destination trees.

       To  apply  the  recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync
       with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For convenience, one additional file is creating when  the  write-batch
       option  is used.  This file’s name is created by appending “.sh” to the
       batch filename.  The .sh file  contains  a  command-line  suitable  for
       updating  a  destination tree using that batch file. It can be executed
       using a  Bourne  (or  Bourne-like)  shell,  optionally  passing  in  an
       alternate  destination  tree pathname which is then used instead of the
       original path. This is useful when the destination  tree  path  differs
       from the original destination tree path.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data  block  generation  more  than  once  when  updating
       multiple  destination  trees. Multicast transport protocols can be used
       to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many hosts  at  once,
       instead of sending the same data to every host individually.


              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ scp foo* remote:
              $ ssh remote ./ /bdest/dir/

              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In   these   examples,   rsync  is  used  to  update  /adest/dir/  from
       /source/dir/ and the information to repeat this operation is stored  in
       “foo” and “”.  The host “remote” is then updated with the batched
       data going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between  the
       two  examples  reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal
       with batches:

       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn’t have to be
              local  —  you  can push or pull data to/from a remote host using
              either the  remote-shell  syntax  or  rsync  daemon  syntax,  as

       o      The  first  example  uses  the  created “” file to get the
              right rsync options when running the read-batch command  on  the
              remote host.

       o      The  second  example  reads the batch data via standard input so
              that the batch file doesn’t need to  be  copied  to  the  remote
              machine first.  This example avoids the script because it
              needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit
              the  script  file  if you wished to make use of it (just be sure
              that no other option is trying to use standard  input,  such  as
              the “--exclude-from=-” option).


       The  read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating
       to be identical to the destination tree that was  used  to  create  the
       batch  update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees
       is encountered the update might be discarded with  a  warning  (if  the
       file  appears  to  be  up-to-date  already)  or  the file-update may be
       attempted and then, if the file fails to verify, the  update  discarded
       with  an  error.   This  means that it should be safe to re-run a read-
       batch operation if the command got interrupted.  If you wish  to  force
       the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file’s size
       and date, use the -I option (when reading  the  batch).   If  an  error
       occurs,  the  destination  tree will probably be in a partially updated
       state. In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch)  mode
       of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The  rsync  version used on all destinations must be at least as new as
       the one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an  error
       if  the  protocol  version  in the batch file is too new for the batch-
       reading rsync to handle.  See also the --protocol option for a  way  to
       have  the  creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can
       understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so
       mixing versions older than that with newer versions will not work.)

       When  reading  a  batch  file,  rsync  will  force the value of certain
       options to match the data in the batch file if you didn’t set  them  to
       the  same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and should)
       be  changed.   For  instance  --write-batch  changes  to  --read-batch,
       --files-from  is  dropped, and the --filter/--include/--exclude options
       are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The   code   that   creates   the   file   transforms    any
       filter/include/exclude options into a single list that is appended as a
       “here” document to the shell script file.  An  advanced  user  can  use
       this  to  modify  the  exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by
       --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
       the  shell  script  as  an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch
       command for the batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync was based on “rsync+”, but the  latest
       version uses a new implementation.


       Three  basic  behaviors  are  possible when rsync encounters a symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By default, symbolic links are  not  transferred  at  all.   A  message
       “skipping non-regular” file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If  --links  is  specified,  then  symlinks are recreated with the same
       target on the destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are “collapsed” by  copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       rsync  also  distinguishes  “safe”  and  “unsafe”  symbolic  links.  An
       example where this might be used is  a  web  site  mirror  that  wishes
       ensure  the  rsync  module they copy does not include symbolic links to
       /etc/passwd   in   the   public   section   of   the    site.     Using
       --copy-unsafe-links  will cause any links to be copied as the file they
       point to on the destination.   Using  --safe-links  will  cause  unsafe
       links  to  be  omitted altogether.  (Note that you must specify --links
       for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic links are considered unsafe  if  they  are  absolute  symlinks
       (start  with  /),  empty, or if they contain enough “..”  components to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here’s a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The  list
       is  in  order  of  precedence,  so if your combination of options isn’t
       mentioned, use the first  line  that  is  a  complete  subset  of  your

              Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
              other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn all unsafe symlinks  into  files  and  duplicate  all  safe

              Turn  all  unsafe  symlinks  into  files,  noisily skip all safe

       --links --safe-links
              Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

              Duplicate all symlinks.


       rsync occasionally produces error  messages  that  may  seem  a  little
       cryptic.  The  one  that seems to cause the most confusion is “protocol
       version mismatch — is your shell clean?”.

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote  shell
       facility  producing  unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using
       for its transport. The way to diagnose this  problem  is  to  run  your
       remote shell like this:

              ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then  look  at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat
       should be a zero length file. If you are getting the above  error  from
       rsync  then  you  will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
       data. Look at the contents and try to work out what  is  producing  it.
       The  most  common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
       (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output  statements  for  non-
       interactive logins.

       If   you  are  having  trouble  debugging  filter  patterns,  then  try
       specifying the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity rsync will  show
       why each individual file is included or excluded.


       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested   action   not  supported:  an  attempt  was  made  to
              manipulate 64-bit files on a platform that cannot support  them;
              or  an  option was specified that is supported by the client and
              not by the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection


              The  CVSIGNORE  environment  variable  supplements  any   ignore
              patterns  in  .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for
              more details.

              Specify  a  default  --iconv  setting  using  this   environment

              The  RSYNC_RSH  environment  variable allows you to override the
              default shell used as the transport  for  rsync.   Command  line
              options  are permitted after the command name, just as in the -e

              The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
              rsync  client  to  use  a  web  proxy when connecting to a rsync
              daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

              Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password  allows  you  to
              run  authenticated  rsync connections to an rsync daemon without
              user intervention. Note that this does not supply a password  to
              a  remote  shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
              consult the remote shell’s documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
              The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to  determine
              the  default  username  sent  to an rsync daemon.  If neither is
              set, the username defaults to “nobody”.

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user’s default
              .cvsignore file.


       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf




       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When  transferring  to  FAT  filesystems  rsync  may re-sync unmodified
       files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are  transferred  as  native  numerical

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at


       This man page is current for version 3.0.3 of rsync.


       The  options  --server  and  --sender are used internally by rsync, and
       should never be typed by  a  user  under  normal  circumstances.   Some
       awareness  of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
       when setting up a login that  can  only  run  an  rsync  command.   For
       instance,  the  support  directory  of  the  rsync  distribution has an
       example script named rrsync (for restricted rsync)  that  can  be  used
       with a restricted ssh login.


       rsync  is  distributed  under  the  GNU  public  license.  See the file
       COPYING for details.

       A WEB site is available at  The site  includes
       an  FAQ-O-Matic  which  may  cover  questions unanswered by this manual

       The primary ftp site for rsync is

       We would be delighted to hear  from  you  if  you  like  this  program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at

       This  program  uses  the  excellent zlib compression library written by
       Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.


       Especial thanks go out to: John Van Essen, Matt  McCutchen,  Wesley  W.
       Terpstra,  David  Dykstra,  Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard  Brent,  Brendan  Mackay,  Bill  Waite,  Stephen
       Rothwell  and  David  Bell.   I’ve  probably  missed  some  people,  my
       apologies if I have.


       rsync was originally written by Andrew  Tridgell  and  Paul  Mackerras.
       Many  people  have later contributed to it.  It is currently maintained
       by Wayne Davison.

       Mailing  lists  for  support   and   development   are   available   at

                                  29 Jun 2008                         rsync(1)